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Alfred R. Wallace, Esq., F.Z.S., &c President. 

J. W. Dunning, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.R.S., &c [ Vice-Presidents. 

J. 0. Westwood, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., &c. . . 

Samuel Stevens, Esq., F.L.S Treasurer. 

[ Secretaries. 

Egbert M'Lachlan, Esq., F.L.S. . . 
Ferdinand Grut, Esq 

A. G. Butler, Esq., F.L.S., &c. . . 
Alex. Fry, Esq., F.L.S 

E. T. HiGGiNS, Esq., M.E.C.S. . . 
Major F. J. Sidney Parry, F.L.S., &c. 

F. P. Pascoe, Esq., F.L.S., &c. . . 
Edward Saunders, Esq., F.L.S. . . 


Other Members 
of Council. 





To the Public, To Members, 

First Series, 5 volumes (1834-1849) Price £6 £4 10 

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„ „ 1869 12 16 6 

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1871 15 18 9 

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Members and Subscribers resident more than fifteen miles from London, 
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don, are entitled to a copy of the Transactions for the current year at half 
the price to the public, which copy may be obtained on application to the 

■ ( vii ) 


Explanatiou of the Plates viii. 

Errata viii. 

List of Members ix. 


I. A Monograph on tiie EphemericlcE. By the Eev. A. E. 

Eaton, B.A. 1 

II. New Species of Diurual Lejndoptera from South and 

Central America. By W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. . . 165 
III. Descriptions of a new genus, and six new species of 

PierinoB. By A. G. Butleb, F.L.S., &c. . . . 169 
IV. On the dispersal of non-migratory Insects by atmospheric 

agencies. By Albert Mxjllee, F.E.G.S., &c. . . 175 
V. Notes on some British species of Oxypoda, with descrip- 
tions of new species. By David Sharp, M.B. . . 187 
VI. Observations on Immature Sexuality aud Alternate Gen- 
eration in Insects. By B. T. Lowne, M.E.C.S., Eug. . 193 
VII. On additions to the Atlantic Coleoptera. By T. Vernon 

WoLLASTON, M.A., F.L.S 203 

VIII. On a new genus and species of Coleoptera, belonging to 
the family Lucanidce, from the Sandwich Islands. By 

Chas. 0. Waterhouse 315 

IX. An examination of the arrangement of Macro-Lepidoptera 
introduced in England by Mr. Doubleday, and a sug- 
gestion as to its origin ; with some strictures on 
synonymic Lists. By W. Arnold Lewis . . . 317 
X. Descriptions of some new Exotic si^ecies of Lucanida'. 

By Prof. J. 0. Westwood, M.A., F.L.S. . . .353 

XI. Descriptions of a new genus, and of two new species of 

Longicorn Coleoptera. By H. W. Bates, F.Z.S., itc. . 375 
XII, Descriptions of three new species of Cicindelidw. By H, 

W. Bates, F.Z.S., &c 377 

XIII. Descriptions of new genera, and of some recently dis- 
covered species of Australian Phytophaga. By J. S. 
Balv, F.L.S 381 

viii MEMOIRS (continued) . 


XIV. Descriptions of five new species, and a new genus of Diur- 
nal Lepidoptera from Shanghai. By A. G. Butleb, 

F.L.S., &c 401 

XV. On some black species of Cantha/ris with red heads and 

filiform antenna. By Chas. 0. Wateehouse . . 405 
XVI. Aper9U statistique sur les Nevropteres Odonates. Par le 
Baron E. de Selys-Longchamps, Mem. Hon. Soc. Ent. 

Lond 409 

XVII. On the forms of Zygcena Trifolii, with some remarks on 
the question of specific difference, as opposed to local or 
phytophagic variation, in that genus. By T. H. Beiggs, 

B.A 417 

XVIII. Remarks concerning the identification of Myrmeleon for- 
micaleo, formicarium, and formicalynx of Linne. By 
E. McLachlan, F.L.S., Sec. Ent. Soc 441 

Proceedings for 1871 i« 

Index Ixxvii. 


Plates I-VI See page 158. 

Plate VII See pages 169-173. 

Plates VIII.-IX See page 373. 


Page 2, line 16, for " 1858-9 " read " 1860." 

Page 123, line 4, for "fuscus," read "fusco." 

Page 164, line 7, for " Centroptihim phceops," read " Baetis phceops." 

Sisf of Pcmbtrs 



DECEMBER 31st, 1871. 

(^ ) 





GuMn-Meueville, F. E., Paris. 
Hagen, H. A., Cambridge, U.S.A. 
Leconte, Joliu L., Pliiladelphia. 
Milne-Edwards, H., Paris. 
Pictet, J. C, Geneva. 
Schiodte, J. C, Copenhagen. 
Selys-Longchamps, E. de, Li^ge. 
Siebold, C. T. E. von, Munich. 
Zeller, P. C, Stettin. 
Zetterstedt, J. W., Lund. 

( xi ) 


Marked * are Original Members, 

Marked f have compounded for their Amwal Siibscrixitions. 

Ma/rked S are Annual Subscribers. 

Date oi 















































Adams, Henry, F.L.S., 19, Hauover Villas, Notting Hill, W. 

Archer, F., 3, Brunswick Street, Liverpool. 

Armitage, Edward, A.E.A., 3, Hall Eoad, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Atkinson, W. S., M.A., F.L.S., Calcutta. 

Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F.E.S., &c., Cambridge. 

Baly, J. S., F.L.S., The Butts, Warwick. 

Barton, Stephen, 32, St. Michael's Hill, Bristol. 

Bates, Frederick, 15, Northampton Street, Leicester. 

Bates, Henry W., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 40, Bartholomew Ed., N.W. 

Beaumont, Alfred, Steps Mills, Huddersfield. 

Bicknell, Percy, Beckenham, S.E. 

Birt, Jacob, 30, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 

Blackmore, Trovey, The HoUies, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Bladon, J., Albion House, Pont-y-pool. 

Blomefield, Eev. L., M.A., F.L.S., &c., 19, Behnont, Bath. 

Bond, Fred., F.Z.S., 203, Adelaide Eoad, N.W. 

Bonvouloir, Vicomte Henri de, 15, Eue de rUuiversite, Paris. 

Borthwick, Eichard, Alloa, N.B. 

Bowerbank, J. S., LL.D., F.E.S., &c., 2, East Ascent, St. 

Boyd, Thomas, 17, Clapton Square, N.E. 
Boyd, W. C. Cheshunt, Herts. 

Braikem-idge, Rev. G. W., M.A., F.L.S., Clevedon, Bristol. 
Briggs, Thos. Hy., B.A., 6, Old Square, Liiicoln's Inn, W.C. 
Brown, Edwin, Burton-on-Trent. 
Brown, N. E., Brighton Eoad, Eed Hill. 
Browne, Eev. T. H., M.A., F.G.S., High Wycombe, Bucks. 
Burnell, E. H., 32, Bedford Row, W.C. 
Butler, A. G., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 17, Oxford Eoad, Ealing, W, 
Cand&ze, Dr. E.. Glain, Liege. 
Carey, A. D., Ahmedabad, India. 
Carrington, Charles, Westwood Park, Forest Hill, S.E. 
Champion, G. C, 274, Walworth Eoad, S.E. 
Charlton, Ernest S., Hesleyside, BeUiugham, Hexham. 
Clarke, Alex. H., 16, Fumival's Inn, E.C. 
Clarke, C B., M.A., F.L.S., Calcutta. 


Date of 


1865 Colqiihoun, Hugh, M.D., Anchorage, Bothwell, N.B. 

1865 S. Cooke, Benj., 119, Stockport Eoad, Manchester. 

1853 Cox, Colonel C. J., Fordwich House, Canterbury. 

1867 Cox, Herbert E., Rosenheim, Reigate. 

1865 Crotch, G. R., M.A., University Library, Cambridge. 

1868 Cumming, Linnfeus, B.A., The College, Cheltenham. 

1868 Curzon, E. P. R., Brixham House, Brixham. 

1865 Dallas, W. S., F.L.S., Geological Society, Somerset House, W.C. 

* f Darwin, Charles, M.A., F.R.S., &c., Down, Beckenham, S.E. 
1867 Davies, A. E., Ph. D., F.L.S., &c., Lowesmoor, Worcester. 
1849 S. Dawson, John, Carrou, Falkirk, Stirlingshire. 

1853 De Grey and Ripon, Earl, E.G., F.R.S., &c., 1, Carlton 

Gardens, S.W. 

1837 Devonshire, Duke of, E.G., F.R.S., &c., 78, Piccadilly, W. 

1855 Dohrn, Dr. C. A., Pres. Ent. Verein, Stettin. 

. 1865 Dorville, H., Alphington, Exeter. 

* Doubleday, Henry, Epping. 

1867 Druce, Herbert, 1, Circus Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

1867 S. Duer, Yeend, Cleygate House, Esher. 

1871 Duncan, Prof. P.M., M.D., F.R.S., &c., Lee, S.E. 

1849 t Dunning, J. W., M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 24, Old Buildings, 

Lincoln's lun, W.C. 

1865 D'Urban, W. S. M., F.L.S., 4, Queen's Terrace, Mount Rad- 
ford, Exeter. 

1865 Eaton, Rev. A. E., B.A., Andover. 

1869 Emich, Gustave d', Pesth. 

1865 S. Farren, W., 10, Rose Crescent, Cambridge. 

1858 Fenniug, George, Lloyds, E.C. 

1865 Fletcher, J. E., Pitmaston Eoad, St. John's, Worcester. 

1869 S. Foot, A. W., M.D., 21, Lower Pembroke Street, DubUn. 

1870 Freeland, H. W., M.A., Chichester. 
1869 t French, D. J., F.L.S., &c., Chatham. 

1855 Fry, Alexander, F.L.S., Thomhill House, Dulwich Wood 

Park, S.E. 

1865 Fust, H. Jenuer, jun., M.A., Hill Court, Berkeley. 

1857 S. Gloyne, C. P., Jamaica. 

1865 f Godman, F. D., M.A., F.L.S., &c., Park Hatch, Godalming. 
1855 Gorham, Rev. H. S., St. John's Vicarage, Enfield. 

* Gould, J., F.R.S., &c., 26, Charlotte Street, Bedford Sq., W.C. 

1850 Gray, John, Wheatfield House, Bolton, Lancashire. 
1842 f Gray, John Edw., Ph. D., F.R.S., British Museum, W.C. 

1866 Green, Philip, 11, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 

1865 Greene, Rev. J., M.A., Apsley Road, Redland, Bristol. 

1846 Grut, Ferdinand, Secretary, 9, Kfng Street, Southwark, S.E. 

1850 f Guyon, George, Southchff Cottage, Ventnor. 

1868 Harold, Baron Edgar von, 52, Barerstrasse, Munich. 

1864 Harper, P. H., 30, Cambridge Street, Hyde Park Square, W. 

1846 Hewitson, W. C, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Oatlands, Weybridge. 

1866 Higgins, E. T., M.R.C.S., 24, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 


Date of • 


1869 _ Holdswortb, Edward, Shanghai. 

1869 ' Home, Charles, Innisfail, Beulah Hill, S.E. 

1859 Howitt, Godfrey, M.D., Collins Street East, Melbourne. 

1865 S. Hudd, A. E., 10, Burlington Buildings, Bedland Park, Bristol. 

1864 Hume, William H. 

1870 Jacques, F. V., Chertsey Road, Redland, Bristol. 
1869 S. Jansou, E. M., Las Lajas, Chontales, Nicaragua. 

1843 Janson, E. W., Librarian, 21, Fontbill Road, ToUiugton 

Park, N. 

1869 S. Janson, O. E., 21, Fontbill Road, TolUngton Park, N. 

1853 Jekel, Henri, 13, Rue do Lille, Paris. 

1865 S. John, Evan, Llantrisant, Pontyjiridd. 

1861 Kirby, W. F., Royal DubUn Society, Kildare Street, Dublin. 

1865 •Knox, H. Blake, 2, Ulverton Place, Dalkey, DubUn. 

1842 Kxaper, Rev, C. A. F., M.A., The Vicarage, Trelleck, Chepstow. 

1861 Lacerda, Antonio de, Bahia. 

1868 Lang, Capt. A. M., R.E., Civil Engineering College, Roorke, 


1865 Latham, A. G., Weaste Hall, Pendleton, Manchester. 

1868 Lebour, G. A. L., F.R.G.S., Geological Survey OiEce, Jermyn 

Street, S.W. 

1868 Lendy, Capt. A. F., F.L.S., Sunbuiy House, Sunbury, S.W. 

1869 Lewis, W. Arnold, 4, Crown Office Row, Temple, E.C. 

1865 t Lingwood, R. M., M.A., F.L.S., 1, Derby Villas, Cheltenham. 

1865 f Llewelyn, J. T. D., M.A., F.L.S., Ynisygerwn, Neath. 

1849 Logan, R. F., Hawthornbrae, Duddingston, Edinburgh. 

1850 S. Lowe, W. H., M.D., Balgreen, Miurayfield, Edinburgh. 

1871 Lowsley, Lieut. BarziUai, R.E., Demerara. 

1850 t Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., &c., High Ehus, Faru- 


1870 S. Lucas, B. J., Upper Tooting, S.W. 

1865 M'Caul, S., B.C.L., Rectory House, London Bridge, E.C. 

1851 -t M'Intosh, J. 

1858 M'Lachlan, Robert, F.L.S., Secretary, 39, Limes Grove, Lewis- 

ham, S.E. 

1869 f Marseul, L'Abbe S. A. de. Boulevard Pereire, 271, Paris. 

1865 Marshall, Rev. T. A., M.A., F.L.S., St. Albans, 

1856 f Marshall, William, Elm Lodge, Clay Hill, Enfield. 

1865 Mathew, G. F., R.N., F.L.S., Raleigh House, Barnstaple. 

1860 May, J. W., Arundel House, Percy Cross, Fulham Road, S.W. 
1865 S. Meek, Edward G., 4, Old Ford Road, E. 

1869 Melvill, J. Cosmo, B.A., 16, Back Square, Manchester. 

1865 Mercer, Albert, 38, Richmond Road, Islington, N. 

1871 S. MisMn, W. H., Supreme Court, Brisbane, Queensland. 

1866 Mniszech, Comte G. de, 22, Rue Balzac, Paris. 
1853 Moore, Frederic, 110, Oakfield Road, Penge, S.E. 

1859 Mosse, G. Staley, 12, Eldon Road, Kensington, W. 

1869 t Miiller, Albert, F.L.S., Eaton Cottage, Suimy Bank Road, South 
Norwood, S.E. 


Murray, Eev. R. P., Mount Murray, Isle of Man. 

Newman, Edward, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M. Imp. L.C. Acad., 7, York 
Grove, Queen's Eoad, Peckham, S.E. 

Oberthur, Charles (fils), Rennes. 

Owen, Richard, M.D., F.R.S., &c., British Museum, W.C. 

Parry, Major F. J. Sidney, F.L.S., 18, Onslow Square, S.W. 

Pascoe, Francis P., F.L.S., 1, Burlington Road, Westbourne 
Park, W. 

Pearson, W. H., Ivy Hall, SolihuU, Birmingham. 

Pickersgill, J. C, Hooley House, Coulsdon, Croydon. 

Porritt, G. T., Clare Hill, Huddersfield. 

Preston, Rev. T. A., M.A., The College, Marlborough. 

Piyer, H. J. S., Yokohama, Japan. 

Pryer, W. B., Shanghai. 

Puis, J. C, Place de la Calandre, Ghent. 

Raine, F., South Road, Durham. 

Ransome, Robert James, Ipswich. 

Riley, C. V., State Entomologist, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Robinson, E. W., 3, Bartholomew Road, N.W. 

Robinson, W. Douglas, Kirkennan, Dalbeattie, N.B. 

Rogers, W., 42, Old Town, Clapham, S.W. 

Rothney, G. A. J., Addiscombe. 

Ruspini, F. O., Fulshaw Farm, Wihnslow, Cheshire. 

Rylands, T. G., F.L.S., F.G.S., Highfields, Thelwall, Warring- 

Salvin, Osbert, M.A., F.L.S., &c., 32, The Grove, Boltons, S.W. 

Saunders, Edward, F.L.S., Hill Field, Reigate. 

Saunders, G. S., Hill Field, Reigate. 

Saunders, S. S., late H. M. Consul General, Ionian Islands. 

Saunders, W. F., F.L.S., Hill Field, Reigate. 

Saunders, W. Wilson, F.R.S., Tr. & V.P.L.S., &c., Hill Field, 

Schaufuss, L. W., Ph. D., M. Imp. L. C. Acad., &c., Dresden. 

Schrader, H. L., Shanghai. 

Seaton, E. M., 28, Belsize Park, N.W. 

Semper, Georg, Altona. 

Sharp, David, M.B., Eccles, Thomhill, Dumfriesshire. 

Shearwood, G. P., Cedar Lodge, Stockwell Park, S.W. 

Shepherd, Edwin, Wallington, Surrey. 

Sheppard, Augustus F., Rose Bank, Eltham Eoad, Lee, S.E. 

Sheppard, Edward, F.L.S., 18, Durham Villas, Kensington, W. 

Sidebotham, J., 19, George Street, Manchester. 

Signoret, Dr. Victor, 51, Rue de Seine, Paris. 

Smith, E. A., 27, Richmond Crescent, Islington, N. 

Smith, Frederick, 27, Richmond Crescent, Ishngton, N. 

Smith, Henley G., Wamford Court, E.C. 

Spence, W. B. 

Stainton, H. T., F.E.S., Sec. L.S., &c., Mountsfield, Lewis- 
ham, S.E. . 

Date of 



































































Date of 

1862 Stevens, John S., 38, King Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

1837 Stevens, Samuel, F.L.S., Treasiwer, 28, King Street, Covont 

Garden, W.C. 

1866 Swanzy, Andrew, 122, Cannon Street, E.C. 

1854 S. Thompson, Miss Soj^hia, Barn Hill, Stamford. 
1850 S. Thomijson, Thomas, 14, Parliament Street, Hull. 
1856 Thomson, James, 23, Eue de I'Universite, Paris. 

1866 S. Thornborrow, W., 4, Provost Koad, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

1838 Thwaites, G.H. K., Ph. D., F.K.S., F.L.S., Ceylon. 
1853 S. Tompkins, H., 3, Colonnade, Worthing. 

1859 t Trimen, Eoland, F.L.S., Colonial Office, Cape Town. 

1869 Vanghan, Howard, 54, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

1849 Vaughan, P. H., Eedland, Bristol. 

1866 , Verrall, G. H., The Mulberries, Denmark Hill, S.E. 

1850 Walker, Francis, F.L.S., Ehn Hall, Wanstead; N.E. 

1870 Walker, Kev. F. A., M.A., F.L.S., Elm Hall, Wanstead, N.E. 
1858 Wallace, Alexander, M.D., Trinity House, Colchester. 

1863 Wallace, Alfred R., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., President, Th3 

Glen, Grays, Essex. 

1866 Walsuagham, Lord, M.A., F.Z.S., &c., 23, Arlington Street. W. 

1866 Ward, Christopher, Halifax. 

1850 Warmg, S. L., The Oaks, Norwood, S.E. 

1869 Waterhouse, C. 0., British Museum, W.C. 

* Waterhouse, G. E., F.Z.S., &c., British Museum, W.C. 

1869 Websdale, C. G., 78, High Street, Barnstaple. 

1845 Weir, J. Jenner, F.L.S., 6, Haddo Villas, Blackheath, S.E. 

1855 Were, E. B., 35, Osborne Terrace, Clapham Eoad, S.W. 
* Westwood, Professor J. 0., M.A., F.L.S., &c., Oxford. 

1868 t WTiite, F. Buchanan, M.D., Perth. 

1865 White, Eev. W. Farren, Stonehouse Vicarage, Gloucestershire. 
1849 Wilkinson, S. J., 16, Austin Friars, E.C. 

1863 Wix, WiUiam, Isbells, Eeigate. 

1843 Wollastou, T. Vernon, M.A., F.L.S., 1, Barnepark Terrace, 

Teignmouth, Devon. 

1862 Wormald, Percy C, 2, Clifton Villas, Highgate Hill, N. 

1866 Wright, Professor E. Perceval, M.A., M.D., F.L.S., &c., 10, 

Clare Street, Dublin. 

1865 S. Young, Morris, Free Museum, Paisley. 








I. A Monograph on the Ephemeridas. By the Rev. A. 
E. Eaton, B.A. 

[Eead 5th December, 1870.] 

Part I. The Nomenclature of the Ephemeridce. 

The present communication is an introduction to a series 
of papers on the Ephenieridce. In these papers I hope 
to give a detailed account of the organization and deve- 
lopment of some characteristic British species of the 
Family. My original plan was to treat of the British 
Fauna alone. In the course of ray investigations, how- 
ever, I found that the nomenclature of the Family at 
large was corrupt, and therefore I have been led to review 
the synonymy of the whole group. In order to ac- 
complish this, I have been obliged to give at second- 
hand descriptions of many foreign species. These incor- 
porated descriptions I have, for the sake of uniformity, 
translated into Latin. 

It is always difficult, and sometimes impossible, to 
identify species by reference to mere colour descriptions 
and admeasurement, without recourse to the distinctions 
afforded by special structures. I have therefore avoided 
the use of analytic tables and diagnoses for the determi- 
nation of species. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART I. (MARCH.) B 

2 Rev. A. B. Eaton's Monograph 

Structure has not hitherto received sufficient considera- 
tion in descriptive publications ; which makes it necessary 
to examine all authentic specimens of described Eplieme- 
ridce extant in collections, before the synonymy of the 
known species can be settled. With a view to reform, 
I have examined the undermentioned collections. Lists 
of the type specimens in each are given under the titles 
of the works in which they were originally described. 
Should I have opportunity, I will notice the contents of 
the principal French and German collections in some 
future part of my work. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Gray, I had unlimited 
access to the collections in the British Museum, com- 
prising Stephens' collection (see Steph. 1885-6), Mr. 
Wollaston's collection (see Hag. 1865) , and the general 
collection of Netiroptera (see Walk. 1853 and 1858-9) . 

At the Linnean Society's Library I examined the col- 
lection of Linne (see Lin. 1746). 

Mr. R. M'Lachlan has given me every assistance, by 
placing in my hands his valuable foreign collection 
(M'Lach. 1868, Etn. 1871), and his British collection 
(Etn. 1870), and making them to all intents my own. 

Through the hospitality of Mr. J. C. Dale, I had the 
pleasure of spending several days in gathering informa- 
tion concerning the geographical range of species in 
his British collection, and in describing the rarities in 
his foreign collection (see Etn. 1871). 

In the Museum at Oxford, with the permission of 
Professor Westwood, I inspected the University's general 
collection (Etn. 187 1) , Prof.Westwood's collection(Westw. 
1840), and Mr. A. Ronalds' collection (Ron. 1836). 

The cabinets of my own University contain no remark- 
able Ephemerid(B . 

Some Australian species, sent by Professor M'Coy, of 
Melbourne, to Mr. F. Walker, were forwarded to me (Etn. 
1871) ; and Mr. P. C. Wormald obliged me with the 
loan of his collection. 

At Geneva, M. A. E. Pictet very kindly submitted to 
me the remains of Professor J. F. Pictet's collection 
(Pict. 1843-5) , and some Spanish Ephemeridm which he 
had himself collected (Ed. Pict. 1865) . 

M. de Selys-Longchamps' collection, containing valu- 
able type specimens, was sent to me (see Lat. 1805 ; 
Guer. 1829-43; Ramb. 1842; Hag. 1858-9, 1861, 1864; 
Etn. 1871). 

on the Ephemeridai. 3 

The late State Entomologist of Illinois entrusted me 
with some authentic specimens of American species 
which he transmitted for the British Museum (Walsh 

My own types of new species are placed in the British 

In the subjoined list of publications relating to the 
EphemeridcG, the titles of those which I have been unable 
to collate are distinguished by asterisks prefixed; and 
the names originated in each work are given after its 
title. My thanks are due to Mr. G. R. Crotch^ of the 
Cambridge University Library, for the great assistance 
he has rendered me in the preparation of the bibliogra- 
phical portion of this paper ; and I am also under great 
obligations to Mr. J. C. Dale, Professor Westwood, Mr. 
C. 0. Waterhouse, and Mr. R, M'Lachlan, for enabling me 
to give references to scarce books. 

Authors anterior to those of the seventeenth Century 
are mentioned by Clutius (16o4), and by Pictet 
(1843-5) . The following list is arranged in chronological 
order, and the abbreviations employed in the citations 
are given in brackets, immediately after the year of 

1634 (Glut.). Aug. Cluyt, Opusc. duo siugularia ; ii. De Hemerobio sive 
Ephemero, pp. 61-103. 

1662 (Mey). J. cle Mey, in J. GocTart's Metamorph. et Hist. Nat. lus. 
i. Appendix, pp. 193-200'. 

1675 (Swam.). J. Swammerdamm, Ephemeri vita. — [See Tyson, 1681.] 

*1680 (Bleg.). N. de Blegny, De quelques papillons qui paraif3sent une 
fois tons les ans sur les bords de la Meuse ; in Temple d'Esculape, An. 
2e, p. 188 (Hag.). 

1681, E. Tyson, (a translation of) Ephemeri vita, by J. Swammerdamm, 
pp. 44, pis. 8, 4to. 

*1718, J. J. Baier, De Ephemeri vita, Adagium mcdicinalium centuria, 
pp. 54 (Hag.). 

*1723 (Kul.). J. A. Kulmus, Von einem gewissen Fisch-Insect ; in 
Bresl. Natm-. u. Kunstgesch. pp. 292-3 (Hag.). 

1735 (Lin. S. N. i). K. Linue, Systema Nature, ed. i. — Insecta,. . . . 
Angioptera, .... Ephemera. 

1737-8 (Swam.). J. Swammerdamm, Biblia Nature, i. 234-70 ; ii. 
pis. xiii-xv. 

1740 (Lin. S. N. ii). K. Linnc, Systema Naturje, ed. ii., p. 60. 

1741 (Targ.). G. Targioni-Tozzetti, Lettera sopra una numerosissima 
specie dei farfalle vedutasi in Eirenze ; pp. 32, frontisp. figs. 1-5. 

B 2 

4 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

1742 (Edaum.)- R. A. F. de Eeanmur, Des Mouebes appellesEpla^- 
meres ; Mem. pour servir a I'hist. des Ins. vi., pp. 457-522, pis. xlii-xlvi. 

1746 (Col.). P. Colliuson, Some observations ou a sort of Libella or 
Ephemeron; in Phil. Trans, vol. xliv., p. 329, pi. ii. 2-4. 

1746 (Lin. F. S. i). K. Liune, Fauna Sueeica, ed. i. pp. 226-7, Nos, 

[In Linue's own interleaved copy of this vrork, MS. names are written 
before the index numbers; viz.: — 'H-uZgata" before 750; ^'hioculata'" 
before 751 ; " mutica " after 752 ; " cuUciformis " before 753 ; " lioraria " 
before 754, above ^^ minima'' erased; and "vespertina" before 755. Ee- 
ferences are made in the text to some of his earlier publications ; viz. : — 
after 751, Acta Upsal. (1736) p. 27. 2 ; after 754, Act. Ups. p. 27. 3 ; 
and to his Iter CEland. (CElandska Eesa, 1745) p. 21. 

In his cabinet are — 2 $ sub. spurious, and 1 S sub. ticketted 750 
(perhaps by Lixme juur.) of E. vulgata ; 2 S' iJ^- spurious, of L. marrji- 
nata; 1 $ sub. spurious, and 1 ? siib. ticketted ")U{?ra" in Linue's 
MS., of L. marginata; 2 $ im. spurious, labelled "cuUciformis " of 
a Ccenis ; 2 $ im. spurious, of C. dipterum. ; 1 S im. ticketted 751 (in 
the same handwriting as the 750 under the E. vulgata $ sub.) of Sijolilu- 
rus Linncp.anu s, noY. sp. ; and 2 $ ii^^-i uulabelled, and spiuious, of 
Heptagenia elegans. 

The Librarian of the Liunean Society (who rendered me every assist- 
ance during my examination of the collection), thinks that the numbers 
750 and 751 are Liuue's autograjsh, as the "nigra" undoubtedly is. 
There is a close resemblance between these figures and certain others in 
the handwriting in the Author's own books. However, notwithstanding 
that the tickets are apparently in Linne's aiitograph, and the specimens 
are seemingly Linuean, it is evident that the specimens ticketted 751 and 
nigra are not authentic, because they altogether disagree with the diag- 
noses 751 in F. S. i., and 1478 nigra in F. S. ii., respectively. The MS. 
reference to " Schaef. ic. 175, f. 1, 2 " under E. hioculata (an entirely dif- 
ferent insect from the one hgiu-ed) in the Author's own copy of S. N. 
xii., suggests the possibility of the specimens in question having been 
placed by Limie in his cabinet after the publication of S. N. xii. ; and 
if this were the case, these specimens having been newer tlian the 
original types, it is likely that they may have been in a better condition 
than those, and thus have stood a greater chance than they of being kept 
by the owner.] 

1747 (Lin. S. N. v.). K. Linn€, Systema Naturfe, ed. v. [Eepriuted in 
1748.] Ordo 3, Neuroj^tera, p. 62. E. maculata, E. minima. 

1749 (Eoes.). A. J. Eosel, Insecten Belustigung. ii. 53-60, pi. xiii. 1-6. 

[Pictet quotes certain names as of the authorship of Eosel (whose de- 
scriptions and figures are not named). These names probably originated 
in 0. Schwarz's "Nomeuclator iiber die in den E5selscheu Insect. Belust. 
&c.," which was published many years later (1793-1830.] 

*1753 (Pontop.). E. Pontoppidan, Det forste Forsog paa Norges natur- 
lige Historic. Vol. ii. ch. ii. (An edition in German, 1754, and another 
in 1765; see Pontop. 1765). 

1755 (De G.). K. de Geer, Observations sur les Ephemeres ; in Mem. 
Sav. Etr. Acad. Paris, ii. 461-9. pi. xvii. 1-2. 

*1757 (Schffif.). J. C. Schaffer, Das fliegende Uferaas oder der Haft 
&c., p. 34. [Eeprinted in his " Abhandlungen von Insecten," iii. 30, pi. 
i.] (Hag. and Pict.). 

on ihe Ephemcridac. 5 

1758 (Lin. S. N. x.). K. Linno, Systema Natura3, ed. x; i. 546-7. E. 

vulyata, hioculata, culiciforinis, horaria, niutica, vespertina, 

[The author's interleaved coiiy of S. N. x. contains the following MS. 
nottss and references : — 

E. vulgata, Note ; E. cauda 3-seta corpore luteo, alis hyalinis reticiilatisquo 
[ = E. danica, Mill. ?]; ref. after 750, Geof. 2, p. 238, n. 1, Sulz. Ins. t. 

17, f. 103. Note ; E. , Bues. ins. 2. aquat. t. 12, f. 2, 6. E. 

Cauda triseta aUs albis margine exteriore fusco. Habitat Upsalias, Fabri- 
cius.... Corpus fuscum [evidently marginata, L.]. On p. 547, and the op- 
posite leaf— £. hioculata, ref. after 751, Geof. 2, p. 239, n. 5, t. 13, f. 4?. 
Note ; 2 alis ut totum corpus pallide flavescentibus. E. culiciformis, ref. 
after 753, Geof. 2, p. 240, n. 6 : ref. after Rcesel, Poda, ins. t. i. f. 10. 
E. lioraria, ref. after 754, [Geof.] 2, p. 240, n. 8. E. inutica; Note, 
E. Cauda biseta, alis albis hyalinis striatis, thorace fusco, abdoniin© 
albo ; ref. Geof. 2, p. 240 [n. 7] . E. vespertina, Note ; cauda triseta ; ref. 
after (El. 21, Geof. 2, p. 239, n. 4. 

1760 (Kr.). C. C, Kramer, Dissertatio inaiiguralis, sistens specimen 
InsectologiiB Danicie,...pnL'side B. J. de Buckwald, M.D., p. 26. [A mere 


17G1 (Lin. F. S. ii.). K. Linne, Fauna Suecica, ed. ii. pp. 376-8, Nos. 
1472-80. E. fuscata, diptera, nigra, striata. [The Author's copy has 
no MS. notes.] 

1761 (Sulz. Ken.). J. II. Sulzer, Die Kenntzeichen der Insekten, p. 43, 
pi. xvii. 103. 

1761 (Pod. Mus. Gr.). N. Poda, Insecta Musai Gra3censis, pp. 97-8, pi. 
i. 10. E. ignita, macidata, speciosa. 

*1763 (Pontop. Atl.). E. Pontoppidan, Den Danske Atlas, pi. i. 

1763 (Scop. E. Carn.). G. A. Scopoli, Entomologia Carniolica, pp. 
283-4, Nos. 683-7, pi. xsxviii. 683. E. gemmata, albipes, parvula. 

1764 (Geof.). E. L. Geoffrey, Histoire Abregee des Insectes qui se 
trouvent aux environs de Paris, ii. 234-41, Nos. 1-8, pi. xiii. 4, 

1764 (Mill. F. Fr.). 0. F. Mtiller, Fauna Insectorum Friedrichsdalina, 
p. 63, Nos. 554-7. E. danica. 

1765 (Pontop. Nat.). E. Pontoppidan, Die Naturhistorie in Danne- 
mark, p. 223, Nos. 1-3, pi. xvii. [A wretched figure.] 

1766 (Schffif. Elem.). J. C. Schaffer, Elementa Eutomologica, \A. ixii. 

*1766-9 (Hout.). M. Houttuyn, Natuurkimdige Beschrijving der In- 
sekten (Hag.). 

1767 (Lin. S. N. xii.). K. Linne, Systema Naturae, ed. xii., part ii. 
pp. 906-7, Nos. 1-11. E. lutea, marginata. 

[Linne's own (not interleaved) copy of S. N. xii. contains the fol- 
lowing MS. references. On p. 906. — E. tnilgata, after Carn. 683, f. 683, 

De Geer 2, t. 16, f. 1-9, 1-13 ; after Sulz f. 103, Schffif. Ic. 9, f. 

5. E. vespertina, after (El. 21, Eoes. ins. aqu. t. 17, f. 14. E. hioculata, 
after Suec. 1473, Schsf. ic. 175, f. 1, 2. On p. 907— -B. nigra, after Suec. 
1478, Scha^f. ic. 154, f. 1, 2. E. diptera, after Suec. 1477, De Geer, 2, 
t. 18, f. 5.] 

*1769-72, J. Berkenhout, Outlines of the Natural History of Gt. 
Britain and Ireland. [The Entomology is reproduced in ed. ii., 1789.] 

1771 (De G. Mem.). K. de Geer, Memoires pour sei-vir a I'histoire des 
Insectes, t. ii. part 2, pp. 621-56, Nos. 1-5, jdIs. xvi-xviii. [PL xvii. fig. 
13, is not that of a gill of a true Lep>tophlehia.] 

6 Rev. A. E. Eaton^s Monograph 

* [1773] , J. Hill, A decade of curious insects, pis. vii, viii. [B. culici- 
formis, Hill, is a Perla; E. rwpestris, Hill, is a Triclw^oteron.'] (Hag.) 

*1774 (Sch£ef. Abh.). J. C. Schaffer, Abhandlungen von Insecten, iii. 
30. (Pict.). 

1775 (Georg. Bern.). J. G. Georgi, Bemerkungeu auf einer Eeise im 
Eiissischen Eeiche, i. 190. [A mere list.] 

1775 (Fab. S. E.), J. C. Fabricius, Systema Entomologise, pp. 303-304, 
Nos. 1-11. Ordo Synistata. E. venosa. 

1776 (Schisf. Ic). J. C. Schaffer, Icones Insectorum circa Eatisbonam 
indigenorum. Vol. i. pi. ix. 5, 6; xlii. 7. Vol. ii. pi. cUv. 1, 2 ; clvi. 2, 
3; clxxv. 1-3. Vol, iii. pi. cciv. 3; ccxxix. 2, 3; ccxxxix. 4, 5. [For 
Panzer's nomenclature, see Pz. 1804.] 

1776 (Mill. Pr.). 0. F. Miiller, Zoologiee Danicfe Prodromus, pp. 142- 
3, Nos. 1640-51. E. plumosa, sul^hurea, diaphana, luteola, russida, an- 
nulata, berolinensis. 

1776 (Sulz. Gesch.). J, H. Sulzer, Abgekiirzte Gescliiclite der Insecten, 
pp. 169-71, pi. xxiv. 6, 7. E. helvola,. 

1776 (Schr. Beyt.). F. v. P. Sclirank, Beytrage zur Natnrgeschiclite, 
p. 82. E.flava. 

1777 (Fab. Gen.). J. C. Fabricius, Genera Insectorum, p. 244. E. 


1781 (Barb.). J. Barbut, Les Genres deslnsectes deLinne, pp. 209-13, 
pi. xi. 1-4. 

1781 (Schr. En.). F. v. P. Schrank, Enumeratio insectorum Austrias 
indigenorum, pp. 302-5, Nos. 602-6. 

1782 (Fab. Sp.). J. C. Fabricius, Species Insectorum, i. pp. 383-5, Nos. 

1782 (Har. Exp.). M. Harris, An Exposition of English Insects, pi. 
vi. 1-3. 

1783 (Eetz.). A. J. Eetzius, Caroli De Geer Genera et Species Insecto- 
mm, i^p. 56-7, Nos. 180-4. E. communis, albipennis, cincta, fusco-grisea. 

1785 (Thunb.). K. P. Thunberg, Donationes Thunbergianae ; in Mus. 
Nat. Acad. UpsaUensis, p. 81. [A mere list.] 

1785 (Foiu-c. E. Par.). A. F. Fourcroy, Entomologia Parisiensis, ii. 
350-2, Nos. 1-8. E. reticulata, viridescens. 

1787 (Fab. Mant.). J. G. Fabricius, Mantissa Insectorum, i. 243-4, 
Nos. 1-12. 

1789 (Berk. Outl.). J. Berkenhout, Outlines of the Natural History of 
Gt. Britain and Ireland, ed. ii., i. 150, Nos. 1-5. 

1789 (Eaz.). G. de Eazoumousky, Histoire Naturelle du Jorat, p. 210. 

1789 (Vill.). C. J. de ViUers, Caroli Linnaji Entomologia, iii. 16-22, 
Nos. 1-20, pi. vii. 3. E. nervosa. 

1789 (Kcem. Gen.). J. J. Eomer, Genera Insectorum Linnfei et Fabricii 
iconibus illustrata, pi. xxiv. 6, 7. Exphc. p. 23. [Figures reproduced 
from Sulz. 1776.] 

1789 (Zsch.). J. J. Zsehach, Museimi Leskeanum, i. 150, Nos. 13-20. 
[Names were assigned by Gmelin in 1790.] 

1790 (Eos. F. Etr.). P. Eossi, Fauna Etrusca, ii. 7-9, Nos. 672-7. 

*1790, J. G. Georgi, Versuch einer Beschreibung der Eesidenzstadt St. 
Petersburg. (Hag.) 

on the Ephenieridce. 

1790 (Gmc'l.). J. F. Gmelin, Liunaei Systema Nature, ed. xiii., t. i. 
part V. pp. 2628-30, Nos. 1-18. E. notata, testacea, ferruginea, stigma, 


1791 (01. Enc. Meth.). G. A. Olivier, Article "Ephemera," in Ency- 
clupedie Methodique, vi. 404-22. E. longicauda, virgo. 

1791 (Fisch. Vers.). J. B. Fischer, Versuch einer Naturgeschichte vou 
Livlaud, pp. 337-8, Nos. 564-6. 

1793 (Fab. E. S.). J. C. Fabricius, Entomologia Systematica emendata 
et aucta, t. iii. part i. pp. 68-71, Nos. 1-16. E. marocaiia, brevicauda. 

*1794, U. J. Seetzen, Beitrag ziir Naturgeschichte der Ephemera liitea, 
L. ; iu Mej^er's Magaz. f. d. Thiergeschichte, i. 41-63 (Hag.). 

1795 (Don. B. I.). E. Donovan, Natural History of British Insects, iv. 
53, 2il- cxxviii. 

*1796 (Licht.). Lichtenstein, Cat. Mus. Holthuisen, iii. 193, No. 52. 
E. novehoracana. (Hag.) 

1796 (Lat. Free). P. A. Latreille, Precis des Caracteres Gen^riques 
des lusectes, p. 96. 

1798 (Cuv. Tab. Elem.). G. L. C. D. Cuvier, Tableau Elem. de I'Hist. 
Nat. des Auimaux, hvr. vii. pp. 483-5. Agnathes. 

1798 (Schr. F. B.). F. v. P. Schrauk, Faima Boica, pp. 196-9, Nos. 
1937-49. P. erythrophthalma, fuscula, familiaris. 

1798 (Ced.). J. Cederhielm, Faume Iugrica3 Prodromus, pp. 133-5, Nos. 

1800-2, J. G. Georgi, Geogr. physik. und naturhist. Beschr. des Eus- 
sichen Eeichs. * 1800, Thl. iii. vi. 1802, p. 324. E. fidiginosa. 

1801 (Web.). F. Weber, Observationes Entomologica3, pp. 99-100. 
E. atrostoma. 

1802 (Will.). Dr. Williamson, On the Eplwron leukon, usually called 
the White Fly of Passaik Eiver ; in Trans. Amer. Soc. Philad. v. '71-3. 

1802 (Illig.). J. K. W. lUiger, Magazin fiir Insectenkimde, i. 187-8, 
No. 17. E.flos-aquce. 

1802 (Walck.). C. A. Walckenaer, Faune Parisienne. ii. 7-10, Nos. 

*1802. Elements of the Natural History of the Animal Kingdom ; ed. 
anonjTn. [See 1817, Stewart.] 

1804 (Pz. ExpUc. Schffif. Ic). G. W. F. Panzer, in the explanation of 
Schiiffer's Icones. (see 1776). E. hyalina, Semhlis marginata. 

1805 (Pz. F. Germ.). G. W. F. Panzer, Faunro Insectorum Germanics 
Initia, Heft xciv, Nos. 16, 17. 

1805 (Lat. H. N.). P. A. Latreille, Hist. Nat. des Crustaces et des In- 
sectes, xui. 93-100, Nos. 1-19. E. Swammerdiana. Siibuhcornes. 

[In M. de Selys-Longchamps' collection is Latreille's type of E. Swam- 
merdiana, Pal. longicauda, 1 cJ subim.] 

1806 (Dum. Z. Anal.). A. M. G. Dum&il, Zoologie Analytiquc, pp. 

1806, G. Shaw, General Zoology, vol. vi. part ii. pp. 249-53, pi. 81-2. 
E. Swammerdamiana. 

1807 (Lat. Gen.). P. A. Latreille, Genera Cnistaceorum et lusectorum, 
iii. 184. 

1810 (Lat. Con. Gen.). P. A. Latreille, Considerations G^nerales sur 
rOrdi-e Naturel des Insectes, &c., p. 268 & p. 434. 

8 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

1815, W. E., Article " Entomology " in Brewster's Edinburgh 
Encyclopffidia, ix. 137. Tribe 2, Ephemeeides. Fam. 1, Baetida. Gen. 
4:88,Baetis; B.hioculatus. Gen. 489, Cloeon ; C.poMida,'Leach,MSS. E. 
di]ptera, liin. Fam. 2, Ephemeeida. E.vuhjata,lA\i. [The article being 
contributed anonymously, Leach quoted his own MSS.] 

1817 (Cuv. E. A. i.). G. L. C. D. Cuvier, Le Eegne Animal, ed. i., t. iii. 
pp. 426-30. 

1817 (Lamarck, i). J. B. P. A, de M. Lamarck, Histoure Naturelledes 
Auimaux sans Vertebres, iv. 218-22. 

1817 (Sav.). J. C. L. de Savigny, Description de I'Egypte. Histoire 
Naturelle, Planches, t. ii. Nevropteres, pi. ii. 4-8. [In t. i. 194, ExpUc. 
des Pis., he merely states that the figiu-es belong to the Gen. Exihemera.'] 

1817 (Stew. Elem.). Stewart, Elements of the Natural History of the 
Animal Kingdom, ed. ii., vol. ii. pp. 224-6, Nos. 1-9. 

*1818, F. V. P. Gruithuisen, in Salz. Medic. Zeit. No. 92. Ephem. 
larva. (Hag.) 

1819 (Sam. E. Com.). G. Samouelle, The Entomologist's useful Com- 
pendium, i^-^. 259-60, pi. vii. 2. Also p. 65. [An incorporation of Leach's 
MS. with modifications. Fam. Ejplieweridas is put for Tribe Epliemer ides. 
Leach ; and Leach's named Families are ranked as nameless Stirpes.'] 

1821, W. Wood, Illustrations of the Linnsean Genera of Lasects, ii. 
21-3, pi. xlvii. 

1823 (Dum. Con. Gen.). A. M. C. Dumeril, Considerations Gen&ales 
sur la Classe des Insectes, p. 204, pi. xxviii. 4, 5. 

1823 (Say, W. Q. E.). T. Say, Descriptions of Neuroptera collected 
by the Expedition under Major S. H. Long; in * The Western Quarterly 
Eeporter, vol. ii. p. 162-3 ; repr. by Le Conte 1859, vol. i. 171-2. Baetis 

femorata, Cloeon ■posticata, Ephemera cupida. 

1824 (Say, Long's 2d Exp.). T. Say, Narrative of an expedition to the 
source of St. Peter's Biver, mider Major S. H. Long ; * W. Q. E. vol. ii. 
303-5 ; ed. Le Conte 1859, vol. i. 203-4. Baetis hilineata, alternata, alba. 

1824, J. Fleming, Article "Insecta," in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Sup- 
l^lem. vol. V. 53. Epliemeradoi. 

1825 (Lat. Fam.). P. A. Latreille, Families Naturelles du Eegne Ani- 
mal, p. 434. 

1825 (Dum. Elem.). A. M. C. Dumeril, Elemens des Sciences Natu- 
relles, ii. 142, pi. V. 16-7. 

1827, C. G. Carus, Entdeckung eines einf. Blutkreisl. &c., *p. 16, pi. 
iii. Isis, iv. 317, pi. iv. 3. [Circulation in an Epli&m. nymph.] 

1828, O. G. Costa, Fauna di Aspromonte, pi. i. 2. 

1829 (Cuv. E. A. ii.). G. L. C. D. Cuvier, Le Ee'gne Animal, ed. ii. t. v. 
pp. 241-4. 

1829 (Gor. &Prit.). Goring and Pritchard, Natural History Objects 
for the Microscope, *ed. i ; ed. iii. pp. 61-9, pi. ii. 4-6. 

1829, J. F. Stephens, The Nomenclature of British Insects (ed. i. of the 
Catalogue,) ii. 305-7, Nos. 3369-3409. [A mere Ust.] 

1829, J. Cm-tis, A Guide to the Arrangement of British Insects, columns 
132-3, [A mere Hst.] 

1829-43 (Guer. Ic). F. E. Guerin-Meneville, Iconographie du E^gne 
Animal, vol. ii. part i. pi. Ix. 7-9, vol. iii. 384. E. limhata. 

[In M. de Selys-Longchamps' collections are Serville's types of E. lim- 
BATA, Hexagenia, 1 ^ im. ; E. dipteka, Clocon, 1 <? im.] 

on the Ephemeridce. 9 

1831, C. J. Cams, Fernere TJntersucliungen iiber den Blutlauf in Ker- 
feu ; iu Act. Acad. Leopold. Carol. Akad. t. xv. Abth. ii. p. 11. [A mere 
statemeut that circulation is observable in the wings of E. lutea and mar- 

1832, E. Wagner, Beobachtimgen iiber den Kreislanf des Blntes nnd 
den Bau des Riickeugelasses bei den Insecten; in Isis, ix. 322, pi. ii. 1. 

1832 (Grif. A. K.). G. E. Gray, The Class "lusecta," in Griffith's 
Animal Kingdom, ii. 296 and 313-20, pi. xciv. 7, 9. [Figiu-es from Guer. 

1833 (Bowerb.). J. S. Bowerbank, Observations on the circulation of 
blood in Insects ; in But. Mag. i. 239-4-4, pi. ii. 1-6. 

1834, A. H. Davis, Metamorph. of Ephemera ; in Ent. Mag. ii. 322-3. 

1834 (Sam. Ent. Cab.). G. Samouelle, Entomological Cabinet, ii. No. 
53, pi. xxiv. 1. 

1834 (Curt. Phil. Mag.). J. Curtis, Descriptions of some nondescript 
British species of May-ilies of Anglers ; in Lond. and Ediub. Philos. Mag. 
ser. 3, pp. 120-2. E. f^isca. B. clisjpar, costalis, elegans, mellea, straminea, 
flavescens, lateralis, semicolorata, carnea, vermis, autumnalis. C. niar- 
vioratum, ohscurum, unicolore, divmliatum. Brachycercus Harrisella, 
chironomiformis, minima,. [The numbers prefixed to the names in the 
text refer to the second ed. of the Guide.] 

1834 (Curt. B. E.). J. Curtis, British Entomology, vol. xi. No. & pi. 

1835, E. Newman, The Grammar of Entomologj', pp. 248 and 255. 

Ephemerites and Ephemerina. 

1835 (Lamarck, ii.). J. B. P. A. de M. Lamarck, Hist. Nat. des Anim. 
sans Vertebres, ed. ii., t. iv. 422-5. E. Swammerdamia. 

1835-6, Allen Thompson, Article " Circulation," in Tod's Cyclopasdia 
of Anatomy and Physiology, i. 651-2. 

1835 (Ste. IU.). J. F. Stephens, Illustrations of British Entomology, 
Mandib. vi. 53-70, pi. xxix. E. cognata, talcosa, suhmarginata, dispar, 
apicalis, rufescens, rosea, helvipes, duhia, oninor. Canis macrm'a, dimi- 
diata, pennata, interrupta. Ba. longicauda, suhfusca, ohscura, cingulata. 
CI. ochraceum, hyalinatum, aWqoenne, cognatam, virgo, 

[The specimens iu Stephens' collection are named in accordance with 
his Catalogue, not with the Illustrations. The ticketted specimens, how- 
ever, partake iu some measure of the nature of tyj^e specimens. Many 
of them are no doubt the originals of the descriptions in the Illustrations ; 
for Stej^hens had not access to many collections of Ephemenda) ; his 
descri^jtions are mostly taken from dried examples ; and many of these 
specimens are of an older date than 1835. Those of them which conform 
to the descriptions in the Illustrations similarly named, may, therefore, 
be presumed to be virtually authentic. 

The collection comprises : — E. vulgata, 5 <? im. ; cognata, 3 (? , 5 ? 
im. ; STIGMA, 2 ^ im. ; t.alcosa 1 $ im. ; lutea, 1 Heptagenia elegans, $ 
im. ; marginata, 2 IT. soHiCoZorafa, £ im. ; submaeginata, 1 L. /leZi'ipes, ^ 
ua..,&\B. plio'.ops, (J im.; dispae, $, 1 im., 1 subim. ; nigricans, 4 <j 
im. ; (diluta, absent) ; apicalis, 2 EpTi. ignita, <J im., and 1 B. phxops, 
S im. ; KDFESCENS, 2 (J, 8 $ im. ; ddbia, 2 <J im. ; helvipes, 1 ? im. ; 
EOSEA, 1 (J , 1 ? im. ; (vespeetina, absent). (C.enis maceuea, wanting); 
C. pennata, 1 ? ; beevicauda, 1 $ ; chironomifoemis, 1 macrura, $ ; 
dimidiata, 2 (J , 1 ? . B.aetis caudata, 1 (J , 2 $ im. ; venosa, 1 <? , 2 $ 
im. ; SUBFUSCA, 1 ? im. ; flavescens, S 1 subim., ? 1 im. ; basalis, 2 <j 
im. ; STEUTA, B. pliwops, $ 1 im., 1 subim. ; ph.i:opa {=phaops) 1 $ 
subim. ; obscuka, 1 ^ im. ; hokaeia, 1 Cloeon, sp. dub., ? subim. and 

10 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Eph. ignita, 1 <J , 1 ^ im. ; culicifoemis, 4 B. phcEops, S im. and 1 
Cloeon, sp. dub., $ subim. ; fuscata, 1 buceratus, $ im., 16'. luteolum, $ 
im., binoculatus, ^ lim., 1 subim., 2 p^ceops, <J im. ; bioculatus, 1 <? im., 
7 luteolum, $ im. ; cingulata, 2 $ im. Cloeon dipteka, ? 5im., Ssubim. ; 
OCHKACEA, 2 C. luteolum, 9 iiii-> 1 -B- hinoculatus, $ subim. ; obscuea, 
1 B. hinoculatus, ^ damaged ; hyalinata, 3 C luteolum, $ im. ; dorsalis, 
3 C. luteolihm, $ im. ; cognata, 1 cj im. ; consobhinus, J 4 im., 1 subim. ; 
VIRGO, 1 dipterum, $ im., 1 russulum, $ im., damaged. There are also — 
E. minor, 1 ? im. ; B. lateralis, 1 (J im. ; B. annulata, 1 $ im. ; B.jpar- 
vula, 1 (J im. ; and B. verna, 1 $ im. 

*1836, F. J. Ehrenberger, Dissertatio inauguralis Zoologica de Neu- 
ropterorum anatomia et pbysiologia. (Hag.) 

1836 (Westw. Part. Cyc). J. 0. Westwood, in Partington's .British 
Cyclopasdia, ii. 439. Macrocercus. 

1836 (Boualds i.). A. Eonalds, The Fly-fisher's Entomology, ed. i. 
[Pis. ix, xiii. & xiv. alone in this edition are worth citing. The figures in 
the later editions are mostly inferior to those in ed. i.] 

[The types comprise, — ii. Baetis phcBops, ? subim.; iii. Heptagenio, 
longicauda, $ im. ; viii. H. venosa, ? im. ; xv. E. longicauda, subim. ; 
xvi. Baetis, sp. dub., subim. ; xvii. Baetis, sp. dub. ; xix. H. elegans, ^ 
1 im., 1 subim.; xxii. H. insignis, $ subim.; xxiii. Baetis, sp. dub., 
subim. ; xxv. a fragment ; xxviii. E. danica, $ subim. ; xxix. E. danica, ? 
im. ; xxxi. E. vulgata, g im. ; xxxii. & xxxiii. absent ; xxxviii. & xlii. each 
H. longicwvAa, subim. ; xliii. CI. russulum, $ subim. The Eoman nu- 
merals are index numbers to the work.] 

1837, G. Dahlbom, Kort Underattelser cm skandinaviska Insekters, 
pp. 227-8, No. 151. 

1838 (Curt. B. E.). J. Curtis, British Entomology, vol. xv., No. & pi. 

1838, J. T. Lacordaire, Introduction a I'Entomologie, ii. 77. [Circula- 
tion described.] 

1838 (Perch. Gen.). E. Guerin & A. E. Percheron, Genera des Insectes, 
&c., livr. vi. pi. iv. E. albicans. 

1839 (Burm. Handb.). H. C. C. Burmeister, Handbuch der Entomo- 
logie, Bd. ii. Abth. ii. pp. 796-804 and 1015. Oxycypha lactea, luctuosa, 
discolor. Cloe halterata, pumila. [Ba^etis) fusca, marginalis, aurantiaca, 
reticulata, luridipennis. Palingenia Tiora/ria, dorsalis. 

1839, G. Newport, Article " Insecta," in Tod's Cyclopedia of Anatomy 
and Physiology, ii. 86i, fig. 345; and (circulation) p. 979. 

1839, T. Say, Descriptions of New N. American Neiiropterous Insects ; 
in Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, viii. 41-4 ; ed. Le Conte, 1859, ii. 
411-13. B. interpunctata, arida, verticis, obesa. E. liilaris. 

1840 (Zet.). J. W. Zetterstedt, Insecta Lapponica, columns 1044-6, 
Nos. 1-9. E. hyalinata, vitrea. 

1840 (Westw. Intr.). J. 0. Westwood, Introduction to the modern clas- 
sification of Insects ; vol. ii. Addenda, p. viii. Text, pp. 24-34, fig. Ixi. 1-20. 
Geneiic Synopsis, p. 47, Addenda to the Generic Synopsis, 158. Neuropt. 
Biomorphotica. Leptophlebia, Brachyphlebia. 

[The types in Prof. Westwood's Cabinet, are : — Leptophlebia, 1 margi- 
nata, ? im.., andil Eph. ignita, ^ im.; Brachyphlebia, 2 Bo., binoculafus, 
S im. ; BaetisJ, Heptag. elegans.] 

1840, Triepke, Einige Bemerkungen iiber Ephemera flosaquoe, Illiger ; 
in Stet. Eut. Zeit. i. 54-8. 

1840, F. S. Voigt, Lehrbuch der Zoologie, v. 309-11. 

on the Ephemei'idce. 11 

1840, G. A. W. Herrich-Schaffer, Faiina Katisbonensis, von K. L. 
Koch, Dr. A. Schaffer, iiud F. Forster, p. 346, Nos. 161-88. [A Ust.] 

1840 (Blauch. N. H.). E. Blanchard, Hist. Nat. cles lusectes, t. i. p. xxiv. 
lutrod. Auatomie et Physiologic (cii-culation by Briille) ; t. iii. 52-5, Nos. 
1-11, pi. iii. 1. 

1841 (Duf. Kecli.). Leon Dufour, E^cherches anatom. et physiolog. 
sur les Orthopteres, les HjTueuopteres, et les Nevropteres, part iii., iu 
Mem. par clivers savans, Instit. de France, t. viii. pp. 560-4, 578-82 ; 
pi. xi. 167-8, anatomy. P. 580, footnote, E. flaiipennis, nigrirnana. 

1841 (Biirm.). H. C. C. Burmeister, Article " Ephemera," in Ersch & 
Grubcr's Eucyclopadie der Wissenschaften. Tbeil xxxv. 312-16. 

1842 (Ramb. N^vr.). J. P. Eambur, Hist. Nat. des Ins. Ne\Topt6res, 
pp. 293-9, pi. viii. 2. E. liispanica, an^ustipennis, flavicans, rufa, chloro- 
tica, obscura, subinfiiscata, brunnea, affinis. 

[The types sent to me by M. le Baron E. de Selys-Longchamps were : — 
E. LUTEA, 1 E. glaucops, $ im. ; E. hispanica, 1 E. danica, $ im. ; E. 
LONGicAUDA, 1 Palingenia longicauda, $ siibim. ; E. angustipennis, 
1 Ueptagenicb, ^ subim. ; E. flavicans, 1 Potamantkus luteus, "^ im. ; 
E. EUFA, 1 Heptagenia (venosa?), $ im. ; E. chlorotica, 1 Pot. luteus, $ 
Bubim. ; Cloe obscuka, 4 Cloeon, $ subim. ; C. subinfuscata, 1 Cloeon, 
$ subim. ; C. bkunnea, 1 Heptagenia Icderalis, $ subim. ; C. affinis, 
1 Cloeon dipterum, ^ im. ; C. pumila, 1 Cloeon russulmn, ^ im. ; C. hal- 
TERATA, 1 Cloeon russulum, •$ im. 

There were also Cloe diptera, 1 Cloeon dipterum, $ im. ; E. madri- 
TENSis (Eamb. MS.), 1 Heptag. angustipennis, $ im. ; E. longicauda,J 
1 Pot. luteus, <? im. ; and a Centroptilum luteolum, S im- ; fi"om 
Eambur's collection, not types.] 

1843, J. Atkinson, Notes on Ephemera, in The Zoologist, i. 272-5. 

1843-5 (Pict. Epb.). F. J. Pictet, Hist. Nat. des Ins. Ne'vropteres. 
Famille des Ephemerines. E. glaucops, guttulata. Pal. pxiella, indica, 
Savignyi. Ba. fluminum, cyanops, montana, ascens, semitincta, 
cerea, fiaveola, guttata, australasica. Potamanthus Ferreri, Geerii, casta- 
neus, brunneus, gibbus, ceneus, (and erythrocephalus, a misprint for ery- 
throphtfialmus) . (Cloe) Rhodani, translucida, alpina, melanonyx, litura, 
fasciata, undata. (Coenis) grisea, argentata, va/ricauda, oophora. Oligo- 
neuria anomala. 

[As the authentic and spurious specimens are not distinguished in M. 
Pictet's collection, an accurate enumeration of them could not be made. 
The collection contained: — E. vulgata, E. danica; danica, i-ulgata ; 
GLAUCOPS. Ba. fluminum, subim. ; venosa, im. ; cyanops ; puepueascens, 
venosa, <J im. ; semicolorata, <? and $ im. ; semitincta, semicolorata, 
<y and $ im. Pot. [marginatus, L.) unnamed ; Geerii, L. helvipes, $ 
im. subim. ; cinctus, E. cincta, and 1 fusca; ertthrophthalmus, E. ig- 
nita. Cloe Ehodani, B. Rhodani, with 2 C. luteolum, subim., and 1 C. 
russulum, ^ im. ; pumila; translucida, C. luteolum; melanonyx, C. rus- 
sulum, $ im., var. I; diptera; Cenis lactea; (Poltmitarcts Savignii, 

1845 (Schn.). W. G. Schneider, Verzeichniss der von HermZeUcr im 
Jahre 1844 iu Sicilien und ItaUen gesammelten Neuropteren, &c. ; in Stet. 
Ent. Zeit. vi. 3-10, Nos. 13-14. (Cloe) fusca. 

1846 (Fons.). E. L. J. H. Boyer de Fonscolombe, Notes sur huit especea 
nouvelles d'Hymenopteres et de Nevropteres trouvees aux environs d'Aix ; 
iu Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., ser. 2, t. iv. 49-51. E. caliciformis (a misprint). 

1846 (?), (Lab. & Imh.). J. D. Labram and L. Imhoff, Insecten der 
Schweiz, Bd. iv. (one plate, not numbered). 

12 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

ISA?, M. C. Verloreu, Sur la circulation dans les Insectes ; in Mem. 
Couron. Acad. Eoy. Belg. t. xix. 49, jdI. i. 

18i7, Ant. & Giov. Bap. Villa, Comparsa periodica delle Efimere nella 
Brianza ; in Economista, Novemb. 1847, p. 1-6 [illustrated] . 

1847 (Lat. Nouv. Diet.). P. A. Latreille, Nouv. Diet, d'liist. Nat., t. x. 
348-9, pi. xix. 5. 

1848 (Corn.). C. Cornelius, BeitrJige zur naheren Kenntuiss derPaZin- 
genia longicauda, 01. ; 38 jjp., 4 pi. 

1848 (Guv. E. A., Crochard ed.). E. Blanchard, in Cuvier's Eeg. Anim, 
by Crochard, t. xiii. 88-92, t. xiv. pi, cii. 1-lc. 

1848 (Cal.). L. Calori, Sulla generazione vivipara della Cloe diptera; 
in *Nouv. Ann. Sc. nat. Bologna, ix. 38-53, pis. ii-iii. 1-18 ; separate, pp. 16. 

1849 (Hag. Ueber.). H. A. Hagen, Uebersieht der neueren Literatur, 
betreffend die Neuropteren Liuue's ; in Stet. Ent. Zeit. x. 354-71. [In 
the critique of Pict. Ephem. (1843-5), Dr. Hagen indicated in this paper 
a genus PotamantMis, restricted (type P. gibbics, Pict.) ; but he did not 
adopt the genus in his later writings. Mr. Walsh afterwards described 
this genus, with additional species, under the name Ephemerella. I have 
passed by Dr. Hagen's usage, ahd have adopted the later name for the 

*1850, L. H. Fischer, Beitrage zur Insecten-Fauua um Freiburg im 
Breisgau ; in Jahresb. des Mannheim. Ver. fiir Naturk. pp. 60-70 (Hag.). 

1851 (Sieb. Beitr. xii.). C. T. E. von Siebold, Beitrage zur Faima der 
wirbellosen Thiere Preusseus (12th Beitr.); in *Neu. Preuss. Proviuziai 
Blatt. Bd. xi. 3, Nos. 1-13. [A mere hst.] 

1851 (Blanch. Chili). E. Blanchard, in C. Gay's Historia fisica y politica 
de Chille, vi. 103-7 ; Atl. Zool. Ent. Nevrop. lam. ii. 2-3. {Cloe) vitripennis. 

*1852 (Imh. Bericht). L. Imhoff, OUgoneuria rhenana ; in Bericht 
liber Verhandl. d. naturf. Gesellsch. in Basel, x. 177-80. 0. rhenana. 

*1853, J. A. Herklots, Het Haft, de langgestaarte Eendagsvlieg ; in 
Jahrb. k. Zool. Genootsch. Amst. pp. 117-123. 

*1853, Forster, Notiz liber die Eintagsfliege ; in Corresp. Bl. zool. 
mineral. Ver. Eegensburg, vii. 91-3. ^ 

1853 (Kirsch. Ent. Misc.). C. L. Kirschbaum, Entom. Miscellen ; in 
Jahrb. Vereins f. Natui'k. Nassau, Heft. ix. pp. 44-5. 

1853 (Walk. Cat.). F. Walker, List of Netiropterous Insects in the 
British Museum. Part iii. pp. 535-85. E. simulans, Colombice, decora, Hebes, 
australis. Pal. lata, viridescens, occultata, natata, humeralis, bicolor, 
pallipes, concinna, nebulosa, albifilum, latipennis, vitrea. Ba. angulata, 
remota, vica/ria, basalts, tessellata, albivitta, annulata, Ta/probanes, deter- 
iminata, invaria, fusca, debilis, canadensis, fuscata, scita, torrida, ignota, 
Ccen. diminuta, sinensis, perpusilla. 

[The general collection of the British Museum contained in 1853 : — E. 
VULGATA, (? 1 subim.,2im., 1 danica, $ im. ; danica, 2 ^ im. ; simu- 
lans, 1 decora, $ subim. ; Colombia, 1 Leptoplilebia, $ subim. ; decoka, 
1 S im-; (Hebes, wanting); austealis, subim. 1 (? , 3 $ . Pot. luteus, 
1 Leptophlebia marginata, $ subim. ; makginatus, 1 $ im. ; cinctus, 1 
Leptophlehia fusca, $ im. ; erytheophthalmus, Ephemerella ignita, 2 $ 
im. ; eoseus, E. ignita, 1 $ im. ; costalis, im. 1 t?,2 $. Pal. viego, 
1 (? subim. ; albicans, 1 $ im. ; lata, 3 g subim. ; vieidescens, 1 U. 
bilineata, $ subim.; occultata, bilineata, 3 ^ subim.; natata, 2 E. 
decora, $ subim. ; humeealis, 1 $ subim. ; bicolob, 1 Sip>hlurus, 
$ subim.; pallipes, Leptopihlebia cupida, 1 ^ subim., 2 $ im. ; 
concinna, L. cupida, 1 $ im. ; nebulosa, 2 Leptophlebia, ^ im. ; 

on the Ephemeridce. 13 

ALBIPILUM, Campsurus alhifilum, 1 g im. & A. curtus, 1 (J im. ; latipen- 
Kis, 1 ( ? subim., $ im., <? im.), & 1 sp. diib. ? siibim. ; viteea, 
I Heptarjenia, ? subim. Ba. fluminum, H. renosci, 2 $ subim.; venosa, 
1 ff. Jongicauda, $ $ im. ; Montana, 2 if. insigyiis, $ im. ; lateralis, 
1 $ im. ; SEMicoLOKATA, 1 <? im. ; cekea, 1 H. flavipennis, <J ? im. ; 
flaveola, If . 1 $ im. subim., sp. dub. 1 $ subim. ; australasica, 2 
Leptoplilehia, $ im. ; elegans, 1 if. $ subim. ; subfusca, 1 Leptophlehia, 
marrjinata, <J im. ; luridipennis, 1 if . (J im. ; anoulata, 1 Hexagenia 
bilineata, <? im. ; (kemota, wanting) ; vicael\, 1 if . <? im. ; basalis, 1 H. 
S im. ; TESSELLATA, 1 if, vicaria, ^ subim. ; albivitta, Hexagenia, $ 1 
subim. 2 im. ; annulata, 1 Siplilurus, ^ im. ; Tapeobanes, 1 Lepto- 
pMehia, $ im. ; deterjiinata, 1 H. $ im. (uow a fragment merely) ; in- 
VARL\, 3 Ephemerella, $ im. ; fusca, (a. b.) H. $ '^ im., (c), Leptophlebm 
cupida, 1 (J im. ; debilis, 1 L. cupida, $ im. ; canadensis, 2 U. ^ im. ; 
fuscata, 1 Ephemerella invaria, <? im. subim. ; scita, 2 Leptophlehia $ 
im. ; TORRiDA, 1 if. $ im. ; ignota, 1 Isonychia, $ im. ; No. 45, 1 Lep- 
tophlehia cupida, $ im. Cl. BiocuLATA, (e, f),2 $ im., (g.) sp. nondescript. 
1 S im- ; PUMiLA, 1 B. hinoculatus, ^ im. ; translucida, 2 B. hinoculatus, 
9 im. ; DiPTEEA, (a-c) ? im. ; culicifokmis, 1 Leptophlehia helvipes, $ 
im. ; STEiATA, 2 Ephemerella ignita, $ subim. ; veena, 1 B. phaiops, ^ 
im. ; ciNGULATA, 1 Ephemerella ignita, ^ im ; htalinata, 1 hinoculatus Sz 
1 luteolum, $ im. ; C.en. beevicauda, 1 $ im. ; diminuta, 1 (J im. ; si- 
nensis, 1 Cloeon russulum, ^ im. ; peepusilla, 1 $ im.] 

1854 (Pict. Trait, de Pal.). F. J. Pictet, Traite de Paleontologie (ed. 
2) ii. 371. Palingenia macrops, Baetis ayiomala, Potamanthus priscus. 

*1854 (Letz.). K. Letzner, Vehei Palingenia virgo; in Ai-beit. scMes. 
Gesellseh. p. 101. 

1854 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, Ueber die Neuropteren der Bernstein Fau- 
na ; in Verb, zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, iv. 221-32. [A mere list, containing 
the new names : — Palingenia gigas, Baetis longipes.] 

1854 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, Auffallig uordlielies Vorkommen dreier 
grosser siideuropaisclier Insekten; in Stet. Ent. Zeit. xv. 316-19. 

1855 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, Die Ephemeren-Gattimg Oligoneuria; in 
Stet. Ent. Zeit. xvi. 267-70, tab. i. 0. rhenana, var. pallida. 

' 1856 (Pict. & Hag.). F. J. Pictet and H. A. Hagen ; in C. G. Berendt's 
Organische Keste im Bernstein, Bd. ii. 73-7, tab. vi. 1, 2 ; viii. 5. Ba. 
gigantea, grossa. 

1856 (Eonalds, v.). A. Ronalds' Fly-fishers' Entomology, ed. v. [In 
this edition, names were added to the original explanations of plates, and 
No. 29 is an Ephemerid.] 

1857 (Brau.). F. Brauer, Neuroptera Austriaca, pp. xvi, xvii. 24-27. 

1858-59 (Hag. Syn. Ceyl.). H. A. Hagen, Synopsis der Neuroptera 
Ceylons ; in Verh. zool.-bot. Gesells. Wien, Part I, 1858, vol. viii. pp. 476-7, 
Nos. 22-31. Pot. fasciatus, anyiidatus, femoralis. [Cloe) tristis, consueta, 
solida, signata, marginalis. Part II, 1859, vol. ix. p. 206, Nos. 29-30. 

[In the collection of M. de Selys-Longchamps are the tj-pes of : — P. 
FASCLATUS, Ephemera, 1 $ subim. ; P. annulatus, Leptophlehia, 1 J im.] 

1859 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, Ueber das Vorkommen von Palingenia 
longicauda in Preussen ; in Stet. Ent. Zeit. xx. 431. 

1859 (Schi.). J. C. Schiodte ; in Berlin. Ent. Zeit. iii. 143. 

1859 (Say, Le Conte rep.). J. L. Le Conte, The complete Writings of 
Thomas Say on the Entomology of N. America, i. 171-2 (Say, W. Q. K.); 
i. 203-4 (Say, Long's 2d. Exp.); ii. 411-13 (Say, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Philad. 1839). 

14 Rev. A. B. Eaton's Monograph 

I860 (Walli.)- F. Walker, Characters of imdeseribed Ncwroptera iu the 
collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq., F.E.S. ; in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
N. S. vol. V. pp. 198-9. E. dislocans. Pot. exspectans. Pal. conthma, 
annuUfera,. (Cloeon) debilis. 

[The tyiDes, now in the British Mitseum, are E. dislocans, Leptophlehia, 
1 (J im. ; P. EXSPECTANS, Ephemera, 1 $ subim. ; P. oontinua, Hexagenia 
albivitta, 1 $ im. ; P. annulifeea, Heptagenia, 1 $ im. ; C. debilis, 
Baetis, 1 $ im.] 

1860 (Kolen.). P. A. Kolenati, Einige nene Insekten-Arten von Alt- 
vater ; in Wien. Ent. Monatschrift, iv. 383. Ba. iridana. 

1860 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, Examen des Nevropteres (non Odonates) 
recueillis en Sicile par E. Bellier de la Chavignerie ; in An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 
3 ser., viii. 746. Ba. Bellieri. 

[The type in M. de Selys-Longchamps' collection is B. Bellieri, Hepta- 
genia, 1 $ im.] 

1861 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, Synopsis of the Neiiroptera of N. America, 
with a list of the S. American species ; in Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, pp. 38-55. E. pudica. Pal. Heciiba, decolorata. Ba. ignava, 
(Cloe) mollis, pygmxa, vicina. Cce. arnica. [Ba. tessellata and Cloe unicolor 
are paronyms.] 

[The types in the collection of M. de Selys-Longchamps are : — P. He- 
cuba, Euthyplocia, 1 $ im. ; B. YicxBiAjHeptagenia luridipennis, 1 $ im. ; 
C. MOLLIS, Leptophlehia, 1 $ im.] 

1861, F. Loew, Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Orthopteren ; in Verh. 
zool.-bot. Gesells. Wien, xi. 409-10. 

1862, B. D. Walsh, List of the Pseudo-Neuroptera of Illinois contained 
in the cabinet of the writer, &c. ; iu Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. jip. 
367-81. Ba. sicca. Pot. odonatus. Pal. vittigera, jiavescens, pidcheUa, 
terminata. E. flaveola. Ephemerella excrucians, consimilis. Bcetisca 
(ohesa. Say). (Cloe) ferruginea, fluctuans, dubia, mendax. 

[The types sent by the late Mr. Walsh to me were : — i. Pentag. vitti- 
gera, 1 ^ im. ; ii. Hexag. limbata, 1 ^ im. ; iii. Heptag flavescens, 
1 S im. ; iv.-vii. B^tisca obesa, 4 ((Jim., $ im., ^ subim., ^ pupal, 
shell) ; viii. ix. Epheiierella excrucians, 2 E. invaria, S im. The 
Eoman numerals denote those on the tickets affixed to the types in 
the British Museum.] 

1863 (Hag. & Walsh). Observations on certain N. American Neuroptera, 
by H. A. Hagen ; with notes and descriptions of new species of N. 
Ajnericau Pseudo-lSIeuroptera, by B. D. Walsh ; in Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 
ii. 169-179 (Hag. Obs.) ; and ii. 188-207 (Walsh, Notes). Cmiis nigra 
(imdeseribed). Pentagenia; Hexagenia ; Heptagenia. Pentag. quadri- 
punctata. Heptag. simplex, cruentata, ^naculipennis. E. tnyops. 

1863 (Hag. Brit. Syn.). H. A. Hagen, Synopsis of the British Eplie- 
meridce; in Entomologist's Annual, pp. 1-35. 

1863, J. Lubbock, On the development of Chloeon [Ephemera'] dimidia- 
tum, Part I ; in Trans. Lin. Soc. Lond. xxiv. 61-78, pis. xvii-xviii. 

1864, B. D. Walsh, On the pupa of the Ephemerinous genus Bcetisca ; 
in Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. pp. 200-6. 

1864, J. F. Stein, Beitrag zur Neuropteren-Fauna Griechenlands ; in 
Berlin. Ent. Zeit. vii. 411. Pot. Krueperi. 

1864 (Meyer). L. R. Meyer-Diir, Zusammenstellung der auf meiner 
Reise durch Tessiu und Ober Engadine, &c.; iu Mitth. Schw. Ent. Ges. 
i. 219-21, Ba. Picteti. 

on the Ejjhemeridoe. 15 

1864 (Hag.)- H. A. Hagen, Ndvroptfires (non Odonates) de la Corse, 
&c. ; in An. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 4, vol. iv. pp. 38-9. Ba. jiuminum, var. ? 
fallax, zohrata. Pot. modestus. 

[In the collection of M. de Selys-Longcbamps are Dr. Hagen's types of 
B. FLUMiNUM, Hept. zebrata, 1 ^ im. ; B. fallax, 1 zebrata, ^ siibim. ; B. 
ZEBRATA, 1 cJ siibim., 1 $ im. ; B. venosa, 1 subim., 1 '^ im.; P. modes- 
tus, 1 Leptophlebia, $ im., and 1 B. Bliodani. $ .subim. ; C. pumila, 1 
B. 9 subim. ; C. Ehodani, 1 B. ^ im. ; C. diptera, 2 Cloeon, S im.] 

1865 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, The Neuroptora of Madeira; in The Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine, i. 25-6. (Cloe) maderensis. 

[In Mr. Wollaston's collection (Brit. Mus.) are C. diptera, 2 Cloeon, $ 
im.; C. maderensis, B. Rhodani, S 4 im., $ 2 im., 1 subim.] 

1865 (Ed. Pict.). A. E. Pictet, Synopsis des NevroptSres d'Espagne, 
pp. 22-6, pi. iii. Ba.flarida, sylvicola. 

[In M. Ed. Pictet's collection were B. flavida, Siplilurus, $ im. ; B. 
sylvicola, Heptagenia, $ im., named; SinA. Epliemerella ignita, $ im., 
fi'om San Ildefonso, unnamed.] 

1865 (A. Mill.). A. MixUer, Observations on the habits of Oligoneuria, 
rhenana ; in Ent. Mo. Mag. i. 262. 

1865 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, Occurrence of the female imago of Cloeon 
imder submerged stones ; in Ent. Mo. Mag. ii. 14. {Baetis.) 

1865, Lubbock (see 1863), Part. II, in Trans. Lin. Soc. xxv. 477-92, pi. 

1865, W. Houghton, Ephemera, the May Fly; in The Intellectual Ob- 
server, vi. 147-54, pis. i, ii. 

1866, Tuffen West, Description of the Skin cast by an Ephemeron 
in its Pseudimago condition ; in Trans. Microscop. Soc. Lond. xiv. 69-70, 
pi. vii. 8-11. 

1866 (A. Mill.). A. Miiller, Further Notes on Oligoneuria rhenana; 
in Ent. Mo. Mag. ii. 182. 

1866, F. Loew, in Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. "Wien, xvi. 947. 

1866 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, On some species of the Orthopterous genus 
Cloeon, Leach, (as limited by M. Pictet); in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 
3, vol. xviii. pp. 145-8 (illustrated). Cloeopsis. 

1867 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, On some British Neuroptera ; in Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xix. p. 401. 

*1867, M. T. Batzel ; in Zeitsch. f . •wiss. Zool. xviii. 99. [On the egg 
of an Ephemerid.] 

1867 (Oul.). B. Oulianiuo, (in Russian), Neui-optera and Orthoptera of 
the province of Moscow, pp. 25-9. 

1868 (M'Lach.). E. M'Lachlan, On a new species belonging to the 
Ephemerideous Genus Oligoneuria ; in Ent. Mo. Mag. iv. 177-8. 0. Tri- 
meniana. [The type is 1 $ im., in Mr. M'Lachlau's collection.] 

*1868, H. Gernacher, BeitrJige zur Kenntniss des Eies der Epheme- 
ridcn ; in Zeits. f. wiss. Zool. xix. 95. 

1868 (Brau. Ver.). F. Brauer, Verzeichniss der bis jetzt bckaunten 
Neuroptcren im Siune Linnd's ; in Verb, zool.-bot. GeseUsch. "Wien, 
xviii. 361, 363, 387-9. 

1868 (Brau. Eeise Novara). F. Brauer, Eeise der Fregatte Novara, 
Zool. TheU; Bd. ii. Abth. i. 104. [A list.] 

16 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

1868, B. D. Walsh, The Bug-hunter in Egypt (S. Hhnois); in The 
American Entomologist, i. 6, fig. i. b. c. 

1868 (Hag.). H. A. Hagen, On Lachlania ahnormis, a new Genus and 
Si^ecies from Cuba, belonging to the Ephemerina; in Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist. pp. 372-4, fig. 

1868 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, in Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1868, p. 142. 
Ecdyonurus (misreading for Ecdyurus). 

1868 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, An outHue of a re-arrangement of the genera 
of Ephemeridce; in Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 82-91. Tricorythus, Campsurus, 
Polymitarcys, Coloburus, HiiMurus (mis-spelt Siphlonurus). 

1868 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, On some points in the anatomy of the 
immature Ccenis macrura of Stephens ; in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1868, 
pp. 279-82, 

1869 (Ausser. Neur. Tirol.). C. Ausserer, Neurotteri Tirolesi ; in Annu- 
ario della Soc. Natur. Modena, An. iv., 131-7. 

1869 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, On Centroptilum, a new genus of the Ephe- 
meridce; in Ent. Mo. Mag. vi. 132. Centroptilum (luteolum). 

1870 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, On some new British species of Eplieme- 
ridcB ; in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1870, pp. 1-8. E. lineata. CI. simile. 
Centropt. pennulatum. Ba. scamhus, atrebatinus, phceops, tenax, bucera- 
tus, niger. Siphl. armatus, lacustris. Heptag. volitans, insignis. 

1870 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton, A Catalogue of British Neuroptera. [The 
Fam. Ephemeridce] . Pp. 7-11. [A mere list.] 

1871 (Etn.). A. E. Eaton. In this present monograph I describe the 
following new genera and species. [Campsur.) cuspidatus, quadriden- 
tatus ; Asthenopus curtus ; (Polymit.) Savignii; Eidhyplocia ; (Ephem.) 
immaculata, serica; (Leptophl.) furcifera, inconspicua, dentata, strigata, 
nodularis, aiiriculata, mollis ; (Centropt.) stenopteryx ; (Baetis) finitimus, 
mnnicus, pictus ; {Sipihl.) Linnceanus; Isoivgchia manca; (Colobiw.) ha- 
leuticus ; Croiiicus ; (Heptag.) nivata, borealis, cupulata, alpicola: in all, 
four new genera, twenty-four species. 

[The types of new species described in (Etn. 1870) and (Etn. 1871) are 
in the following collections : — 

In Mr. Wormald's, 8. armatus ; in Linne's, S. Linnceanivs ; in Mr. 
Walker's, L. furcifera, C. haleuticus ; in Mr. Dale's, C. 4--dentatus, 8. Lin- 
nceanus, H. borealis; in M. de Selys-Longchamps', C. ci(,spidatus, Euthy- 
plocia, L. mollis; in the Oxford Museum, E. inmiaculata, L. inconspicua; 
in Mr. McLachlan's, P. 8avignii, Euthyplocia, L. strigata, nodularis, 
auriculata, mollis, C. stenopteryx, B. pictus, I, manca, 8. armatus; the 
rest are in the British Museum.] 

Nominibus homonymicis signa anteposita significant : — 

II nomen prffioccupatum. 

t nomen abusum. 

Signo ! nomini auctoris prajmisso, me exemplar tyincum insecti sui 
vidisse, significatur. 

Ante nomiua generum numeralia loca systematica generum designaut. 

on the Ephemeridce. 17 

Operibus supra enumeratis desoriptarum. 

IV. AsTHENOPUS, 11. g.=Palingenia, auct., p. Typ. A. curtus. 
ciwtus, ! nov. sp. ; iu ralingenia, Hag., Campsurus, Etn. [not described] ; 

c? im. 
dorsalis, Burm. ; in Palingcnia, Burm. 

XX. Baetis, Leacb, 1815 ; Sam. 1819; Etn. 1868. Typ. B. hinoculatu's. 

XBaetis, Say, Curt., et {inct.,\i. = Hei:>ta/jema, &c. 

alUvitta, ! "Walk. Cat. 566 ; Hag. Am. Syu. 304, list; =Hexagenirt:, ^ \m. 

albus (alha), Say, Long's 2d Exp. ii. 305; Lc Conte, ):&p. i. 204; Walsb, 

Proc. Ent. Soe. Pbilad. ii. 170, 193, F.cie 12, in Cloe (A.) ; in 

Palingenia, Hag. ? . 

aljnnus, Pict. ; in Cloe, Pict. : Clc-eon, Walk. 

alterrMta, Say, Long'?, 2d Exp. ii. 304 ; Le Coute, rep. i. 203 ; Hag. Am. 
Sj-n. 49 ; Walsb. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 369, & 
I'roc. Ent. See. Pbilad. ii. 169, 189= Siphlunos. 

ojTi't.'nicus, ! nov. sp. 

ayigidata, ! Walk. Cat. 564=H"&ra(7C}ua hilineata, $ im. 
angustipennis, ! Ramb. in Ephemera; Ed. Pict. Nevr. d'Esp. 2SzzUe]pta- 
genia, $ subim. 

annulata, Pz., in Ephemera; — indeterminable. 

II annulata, ! Walk. Cat. 567; Hag. Am. Syn. i8=Siphlurus', ^ im. 

ariomala, Pict. Trait, de Pal. ed. 2, ii. 371 ; Hag. Verb, zool.-bot. Ver. 
Wien, 1854, p. 227; Hag. & Pict. Org. Best, im Berust. ii. 75, 
l^l. vi. 1, b. c. = Cronicus, $ im. 

arida. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. viii. 42 ; Walk. Cat. 562 ; Le 
Conte, rep. ii. 412 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 46 ; Walsb, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 370, & Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbilad. ii. 170, 191, 
Note 8, 192, Note ll = SipMurus. 

atrehatinus, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 4, ^ . 

awrantiaca, Bnnn. Handb. ii. 801 ; Her.-Scbasf. 346 ; Pict. Epbem. 191 ; 
Walk. Cat. 560=He2:)tagenia iridana ? 

auatralasica, Pict. Epbem. 189, pi. xxiv. 1, 2 ; Walk. Cat. 559 = Lepto- 
phlehia, ^ . 

autminalis, Curt. Pbil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 ; Ste. 111. vi. 67 = [probably a 

monstrous c?] hinoculatus. 
basalis, ! Walk. Cat. 565 {nee Ste. Cat.); Hag. Am. Syn. 50 =Heptagenia, 

S im- 
Bellieri, ! Hag. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, p. 746=Eeptagenia, ? im. 
hilineata, Say, Long's 2d Exp. ii. 303 ; Le Conte, rep. i. 203=iHejcagenia, 

(7 im. 
hinoctdatiis (bioculata), Lin., in Ephemera, Lin. ; Leacb, E. Enc. ix. 137 ; 

Sam. E. Comp. 259, Ent. Cab. ii. u. 53, pi. xxiv. 1 ; Ste. 111. vi. 


huceratus, 1 Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 5 ; <? im. 

canadensis, ! Walk, Cat. 569; Hag. Am. Syn. -Ht zzlleptagenia, ^ im. 

TKANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. PART I. (mAKCH.) C 

18 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Baetis (continued). 

ca/mea, (jurt. ±\:i Mag. 1834, p. 121 ; Ste. 111. vi. 65 ; Pict. Epbem. 193; 

Walk. Cat. 560, :--iptermiuable. 
cerea, Pict. Ephem. 183, pi. xxiii. 2 ; Waiii.. O..': '^?S— ■f-j./rtgenm flavi- 
]}ennis, <J im. 

cingulata,] 8te. III. vi. 67= Lex>to2jhle'biafusca, $ im. 

costalis, Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 120; Ste. 111. vi. 64; Pict. Ephem. 
194; Walk. Cat. 561=:He2}tagenia elegans (^ im. s. s., Curt. ; 
(? im., ! Ste.). 

\\ costalis, Burm. Haudb. ii. 800; Brau. Eeise Novara (1868)=/je^fo- 
phlehia, suhim. 

ctdiciforiiHs, iiji. ; in Ephemera, Liu. ; sp. dub. 

I culiciformis, ! Ste. IB. vi. 66=phaiops, $ im. 

cyanops, Pict. Ephem. 171, pJ- xx. 2 ; Walk. Cat. 556 = Heptageiiii 

elegans, (^ im. 
dehilis, ! Walk. Cat. 569; Hag. Am. Syn. 4:6 = Leptovhlehia cupida, ? im. 

II dehilis, ! Walk.; in Cloeon, W&\k.=: Baetis, ^ im. 

I dehilis, Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 18G2, p. 371 ; Froc- Ent. 

Soc. Philad. ii. 170 ; (in Baetis [C] , Y-ialah)=:8iphlurus ? 

determinata, ! Walk. Cat. 567 ■i^Heptagenia, ^ im. 

dispar. Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 120; B. E. xi. 484; ! Ste. 111. vi. 63=i 

Heptagenia venosa, ^ im. 

elegans. Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 120 ; ! Ste. 111. vi. 64 ; Pict. Ephem. 
193; Walk. Cat. 560; Hag. Brit. Syn. 25z:zHeptagenia. 

fallax, ! Hag. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1864, p. 38 zzUeptagenia zehrata, $ 

fasciatus, Pict. ; iu Cloe, Pict. ; Cloeon, Walk. 

femorata, Say, W. Q. E. ii. 162 ; Le Conte, rep. i. 171 ; Hag. Am. Sjti. 
48 ; Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 368, & Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 169, 188, Note 6=iiiphlwrus. 

? ferrugineus, Walsh ; in Cloe (A), Walsh ; S im. 

finitimus, ! nov. sp. 

fiaveola, Pict. Ephem. 186, pi. xxiii. 4 ; ! Walk. Cat. 559 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 
44:=Heptagenia ; $ im. Pict., $ subim. & im. Walk. 

flavescens, Ciirt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 ; Pict. Ephem. 193 ; Walk. Cat. 
561 ; probably hinoculatiis, subim. 

flavida, ! Ed. Pict. Nevr. d'Esp. 24, pi. iii. l-6=Sipililuni,s, im. 

fluctuans, Walsh; in Cloe (B), Walsh. 

flwninum, Pict. Ephem. 164, pi. xvi.-xix. ; Lab. & Imh., Bd. iv. ; Walk. 
Cat. 556 ; Brau. N. Aust. 26 ; Meyer-Diir, Mitt. Schw. Ent. 
Ges. i. 221 ; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. IMs^-Heptagenia. 

X flnminum, ! Hag. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1864, p. 38 ; Stet. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. 

229 (list) ^zHeptagenia zehrata, $ im. 
forcipula, Pict. Ephem. 169, '^oi&-=^'Heptagenia venosa ?, $ im. 

fusca, Burm. Handb. ii. 800 ; Her.-Schajf. 346 ; Sieb. Beitr. xii. 3 ; [mis- 
printed /wsa, Walk. Cat. 541, in ^jix.o-n..'\-^LeptophleMa vespertina. 

II fusca, ! Walk. Cat. 568 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 4-5= Heptagenia, im. 
fuscata, Lin., iu Epliemera; ! Ste. 111. vi. 66z=.hinoculatus, $ im. 

on the Ephemerida> . 19 

Baetis (continued). 

\\ fuscata, \ Walk. Cat. 570; Hag. Am. Syn. 4:7=:Eplienierella invaria, 
im. (J , & subim. 

? II fuscus, Schn. ; iu Cloe, Schn. 

gigantea, Hag. & Pict. Org. Eeste im Bemst. ii. 75 ; incertae sedis. 

grossa, Hag. & Pict. Org. Eeste im Bernst. ii. 75 ; iucertfB sedis. 

guttata, Pict. Ei^hem. 187, pi. xxiv. 3; Walk. Cat. 5o9=He'j}tagenia, $ im. 

Iioraria, ! Ste. 111. vi. 66 ; a Cloeon, $ subim., iudotermuiable. 

ignava, I Hag. Am. Sjn. 4:7=: Leptophlehia cupicla, $ subim. 

ignota, ! Walk. Cat. 57l=Isonychia, <? im. 

interliiieata, Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 188 ; [for Siphliirus 
femoratics, Walsh, if distinct from S.femoratus, Say]. 

interjpunctata, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. viii. 41 ; Pict. Ephem. 
194 ; Walk. Cat. 562 ; Le Coute, rep. ii. 411 ; Hag. Am. 
Syu. 44=He]}tagenia. 

invaria, ! Walk. Cat. 568; Plag. Am. Syu. 4!8=:E'phemerella, <? im. 
iridana, Kolen. Wien. Eut. Monatschr. iv. BS3 — Heptagenia. 
lateralis, Gm-t. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121; ! Ste. 111. vi. 65 ; Pict. Ephem. 
175, pi. xxi. ; Walk. Cat. 557 ; Hag. Brit. Syu. 28= Heptagenia. 

longicauda, ! Ste. IU. vi. 63 ; Pict. Ephem. 193 ; Walk. Cat. 560= Hepta- 

I longicauda, Hag. Brit. Syn. 24-= Heptagenia fiavipe'unis, $ im. 

I longicauda, ! Eoualds, ed. v. pi. ix.=iHeptagenia renosa, $ im. 

longipes. Hag. Verh. zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, 1854, p. 7 ; Hag. & Pict. Org. 
Eest. im Bernst. ii. 76 ; iucertas sedis. 

luridipennis, Burm. Handb. ii. 801 ; Pict. Ephem. 192 ; 1 Walk. Cat. 563, 
(? im. ; Hag. Am. Syn. 4:9= Heptagenia. 

hitea. Hag. Brit. Syn. 2Z=Heptagenia elegans. 

li(,teolus. Mill. ; in Ephemera, Miil. ; ! Etn. Eut. Mo. Mag. v. 88= Centroptil am. 

marginalis, Burm. Handb. ii. 801; Her.-Schmf. 346; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3; — 
deseriY>tion= Heptagenia elegans ? — [reference = Potamanthus 
luteus ? ] 

melanonyx, Pict. ; in Cloe, Pict. ; Cloeon, Walk. 

mellea. Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. \2\ = Fotam,ant'hus luteus, subim. 

montana, Pict. Ephem. 172, pi. xx. 3; Walk. Cat. 557 ; Brau. N. Aust. 26 ; 
Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 134= Heptagenia, ^ im. 

X ? montana, Hag. Brit. Syn. 26= Heptagenia insignis, im. 
niger (nigra), Lin. ; in Ephemera, Lin. ; Ste. 111. vi. 67 ; (Ronalds, ed. i. 
pi. ix. 16-17 [? 17, type] ) ; ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 6. 

II nigra. Hag. Stet. Eut. Zeit. xxvi. 229=Heptagenia ? 

noi'eboracana, Licht. ; in Ephemera, Licht. ; Hag. Am. Syu. 50=Hep)ta- 
genia luridipennis ? 

ohesa. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. viii. 43 ; Pict. Ephem. 195 ; 

Walk. Cat. 563 ; Le Coute, rep. ii. 412 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 45=Ba}tis- 

ca, subim. 
ohscura, ! Ste. 111. vi. 65 ; Walk. Cat. 558= Ephemerella ignita, <? im. 

Xohscura, Hag. Brit. Syu. 27; ? Pict. Ephem. 182, pi, xxiii. l=Heptagenia 
lateralis, $ im. 


20 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Baetis {continued) . 

phceops, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 4. 

pictus, ! noT. sp. 

Pideti, Meyer-Diir, Mitt. Scliw. Ent. Ges. i. 22l = Eept(menia, subim. 

posticatus, Say ; in Cloeon, Say ; Cloe, Hag. 

procellaria, Fnesslj, in Ephemera; Hag. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. 229; sp. 

incertaj sedis. 
propinquus, Walsh ; in Cloe (B), Walsh. 
pumilus, Burm. ; in Cloe, Biirm. ; Cloeon, Walk. 

jmrpurascens, Pict. Ephem. 174, pi. xx. 4 ; Walk. Cat. 557 ; Bran. N. 
Aust. 26 ; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 13o=Heptagenia, venosa ? 

pygmceus. Hag. ; in Cloe, Hag. 

remota, Walk. Cat. 564:=:Colohuriis hiimeralis, im. 

reticulata, Burm. Handb. ii. 801; Her.-Schasf. 346; Pict. Ephem. 192 ; 

Sieb. Beit. xii. 3; Walk. Cat. 561= Leptophlebia helvipes, 

snbim. ? 

Rliodani, 1 Pict. ; in Cloe, Pict. ; Cloeon, Walk. 

scambus, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 3. 

scita, ! Walk. Cat. 570= Leptophlehia. 

semicolorata, Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 ; ! Ste. 111. vi. 64, pi. xxix. 2, 
S im. ; Pict. Ephem. 178, pi. xxii. 4-9 ; Walk. Cat. 557 ; 
Hag. Brit. Syn. '26=.Heptagenia. 

semitincta, Pict. Ephem. 180, pi. xxii. 1-3; Walk. Cat. 558; Braii. N. 
Aiist. 26 ; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 133; (misprinted semitireta in 
Hag. Uebers. ^Q9>)=Heptagenia semicolorata, var. ? ? 

sicca, Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 371, Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Philad. ii. 170, 191, Notes 9, 10, 192, Note \l=SipMurus. 

speciosus. Pod. ; in Ephemera, Pod. ; sp. incerta. 

straminea, Cui't. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 = Heptagenia elegans, subim. 

striata, ! Ste. 111. vi. 65=phceops, $ . 

suhfusca, ! Ste. 111. vi. 64 ; Pict. Ephem. 194 ; Walk. Cat. 5Q1 = He2->tagenia 
longicauda, ^ im. 

sulphwea, Pict. Ejjhem. 185, pi. xxiii. 3 ; Walk. Cat. 558 ; Ausser. Neur. 
Tirol. lSi=Heptagenia elegans, ^ im. ? 

sylvicola, ! Ed. Pict. Nevr. d'Esp. 24, pi. iii. 7-12 = Heptagenia, im. 

Taprolanes, ! Walk. Cat. 567; Hag. Ceyl. Syn. 4:76z:zLeptophlehia, $ im. 

tenax, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 5 ; $ im. 

tessellata, ! Walk. Cat. 566=He2oiagenia vicaria, $ subim. ? 

II tessellata, Hag. Am. Syn. 50 = either a Heptagenia, or Leptophlehia Co- 

lo7nbice, '^ subim.; (presei-ved in alcohol). 
torrida, ! Walk. Cat. 571 — Heptagenia, ? im. 
undatus, Pict. ; in Cloe, Pict. ; Cloeon, Walk. 
unicolor, Hag. ; in Cloe, Hag. 
venosa, ! Ste. 111. vi. 63 ; Burm. Handb. ii. 801 ; Her.-Schfef. 346 ; Pict. 

Ephem. 167, pi. xx. 1 ; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3 ; Walk. Cat. 556 ; Brau. 

N. Aust. 26; Hag. Brit. Syn. 22; Meyer-Diir, Mitt. Schw. Ent. 

Ges. i. 221 ; ! Hag. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1864, p. 38 ; Oul. 1867, p. 

27; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 133= Heptagenia. 

on the Ejjhe) Iter idee. 21 

Baetis (continued). 

verna, 1 Ste. 111. vi. 66— p/iccojjs. 

vernus, Ciirt. Phil. Mag. ISSJ;, p. 121r:pra2c. ? 

.'' verticis, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. viii. 42 ; Walk. Cat. 562 

Le Conte, rep. ii. 412; Hag. Am. Syu. 46; Walsh, Proc. Eut. 

Soc. Philad. ii. 204, Note 19. 

vicaria, ! Walk. Cat. 565 ; Hag. Am. Syu. 4.'8=:Hepta(jenia, $ im. 
zohrata, ! Hag. Au. Soc. Eut. Fr. 1864, p. Z^—tte^tagenia, $ subim. ? im. 

XVII. B^TiscA, Walsh ; in Baetis, Say. Typ. B. olesa,. 
obesa, Sav, in Baetis, Say ; ! Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, 
p. 378; Proc. Eut. Soc. Philad. ii. 187, iii. 200-6, fig. 

Bhachtcercus, Curt. (1834)=:CtEms, Ste. (1835-6), p. 
chironomiforjnis, Civet. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 122 rzCcems. 
Harrisella, Curt, ib.; (Har. Exp. pi. vi. l-3) = Ccenis luduosa, $ , ? 
minima, Curt. ib. = Ccenis dimicliata ? 

Brachtphlebia, Westw. (ISiO) =Baetis, Leach (1815). 
bioculata, ! Westw. lutr. ii. 25, Add. to Gen. Syu. 158=Baetis binocu- 
latus, (J im. 
XV. C.ENIS, Ste. (1835-6) ; in Ephemera, Liu. ; Brachycercus, Curt. ; 
Ojiycypha, Burm. Typ. C, macrura. 

arnica. Hag. Am. Syu. 5o=:diminuta, $ im. ? 

argentata, Pict. Ephem. 279, pi. xliii. 6 ; Walk. Cat. 581 ; ? subim. 
brevicauda, ! Ste. III. vi. 61; Pict. Ephem. 286; Walk. Cat. 582 = cZww- 
diata, $ im. 

chironomiformis, Qwxi. in Brachycercus ; \ Ste. 111. vi. 62; $ im. (mis- 
printed chironoformis. Hag. Brit. Syu. 11, in syuon.). 

dimidiata, ! Ste. 111. vi. 61 ; Pict. Ephem. 286 ; Walk. Cat. 582 ; Hag. 
Brit. Syu. 12 ; Qui. 1867, p. 27 ; im. 

diminuta, ! Walk. Cat. 584 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 55 ; (? im. 

discolor, Burm. ; iu Oxycypha, Burm. 

grisea, Pict. Ephem. 278, pi. xlv. 1, 2 ; Walk. Cat. 581 ; Brau. N. Aust. 
25; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 13S=macrura. 

halterata, Hag. Brit. Syn. 11= chironondformis. 

X halterata, ! Etn. Traus. Eut. Soc. 1868, pp. 279, 280, 2Sl=luctuosa, 

(? im. & nymph. 
Harrisella, Ste. IU. vi. 61; Pict. Ephem. 286; Walk. Cat. 58d=luc- 
tu/)sa, $ . 

hilaris, Say ; in Ephemera, Say ; Walk. Cat. 583 ; Hag. Am. Sj-n. 54 ; 

Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 381, Proc. Eut. 

Soc. Philad. ii. 179. 
interrupta, Ste. 111. vi. 62 ; Pict. Ephem. 287 ; Walk. Cat. 583=:TOacrw?-a, ? . 

lactea, Burm. ; in Oxycypha, Burm. ; ! Pict. Ephem. 276, pi. xliii. 1-4 & 
xliv. ; Walk. Cat. 581; Hag. Stet. Eut. Zeit. xxvi. 2-lQzz chirono- 
luctuosa, Burm. ; in Oxycypha, Burm, ; Pict. Ephem. 283, pi. xlv. 3 ; 

Walk. Cat. 582 ; Hag. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. 229. 
macrwa, Ste. 111. vi. 60, pi. xxix. 1 ; Walk, Cat. 583 ; Hag. Brit. Syu. 
10 ; ! Etn. Traus. Ent. Soc. 1868, pp. 279-82. 

22 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

C^Nis (continued), 
[nigra, Hag. MS., Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 179 ; not described.] 
oophora, Pict. Ephem. 284, pi. xlv. 4 ; Walk. Cat. 582 ; $ im. 
pennata, ! Ste. 111. vi. 61 ; Pict. Ephem. 286 ; Walk. Cat. 583=dimidiata, ? . 
perpusilla, ! Walk. Cat. 585; Hag. Ceyl. Syn. 477 ; c? im. 
sinensis, ! Walk. Cat. 584< = Cloeon russulum, $ im. 

varicauda, (Sav. 1817, pi. ii. 6, 7), Pict. Ephem. 281, pi. xliii. 5 ; Walk. 
GsA. ^Sl — Tricorythus, $ im. $. 

III. Campsurus, Etn. 1868 ; in Ephemera, Perch. ; Palingenia, auet. 
Typ. C. latipennis. 

albicans, Perch. ; in Ephemera, Perch. ; Palingenia, Pict. ; S iJii. 

alhifilum, ! Walk. ; in Palingenia, Walk. ; ^ im. 

curtus, ! Etn. Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 84 [not described] =:Asthenopus, $ im. 

cuspidatus, ! nov. sp., (J im. 

latipennis, ! Walk. ; in Palingenia, Walk. ; J im. 

? puella, Pict. ; in Palingenia, Pict. ; $ im. 

quadridentatus, ! nov. sp., (J im. 

XIX. Centeoptilum, Etn. 1869; Baetis (A), Etn. 1868. Typ. C. lu- 


lituratum, Pict. ; in Cloe, Pict. ; Cloeon, Walk. 

luteolum, Mill.; in Ephemera, Mill.; Baetis, Etn. 1868; ! Etn. Ent. Mo. 
Mag. vi. 132. 

pennulatum, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 2. 

stenopteryx, ! nov. sp. 

Chloeon, Lubbock (1863) = CToeon, Leach (1815). 

dimidiatum, Lnb. Trans. Lin. Soc. xxiv. 61-7, pis. xvii-xviii ; id. xxv. 
477-95, pi. Iviii-lix. 18=Cloeo7i russulum. 

di'pterwn, Lnb. lib. cit. xxv. pi. hx. 19-21 = CZoeou dipterum. 

Cloe, Biirm. (1839) =: Baetis & Cloeon, Leach, 1815, & Centroptilum, 
Etn. 1869. 

affiAiis, ! Eamb. Nevr. 298= CZoeon dipterum, im. 

albipennis, ! Ste. in Cloeon ; Pict. Ephem. 27 l-=Centroptilum luteolum, $ im. 

alpina, Pict. Ephem. 257, pi. xl. ?> — Baetis, $ im. 

auliciformis, ! Ronalds, v. No. 25 [misprint for culiciformisl zzBaetis, 
[sp. indeterminable] . 

autumnalis. Curt, in Cloeon ; Pict. Ephem. 270 ; vide Baetis. 

lioculata, Lin., in Ephem.era, L. ; Pict. Ephem. 244, pi. xxxiv-v. ; Hag. 
Am. Syn. 52 (teste Walk., sed vide Walk. Cat. 572), Stet. Ent. 
Zeit. xxvi. 229; Oul. 1867, p. 28=Baetis binoculatus. 

brunnea, ! Eamb. Nevr. 298 ; Walk. Cat. 577, var. ? halterata ; Ed. Pict. 
Nevr. d'Esp. 26=Heptagenia lateralis, $ subim. 

cingulata, ! Ste. in Cloeon; Pict. Ephem. 271 = LepfopWebict/itsco., (S im. 

cognata, ! Ste. in Cloeon; Pict. Ephem. 272z:Cloeon dipterum, $ im. 

eonsueta, Hag. Ceyl. Syn. 477 ; incert. gen. (Gen. XXII). 

culiciformis, Lin., in Ephemera, L. ; Pict. Ephem. 270; Hag. Am. Syn. 
54:=Baetis, sp. dub. 

dimidiata. Curt, in Cloeon; Pict. Ephem. 272 = Cloeon russulum. 

071 the Ephemeridce. 23 

Cloe (continued). 

diptera, Biirm. Haudb. ii. 798 ; Her.-Schasf. 346 ; ! Pict. Epliem. 266, pi. 
xlii.; Schu. Stet. Eut. Zeit. vi. 340; Cal. (1848); Sicb. Beit. 
xii. 3; Brau. N. Aust. 26; ! Hag. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1864, p. 
39, and Eut. Mo. Mag. ii. 25 ; Ed. Pict. Nevr. d'Esp. 25 ; Oul. 
1867, p. 27; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 13o=:Cloeon diiAerum. 

Idiptera, Ronalds, v. No. 16=Baetis niger, subim. 

duhia, Walsb, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pliilad. 1S62, p. 380, Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Pbilad. ii. 178=:Cloeon. 

fasciata, Pict. Ephem. 262, pi. xli. 4; Hag. Am. Syn. (list) 30i=Baetis, 
? im. 

ferruginea,'Waliih, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 379=:? Bactis, im., 

fludums, Walsb, I. c, & Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbilad, ii. l78=Baetis, ? im. 

fusca, Scbn. Stet. Ent. Zeit. vi. 340rr? Baetis, ? im. 

fuscata, Pict. Epbem. 251, pl.xl. 1 ; Oul. 1867, p. 28=zLeptoplilehia cincta, 

<? im. 
halterata, Buim. Handb. ii. 798; Her.-Scb«>f. 346; ! Eamb. Nevr. 299; 

(misprinted hatterata in Sieb. Beitr. xiii. d)=:Centrop)tilum 

luteolum, (J im. 

horaria, Lin., in Ephemera, L. ; Eamb. Nevr. 299 ; Pict. Epbem. 270 ; 
Oul. 1867, p. 29=? Coenis dimidiata. 

hyalinata, ! Ste., in Cloeon, Ste. ; Pict. Epbem. 271 = CeiitropiiZion luteo- 
lum, $ im. 
litura, Pict. Epbem. 260, pi. xli. l-B=Centroptilum. 
maderensis, ! Hag. Ent. Mo. Mag. ii. 25 = Baetis BJiodani. 
marginalis, Hag. Ceyl. Syn. i. 477, ii. 206; incert. sed. (Gen. XXII, $ ). 
melanonyx, Pict. Epbem. 258, pi. xl. 6=:Baetis, $ im. 

mendax, Walsb, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 381, & Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Pbilad. ii. ITS— Cloeon. 
mollis, ! Hag. Am. Syn. 52 [not described] =Leptoplilehia, $ im. 
ohscurajX Eamb. Nevr. 297 = Cloeon, ? subim. 

oc/tracea, ! Ste., in CZoeon, Ste.; Pict. Epbem. 271 = Ce?iiroj3iiZuw Z«teo- 

lum, $ im. 
posticata, Say, in Cloeon, Say ; Hag. Am. Syn. 53=Bacfis, $ im. 

propinqua, Walsb, Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbilad. ii. 207 ; [for vicina, Walsb] = 

pumila, Burm. Handb. ii. 799 ; Hor.-Scb»f. 346 ; Pict. Epbem. 253, pi. 

xl. 2 ; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3 ; Brau. N. Aust. 26 ; ! Hag. An. Soc. Ent. 

Fr. 1864, p. 39; Mcyer-Diir, Mitt. Scbw. Ent. Ges. i. 221; 

Ausser. Neur. Tirol. l36=Baetis. 

Xpumila, Hag., in Cloeon; Oul. 1867, p. 28=Baeits hinoculatus. 

X pumila, ! Eamb. Nevr. 298=Cloeon russulum, $ im. 

pygmcBa, Hag. Am. Syn. 54 ; Walsb, Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbilad. ii. 178 = 
Baetis, $ im. 

Rhodami, ! Pict. Epbem. 248, pi. xxxvi-ix. ; Brau. N. Aust. 26 ; ! Hag. An. 
Soc. Eut. Fr. 1864, p. 39; Meyer-Diir, Mitt. Scbw. Eut. Ges. 
i. 221 ; ?, Oul. 1867, p. 28 ; Ausser. Neur. Tirob ld6=Baetis. 

24 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Cloe {continued). 

signata, Hag. Ceyl. Syn. i. 477, ii. 206 ; incert. gen. (Gen. XXII.) 

solida, Hag. Ceyl. Syn. i. 477; incert. gen. (Gen. XXII. ? ). 

striata, Lin., in E2)hemera, L. ; Pict. Ephem. 270; Oul. 1867, p. 28=Baetis 

pumilus, ? ; vide Ephemera. 
subinfuscata, ! Eamb. Nevr. 298 ; Walk. Cat. 577 (var. ? halterata) =z 

Cloeon, $ subim. 
translucida, ! Pict. Epliem. 255, pi. xl. 3, 4:=:Centroptilv,m luteolum, im. 
tristis, Hag. Ceyl. Syn. i. 476; incert. gen. (Geu. XXII, ? subhn.). 
undata, Pict. Ephem. 264, pi. xli. 5 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 53=:Cloeon^, $ im. 
unicolor, Cnrt., in Cloeon, Curt. ; Burm. Handb. ii. 798 ; Pict. Ei^hem. 

271 ; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3= Cloeon, sp. dub. 
II unicolor. Hag. Am. Syn. 54 ; ? Walsh, Proc. Acad. PhUad. 1862, p. 380, 

& Proc. But. Soc. Philad. ii. 178=Baetis. 
verna, Curt., in Cloeon, Curt. ; Pict. Ephem. 27 0= Baeti s phcBops? 
vespertina, Lin., in Ephemera, L. ; Oul. 1867, p. 29=Leptop'hlehia ? 
vicina, Hag. Am. Syn. 54; Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 178=Cloeo»i. 
X vicina, Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Philad.", 1862, p. 380, & Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Philad, ii. 207, Note 20=Baetis pro2nnquus. 
virgo, ! Ste., in Cloeon, Ste. ; Pict. Ephem. 272 = Cloeon dipterum, $ im. 

XVIII. Cloeon, Leach (1815); in Ephemera, Lin. ; Cloe, Burm. j). ; 
Cloeopbis, Etn., olim. Typ. C. dipterum. 

albipenne,\ Ste. lU. vi. 69; alhip>ennis, Walk. Cat. 579=:Centroptilum 
luteolum, $ im. 

alpina, Pict., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 574<=Baetis. 

awtwmnalis, Curt., in Baetis, Curt. ; Walk. Cat. 578; vide Baetis. 

lioculata, L., in Ephemsra, L. ; Walk. Cat. 572, 1 a-i— Baetis hinoculatus. 

I bioculatwm, Hag. Brit. Syn. 34; ! Etn. An. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1866, p. 

14:7 ^Centror>t Hum luteolum. 
cingulata, Ste., in Baetis, Ste.; Walk. Cat. 578=r Le^iop/iZebia /msco,, (J im. 
cognatum,] Ste. lU. vi. 69; cognata. Walk. Cat. 579=dipterum, $ im. 
consobrinum,\ Ste. 111. vi. 69=dip)terum, $ im. 
culiciformis, ! Walk. Cat. 576=Leptophlehia helvipes, $ im. 
debilis, ! Walk. Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. v. l99=Baetis, ? im. 

dimidiatum, Ciu't. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 ; Hag. Brit. Syn. 32 ; dimidiata. 
Walk. Cat. 580=russulum. 

J dimidiatum, ! Ste. 111. vi. 69= dipterum, J im. 

dipterum, hin., ia. Ephemera ; Leach, E. Enc. ix. 137; Curt. Phil. Mag. 

1834, p. 121 ; ! Ste. 111. vi. 68, ph xxix. 3; Hag. Brit. Sya. 29; 

diptera. Walk. Cat. 575. 

discolor, Burm., in Cloe ; Walk. Cat. 577 zzCcenis. 

dubiii,m, Walsh ; in Cloe (C), Walsh. 

fasciata, Pict., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 575=Baetis ?. 

fuscata, Walk. Cat. 573= Leptophlebia cincta. 

halterata, Burm., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 577 =Centroptilum luteolum, ^ im. 

horaria, Lin., in Ephemera, Lin.; Walk. Cat. 576; vide Ephemera. 

071 the Ephomeridie. 25 

Cloeon (continued), 

hyalinatmn, I Ste. 111. vi. 68; hyalinata, Walk. Cat. 579= Cenfropf iZitni 
luteolum, ^ im. 

litura, Pict., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 574!=:Centroptilum. 

marmoratum, Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 = dipteriMn, $ im. 

melanonyx, Pict., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 57-i=Baetis. 

mendax, Walsh ; in Cloe (C), Walsh. 

ohscxirum. Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 = dipterum, subim. 

II oiscurum, ! Eamb. ; in Cloe, Kamb. ; $ subim. 

ochracei(/ni, \ Ste. 111. vi. 68; ochracoa, Walk. Cat. 578= Centroptilum 
luteolum, $ im. 

pallida, Leach, E. Enc. ix. 137; Sam. E. Comp. 259 =dipiterum, 

posticata, Say, W. Q. R. ii. 162 ; Le Conte, repr. i. 172=Baetis, $ im. 

puniila, Burm., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 573z:Baetis. 

X pumilum, Hag. Brit. Syn. 33 ; ! Etn. An. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1866, p. 147 
=zBaetis hinocidatus. 

EJwdani, Pict., in Cloe ; Walk. Cat. 573 ; Hag. Brit. Syn. 31 ; 1 Etn. An. 
& Mag. Nat. Hist. 1866, p. 14:7=:Baetis. 

russuluni, Mill. ; in Ephemera, Miil. 

simile, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 2. 

striata, Lin., in Ephemera ; Walk. Cat. 57 6= Baetis pumilus ? 

siohinfuscatum, ! Eamb. ; in Cloe, Eamb. ; $ subim. 

trajislucida, Pict., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 57 4:-=iCentroptilv,m luteolum. 

undata, Pict., in Cloe; Walk. Cat. 575=:Baeh's. 

unicolore. Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121 ; ! Ste. 111. vi. 69 ; unicolor. Walk. 
Cat. 579zrsp. anceps. 

verna. Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 121,' ! Ste. 111. vi. 69 ; ! Walk. Cat. 578= 
Baetis phceops, $ im. 

vicinum, Hag. ; in Cloe, Hag. 

Virgo, ! Ste. 111. vi. 70; Walk. Cat. 580=dipterum, <J im. 

iitrip>ennis, Blanch. ; in Ephemera (Cloe), Blanch. 

Cloeopsis, Etn. (1866) = Cloeon, Leach. 
d/iptera, Etn. An. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1866, p. 146= Cloeon dipterum. 
diptera, var., Etn. op. cit. 1867, p. 401 = Cloeon russulum. 

XXIV. CoLOBURUS, Etn. (1868); in Palingenia, Walk. Typ. C. hvme- 


haleuticus, ! nov. sp., S ^• 

hwmeralis, ! Walk. ; in Palingenia, Walk. 

XXV. Ckonicds, nov. gen. 
anomalus, Pict. ; in Baetis, Pict. 

EcDYUKUS, Etn. (1868) ; [mis-spelt Ecdyonurus] =Heptagenia. 
venosus, Fab., in Ephemera, Fab. ; Etn. Trans. But. Soc. 1868, p. 141, u. 

X. Ephemera, Lin. 1735; Sam. 1819; Pict. 18-13-5 ; Hag.; Brau. ; 
Walsh ; Houghton, 1865 ; Etn. = Ephemera, Liu. c. 
&-set. p. Typ. E. vulgata. 

26 Rev. A. B. Eaton's Monograph 

Ephemera (continued). 

albicans, Perch, vi. pi. iv. IzrCampsurus, $ im. 
albijpennis, Eetz. n. 181= Leptophlehia vesjpertina. 
II albipemiis, Atk. Zool. i. 272-5=CoBnis dirmdiata. 
II albipennis, Fab. E. S. III. i. 70=z Leptoplilebia cincta. 

X albip)ennis,Yoigt, v. 310; Blaucli. H. N. iii. 54, pi. iii. 1; Eamb. 

Nevr. 296r: Polymitarcys virgo. 
X albipennis, Walck. ii. 9; Lat. H. N. xiii. 98? zzBaetis culiciformis. 
albipes, Scop. E. Cam. 264; Vill. iii. 22; 01. Euc. Meth. vi. 421 = Cen- 

troptilmn luteolum, $ subim. ? 
angustipennisy ! Eamb. Nevr. 295 ; Walk. Cat. 571 = Heptagenia, subim. ? . 
annulatd. Mill. Pr. 143=r CZoeon dipterum. 
II annulata, Pz. Explic. Schasf. Ic. clvi.=:-Baefis, sp. ance^js. 
apicalis, ! Ste. 111. vi. 59=Ephenierella ignita, $ im. 
atrostoma, Web. 99 = Hexagenia?, subim. 
australis, ! Walk. Cat. 538= Leptopihlebia. 
berolinensis. Mill. Pr. 143, n.=.Heptageniavenosa ? 
Uocvaata, Lin. (Act. Up.?. 27) ; (i. F. S. 751) ; x. S. N. i. 547 ; ii. F. S. 

1473; (Geof. ii. 239.5, pi. xiii. 4); Miil. F. Frid. 556; Liu. 

xii. S.N. 906; Georg. Bern. i. 190 ; Fab. S. E. 304 & Sp. lu. i. 

384 ; Tbuub. 81 ; Fab. Mant. i. 244 ; Vill. iii. 18 ; Gmel. 

2629 ; 01. Euc. Metb. vi. 419 ; Fab. E. S. III. i. 70 ; Scbr. F. 

B. II. ii. 199; Ced. 134; Walck. ii. 9; Lat. H. N. xiii. 97; 

Shaw, pi. Ixxxi. ; Lam. ed. 1, iv. 221; Stew. Elem. II. ii. 

225 ; Guer. Ic. ii. pi. Ix. 9 ; Grif. ii. pi. xciv. 9 ; Zet. 1046 ; 

Westw. lutr. ii. 25; Blauch. H. N. iii. b4:=BaeUs binocu- 


+ hioeulata, Fourc. E. Par. ii. 352=Baetis phoeops, subim. ? 

J bioculata, Pz. Explic. Scbtef. Ic. ecxx.ix. = Heptagenia fluminum. 

I bioculata, var., Pz. Explic. Scbagf.'Ic. ccxxix. & F. Germ. heft. xciv. 17 
= Heptagenia elegans? 

I bioculata, Eom. 23, pi. xxiv. 7=:pr£ec. ? 

brevicauda. Fab. E. S. III. i. 69 ; Walck. ii . 9 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 96 ; 
Zet. 1045 — Ccenis macrara, $ subim.? 

Xbrevicauda, Blanch. H. N. iii. 54<=Canis luetiwsa. 

[cellulosa, liag. = Dictyonewa.] 

chlorotica, ! Eamb. Nevr. 296; Walk. Cat. 54^0= Fotamanthus luteus, $ 

cincta, Eetz. n. 182 ; (De G. Mem. ii. 650, pi. xvii. 17 -18)=: Leptophlebia. 
cognata, ! Ste. 111. vi. 56; Curt. B. E. xv. 708=danica. 
Colombiw, ! Walk. Cat. 537=Leptop'hlebia, $ subim. 
com/munis, Eetz. n. lSO=vulgata. 

euliciformis, Lin. (i. F. S. 753); x. S. N. i. 547; ii. F. S. 1475; (Pod. 
Mus. Gr. 98, pi. i. 10, ? ; or is this Leptophlebia marginata ?); 
Scop. E. Carn. 264; (Geof. ii. 240. 6); Liu. xii. S. N. 907 ; 
Fab. S. E. 304; Miil. Pr. 143; Fab. Sp. In. 385 ; Thimb. 81 ; 
Fourc. E. Par. ii. 353 ; Fab, Mant. i. 244; Berk. Syn. i. 150 ; 
ViU. iii. 20; Gmel. 2630; 01. Euc. Meth. vi. 420 (excl. note); 
Fab. E. S. III. i. 71 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 98, ? ; Stew. Elem. IL 
ii. 225; Zet. 1046; Schi. Berl. E. Zeit. iii. 143=Baeiis, sp. 

on the Ephemeridce. 27 

Ephemera (continued). 

[I cidiciformis, Hill, Dec. pi. vii.^PerZa.] 

X culiciformis, 01. Euc. Meth. vi. 420, n. ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 98? =Baetis 


X culiciformis, Blanch. H. N. iii. 55= CJoeon rassulum. 

X culiciformis, Fonscol. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1846, p. 49=z CZoeon dipteri(,m. 

X culiciformis, Scop. E. Carn. 264:=:Centro;ptili07n lituratum. 

cupida. Say, W. Q. E. ii. 163; Le Coute, rep. i.l72 = Leptophlehia. 

danica, Miil. F. Frid. 63, & Pr. 142 ; Vill. iii. 18 ; (Eonalds I., pi. xiii. 
28-29) ; Walk. Cat. 535 ; Hag. Brit. Syn. 15. 

X danica, Pict. Ephem. 130, pi. vii. ; Oul. 1867, p. 26zzlineata. 

X danica, Bonalds V., No. Blzzvulgata. 

decora, ! Walk. Cat. 537; Hag. Am. Syn. 38; Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 376, & Proc. Eut. Soc. Philad. ii. 177 =gut- 


diapliana, Mill. Pr. 143r:Baefis hinoculatus, $. 

diluta, Ste. 111. vi. 58=Ephemerella ignita. 

diptera, Lin. ii. F. S. 1477 ; (Eeaum. vi. pi. xlv.); (Pontop. Nat. Dan. 223, 
pi. xvii. ?) ; Lin. xii. S. N. 907, diag., uec oba. ; (De G. Mem. ii. 
656, pi. xviii. 1-9); Fab. S. E. 304, & Sp. In.i. 385 ; Eetz. n. 184; 
Tkuub. 81; Fab. Mant. i. 244; Eaz. 210; Vill. iii. 20; (Zsch. 
i. 51, No. 19j; Gmel. 2630; Eos. F. Etr. ii. 9; 01. Euc. Meth. 
vi. 420; Fab.E. S.IlLi.71; Schr.F.B. ILii. 199; Lat. H. N. xiii. 
99 ; Shaw, 253 ; Lat. Gen. iii. 184 ; Leach, E. Euc. ix. 137, inter 
syn.; Cuv. E. A. ed. i., iii. 430; Lamarck, ed. i., iv. 221; Sam. 
E. Comp. 259 ; Cuv. E. A. ed. ii., 244 ; Blanch. E. A. (ed. Cro- 
chard) xiii. 92 ; Zet. 1046; Voigt, v. 311 ; Blanch. H. N. iii. 55 ; 
Duf. Eech. 580, note ; Lat. Nouv. Diet. H. N. x. 349 ; Verl. Mem. 
49, pi. iz^Cloeon dipterum. 

dislocans, ! Walk. Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. v. 19Sz=Leptophlebia, $ im. 

dispar, ! Ste. 111. vi. 58=Leptophlehia helvipes, im. & subim. 

duhia, ! Ste. 111. vi. 59=Baetis phceops, $ im. 

erytliropthalma, Schr. F. B. II. ii. 197 =E}}hemerella ignita, <J im. 

exspectans, ! Walk. ; in Potamantlms, Walk. ; $ subim. 

familiaris, Schr. F. B. II. ii. 200, indeterminable. 

fasciata, ! Hag. ; in Potamantlms, Hag. 

ferruginea; (Zsch. i. 50, No. 18) ; Gmel. 2630 ; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 422= 
Heptagenia elegans ? 

[fimbriata, Bremi, MS. ; Hag. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. 229; not described.] 

jlava, Schr. Beyt. 82, & En. n. 605 ; ViU. iii. 22 ; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 421 ; 
Schr. F. B. II. ii. 200=Baeiis hinocidatus. 

fiaveola, Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 377, & Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Philad. ii. 178. 

^ai^icans, ! Eamb . Nevr. 296; Walk. Cat. 536, ? \a,r.=:Fotamanthus lu- 
teus, $ im. 

flavipennis, Duf. E^ch. 580, n. = Heptagenia, $ subim. 

jiosaquce, Illig. Mag. i. 187 ; Triepke, Stet. Ent. Zeit. i. 54-8 = Palingenia 


fuliginosa, Georg. (1802), p. Z2i=Palingenia longicoMda. 

28 Rev. A. E. Eaton^s Monograph 

Ephemeea {continued), 

fiisca, Curt. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 120= LeiDtophlehia. 

X fusca, ! Ste. 111. vi. 58=Ephemerella ignita, $ im. 

Suscata, Lin. ii. F. S. 1474; Miil. F. Frid. 557; Lin. xii. S. N. 907; 
Thimb. 81 ; YiU. iii. 19 ; Gmel. 2629 ; 01. Euc. Meth. vi. 419 ; Fab. E, 
S.III. i.70; Walck. ii. 9; Lat. H. N. xiii. 97=-Baefis hinacuilatus. 

fusco-grisea, Eetz. n. 183= He23tagenia ve^iosa, subim. 

fuscula, Sclir. F. B. II. ii. 199 =:He2}tagenia semicolorata, subim. ? 

germnata, Scop. E. Cam. 264; Miil. Pr. 143; Vill. iii. 22 ; 01. Enc. Meth. 
vi. 4:21=: Hejitagenia, $ incert. sp. 

[gigantea, lUig. Mag. i. 188 ; not described.] 

glaucops, ! Pict. Ephem. 132, pi. viii. 1-3 ; Walk. Cat. 536 ; Brau. N. 
Aust. 25; Hag. Brit. Sjoi. 16 (excl. Brit, subim.); Meyer, 
Mitt. Schw. Ent. Ges. i. 221 ; Oul. 1867, p. 26; Ausser. Neur. 
Tirol. 132. . 

Sfuttato, Blanch. Chili, vi. 106, Atl. Nevr. ii. 2 ; in § Baetis, Blauch.= 
Heptagenia, $ im. 

guttulata, Pict. Ephem. 135, pi. viii. 4; Walk. Cat. 536. 

halterata, Fab. Gen. 244, & Sp. In. 384, & Mant. i. 243 ; ViU. iii. 18 
Gmel. 2629; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 418; Fab. E. S. III. i. 69 
Schr. F. B. II. ii. 198 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 95 ; Shaw, pi. Ixxxi 
Zet. 104:5= LeptopMebia cincta? (sui^posing Fabricius' speci- 
men to have been mutilated). 

Hehes, Walk. Cat. 538 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 39 :r Leptophlebia cupida ? 

helvipes, ! Ste. 111. vi. 59=Lep>topMehia, $ im. 

helvola, Sulz. Gesch. 171, pi. xxiv. 7 ; Ecem. Gen. pi. xxiv. 7= Heptagenia 
elegans ? 

hilaris, Say, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. viii. 43; Le Conte, repr. ii. 413 

= CcBnis. 

hispanica, I Eamb. Nevr. 294 ; Walk. Cat. 535 (indgata, var. ?) ; E. Pict. 
Nevr. d'Esp. 2d=danica, $ im. 

Jwraria, Lin. (Act. Ups. 27; i. F. S. 754) ; x. S. N. i. 547; ii. F. S. 
1477; (Geof. ii. 240.8); Pontop. Nat. Dan. 223; Lin. xii. S. N 
907; Fab. S. E. 304; Miil. Pr. 143; Fab. Sp. In. i. 358; 
Fourc. E. Par. ii. 352 ; Fab. Mant. i. 244; Berk. Syuop. i. 150; 
Vin. iii. 20; Gmel. 2630 ; Eos. F. Etr. 9; 01. Euc. Meth. vi. 419 ; 
Fisch. Vers. 566; Fab. E. S. III. i. 71; Schr. F. B. II. ii. 199; 
Ced. 135; Walck. ii. 10; Lat. H. N. xiii. 98; Stew. Elem. II. ii. 
226 ?, = Cos?m dimidiata? 

hyaUna, Pz. Expi. Seh^f. Ic. x\ii, = Potamant1ius lute^^s. 
hyalinata, Zet. 1044= Leptophlebia cincta. 
ignita, Pod. Mus. Gr. 97 =Ephemerella, ^ im. 
immaculata, ! nov. sp., <J im. 

inanis (Zsch. i. 50, No. 15); Gmel. 2629; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 4:21 = Lepto- 
jphlehia cincta, ^ im. (the abdominal segments being coimted from 
behind forwards). 

limbata, ! Guer. Ic. ii. pi. Ix. 7, & iii. 384 ; Gray, Grif . CI. Ins. ii. pi. xciv. 
7; I Eamb. Nevr. 295, pi. viii. 2 = Hexagenia, $ im. 

\limn6hia and limosa, Zet. MS., for E. vespertina, Zet.] 

lineata, 1 Etn. Trans. Ent, Soc. 1870, p. 1. 

on the Ephemeridce.. 29 

Ephemeea (continued). 

longicauda, 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 418 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 9G ; Lamarck, ed. 
i., iv. 221; ! Eamb. Nevr. 295= Palingenia. 

lutea, Lin. ; (Geof. ii. 238.2) ; Liu. xii. S. N. 906 ; Fab. S. E. 303 ; 
(? SchfEf. Ic. 1. pi. xlii. 7) ; Schr. Eu. 603 ; Fab. Sp. In. i. 383, & 
Mant. i. 243; Vill. iii. 17; Reem. 23; (Zscb. i. 50, No. 14) ; Gmel. 
2628 ; Eos. F. Etr. ii. 8 ; 01. Enc. Meth. \i. 417 ; Fiscb. Vers. 565 ; 
Fab. E. S. III. i. 68; Seetzen (1794); Scbr. F. B. II. ii. 197; 
Walck. ii. 8 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 95 ; Blanch. H. N. iii. 54 ; Duf. 
Bech. 580, ii. = Potamanthus luteus. 

X lutea, Pz. Expl. Schaef. Ic. clxxv. =Polymitarcys virgo. 

I lutea, Fourc. E. Par. ii. 3o2—Baetis binoculatus. 

X lutea, Sulz. Gescb. 171, pi. xxiv. 6 ; Eoem. xxiv. 6 ; Biirm. Handb. 
ii 804; ! Eamb. Nevr. 294 ; Her.-Scha;f. 346; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3= 
glaucops, $ im. ? 

X lutea, ! Ste. 111. vi. 55=neptagenia elegans, <J im. 
luteola, Mill. Pr. 14:S=Centroptilum luteolum, $ im. 
maculata, Lin. v. S. N. 62= vulgata. 

II maculata. Pod. Mus. Gr. 97 z:Heptagenia (? venosa), subim. 
+ maculata, Vill. iii. 22 = E. danica, ^ im. 

[niadritensis, ! Eamb. '%l^.'=.Heptagenia angustipennis, $ im. ?] 

moA-ginata, Lin. xii. S. N. 906; Fab. S. E. 303, & Sp. In. i. 384, & Mant. 

i. 243 ; Vill. iii. 17 ; Gmel. 2628 ; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 417 ; 

Fab. E. S. III. i. 69 ; Schr. F. B. II. ii. 198 ; Ced. 134 ; Walck. 

ii. 8 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 95 ; Shaw, pi. Ixxxi. ; Stew. Elem. II. ii. 

225, pi. xvii. 14, 15; ! Ste. 111. vi. 57; Zet. 1044; Blanch. 

H. N. iii. 5A:=Leptophlehia, S ^^ 

X marginata. Mill. Pr. 14:2= Potamanthus luteus ? 

X marginata, Gor. & Prit. 61-9, pi. ii. 4-6 ; Bowerb. E. M. i. 239-44, pi. ii. 
1-6; Lacord. ii. 77; Brull(?, Blanch. H. N. i. pi. xxiv.= 
Cloeon dipterum (aqiiat.). 

marocana. Fab. E. S. III. i. ()9=:Polymitarcys (? virgo). 

minima, Lin. v. S. N. 62 ; Miil. Pr. 142 ; Schr. F. B. II. ii. 198 = 
Cainis dimidiata ? 

minor, ! Ste. 111. vi. 60= Leptoplilehia fusca, $ im. 

mutica, Lin. (i.F. S. 52); x. S. N. i. 547; ii. F. S. 1479; (Geof. ii. 240.7) 
=Baetis pumilios, <J subim. ? 

mA)ops, Walsh, Proc. Ent. See. Philad. ii. 207, note 20 ; <? im. 

natata, I Walk.; in Palingenia, Walk.; Hag. Am. Syn. 39; Walsh, 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. Ill =guttulata, $ subim. 

nervosa, Vill. iii. 22 = Heptagenia venosa. 

nigra, Lin. ii. F. S. 1478; xii. S. N. 907; Fab. S. E. 304; (Schaif. 
Ic. ii. pi. cUv. 1,2?); Schr. En. 606 ; Fab. Sp. In. 385, & Mant. i. 
244; Vill. iii. 19; Gmel. 2629; Eos. F. Etr. ii. 8; 01. Enc. Meth. 
vi. 419; Fab. E. S. IIL i. 70; Ced. 135 ; Walck. ii. 9; Lat. H. N. 
xiii. 98 ; Pz. Expl. Sch^f. Ic. cliv. ; Stew. Elem. II. ii. 225 ; Ste. 
111. vi. 67; Blanch. H. N. iii. 54i=Baetis niger, subim. 

X nigra, Fourc. E. Par. ii. ^o2^Leptophlebia cincta, subim. 
nigrimana, Duf. Eech. 580, n. = Heptagenia ( $ , sp. ?) im. 

30 Rev. A. E, Eaton's Monograph 

Ephemeea {continued). 

notata (Zsch. i. 50, No. 16); Gmel. 2630; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 422=Baetis 
hinoculatus, $ im. 

novehoracana, Liclat. Cat. Mus. Holth. iii. 193z:He2otagenia luridipennis ? 
pa/rvula, Scop. E. Cam. 264; Yill. iii. 23; 01. Euc. Meth. vi. 4:21=zCen- 

troptilum luteolam ? 
plumosa, Mill. Pr. 14<2 = Ccenis (sp. ?). 

procella/ria, Schwarz, Nomencl. Eoes. Ins. Bel. pi. xii. ISzzLeptophlehia 
marginata ? 

[p)rocera, 'E.a,g.=Dictyoneura.'] 

pudica, Hag. Am. Syn. 39 ; Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 177 ; ? 
subim.; incertffi sedis. 

Ipusilla, Zet.MS.zzCmnis macrura, $ subim.?] 

reticulata, Fovirc. E. Par. ii. 350=zPotamanthus luteus. 

rosea, ! Ste. 111. vi. b^z^Epliemerella ignita, im. 

rufa, ! Kamb. Nevr. 296=:Hepitagenia venosa, $ im. ? 

rufescens, ! Ste. 111. vi. 59= 'Ephemerella ignita, im. 

[rvp>estris, Hill, Dec. 8; a Trichopteron.'] 

russula, Mill. Pr. 14:3=Cloeon, S iiii- 

serica, 1 nov. sp. 

simulans, ! Walk. Cat. 536; Hag. Am. Syn. S8=guttulata, $ subim. 

speciosa, Pod. Mus. Gr. 98 ; Schr. En. 604 ; Vill. iii. 22 ; 01. Euc. Meth. 
vi. 418; Lat. H. N. xiii. Q7=Baetis, sp. incert. 

stigma (Zsch. i. 50, No. 20); Gmel. 2630; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 422 = Hepta- 
genia lateralis or semicolorata, subim. ? 

II stigma, ! Ste. 111. vi. 56= Lepitojpldehia marginata, $ im. 

striata, Liu. xii. S. N. 907 ; Fab. S. E. 304, & Sp. In. i. 385, & Mant. i. 
244; Berk. Syu. i. 150; VUl. iii. 20; Gmel. 2630; 01. Enc. Meth. 
vi. 420 ; Fab. E. S. III. i. 71 ; Ced. 135 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 99 ; Stew. 
Elem. II. ii. 226=Baeits^u))wZi(.s, $ im. ? 

X striata, Miil. Pr. 143= CZoeon dipterum, $ im. 
X striata, Blanch. H. N. iii. 55=Cloeon russulum, im. ? 
+ striata, Walck. ii. 10=:Baetis hinoculatus, subim.? 
suhmarginata, ! Ste. 111. vi. 58z= Leptophlebia lielvipes, $ im. 
sulphurea, Mul. Pr. 14!2:zHep>tagenia elegans, ? 
Swammerdamiana, Shaw, vi. pi. lxxxii.=seq. 

Swammerdiana, ! Lat. H. N. xiii. 96, & Gen. iii. 184 ; Cuv. E. A. ed. 1, iii. 

430; ed.ii. 244; Lamarck, ed. l,iv. 221; Blanch. E. A. ed. 

Crochard, xiii. 91, & H. N. iii. b-izzPalingenia longicauda. 

talcosa, ! Ste. 111. vi. b7 =: Leptoplilehia marginata, $ im. 

testacea (Zsch. i. 50, No. 17); Gmel. 2630; 01. Enc. Meth. vi. 4,22 = Baetis 

phceops ? 
venosa, (De G. Mem. ii. 625, pi. xviii. 1-4), Fab. S. E. 304, & Sp. In. i. 

384; Thunb. 81; Fab. Mant. i. 243 ; Gmel. 2629; 01. Euc. Meth. 

vi. 418; Fab. E. S. III. i. 70; Lat. H. N. xiii. 97=Heptagenia. 
X venosa, Zet. 1045, ^ =8ipMurus, sp. incert. 

vespertina, Un. (It. CEl. 21; i. F. S. 755); x. S. N. i. 547; ii. F. S. 
1480; (Geof. ii. 239. 4) ; Lin. xii. S. N. 906 ; (De G. Mem. ii. 

on the E^hemeridce. 31 

Ephemkea (continued). 

646, pi. xvii. 11-16); Fab. S. E. 303, & Sp. In.i. 384, & Mant. i. 
243; Berk. Syuop. i. 150?; Vill. iii. 17; Gmel. 2628; Kos. 
F. Etr. ii. 8 ; 01. Euc. Meth. vi. 417 ; Fab. E. S. III. i. 69 ; 
Scbr. F. B. II. ii. 197 ; Ced. 134 ; Walck. ii. 9 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 
95 ; Stew. Elcm. II. ii. 225; Zet. 1045 ; Westw. Introd. ii. fig. 
61, 19 {gi]l) = Le2Jtophlehia (aquat. ? ?), im. 
Virgo, 01., (Glut, title p. fig. & pp. 61, 87, 90?; Mey. 197?; Targ. 
1741, figs, 1, 4 ? ; Eeaum. vi. pis. xlii.-xliv ; Scbief. 1757, 1779, 
Ic. ii. pi. clxxv. 1-3; Abb. iii. 30 pgs. pi. i.); 01. Euc. Metb. 
vi. 419 ; Lat. H. N. xiii. 98, & Nouv. Diet. H. N. x. pi. xix. 5= 
viridescens, Fom-c. E. Par. ii. S51= Leptophlehia marginata, subim. 
vitrea, Zet. I0-io= Leptophlehia cincta, im. 
vitripennis, Blaucb. Cbili, vi. 107, Atl. Nevr. ii. 3; in Ephemera (Che), 

Blaucb. = C?oeon. " 

vtilgata, Liu. (i. F. S. 750; De G. Obs. 463, pi. xvii. 2) ; Liu. x. S. N. 

i. 546; Kr. (1760) 26; Lin. ii. F. S. 1472; Sulz. (1761) 43, pi. 

xvii. 103; Scop. E. Carn. 263 (diagu.\ pi. xxxviii. 683; (Geof. ii. 

238.1); Mill. F. Frid. 63 ; Pont. Nat.' Dan. 223; 

Ixii. 1-3; Liu. xii. S.N. 906; Hout. (1766-9); (De G.Mem.ii.621, 

pis. xvi.-xvii. 1-10); Georg.Bem.i. 190; Fab.S. E. 303; (Scbasf. Ic. 

i. pi. ix. 5-6) ; Mill. Pr. 142 ; Scbr. En. 602; Fab. Sp.In.i. 383; 

Tbunb. 81 ; Fomrc. E. Par. ii. 351 ; Fab. Mant. i. 243; Berk. Sjti. 

i. 150; Vill. iii. 16; (Zscb. i. 50, No. 13) ; Gmel. 2628; Eos. F. 

Etr. ii. 7; 01. Enc. Metb. vi. 417; Fiscb. Vers. 564; Fab. E. 

S. III. i. 68; Scbr. F. B. II. ii. 196; Ced. 134; Walck. ii. 8; 

Lat. H. N. xiii. 94; Pz. Expl. Scbffif. Ic. ix. 5-6, & F. Germ. 

heft. xciv. 16; Shaw, vi. pi. Ixxxi. ; Lat. Gen. iii. 184 ; Leach, E. 

Euc. ix. 137; Guv. E. A. ed. 1, iii. 430; Lamarck, ed. 1, iv. 221 ; 

Stew. Elem. II. ii. 225; Cuv. E. A. ed. 2, v. 244; Guer. Ic. ii. 

pi. Ix. 8 (aquat.); Gray, Grif. CI. lus. ii. pi. xciv. 8 (aquat.); 

! Ste. 111. vi. 55; (Eonalds I., pl. xiv. 30-31) ; Dalbbom, 228; 

Perch, vi. pi. iv. Im. ; Burm. Handb. ii. 804 ; Zet. 1044 ; Voigt, 

V, 311; Her.-Schaf. 346; Blaucb. H. N. iii. 53; Duf. Eecb. 

580, n.; Lat. Nouv. Diet. H. N. x. 348; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3; 

Walk. Cat. 534; Hag. Brit. Syn. 14; Stein, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vii. 

414; Hag. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. 229. 

+ vulgata, Don. B. I. iv. 53, pi. cxxviii.; Sam. E. Comp. 260, pi. vii. 2; 

Wood, ii. 21-3, pi. xlvii. ; Dum. Cons. Gen. 204, pi. xxviii. 4, 5; 

Blanch. E. A. ed. Crochard, xiii. 91, xiv. pi. cii. 1-c ; Newport, 

Tod's Cyc. ii. 864, fig. 345 ; Westw. lutrod. ii. fig. 61, I (the 

abdominal spots being reversed) -15 ; Blanch. H. N. iii. 53; 

! Eamb. Nevr. 293 ; Pict. Ephem. 126, pis. i-vi. ; Eoualds V. 

no. 28; Brau. N. Aust. 25 ; E. Pict. Nevr. d'Esp. 22; Oul. 1867, 

p. 25; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. ldl = danica. 

I vulgata, Wagner, Isis, 1832, p. 332, pi. ii. l=Baetis (aquat.). 

XVI. EpHEMERELLA, Walsh (1862); iu Eji/iewera, c. 3-set., Pod. J Pota- 
manthus, Pict. ; Baetis, Walker. Typ. E. invaria. 

CBnea, Pict. ; in Potamanthus, Pict. 

consimilis, Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Plulad. 1862, p. 378 ; ^ im. 

excrucians, ! Walsh, lib. cit., p. 377, & Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 178= 

gihha, Pict. ; in Potamanthus, Pict. 

ignita, Pod. ; in Ephemera, Pod. 

tni-arta, I Walk. ; iu Baetis, Walk. 

32 Rev. A. E. Eaton's MonograpJi 

Ephokon, ;Will. 
leuJcon, Will. Trans. Am. Soc. Philad. v. 71-3=BaeHs ? 

IX. EuTHTPLOCiA, nov. gen. Typ. E. Hecuba. 
Hecuba, ! Hag. ; in Falingenia, Hag. ; ? im. 

Hemerobius, Glut. cap. viii. fig. & p. 100= Falingenia longicauda. 

XXVI. Heptagenia, Walsh (1863) ; in E^^hemera,'Poda,l Baetis, Sayj 
Falingenia, Walk. Typ. H. flavescens. 
alpicola, ! nov. sp. 

angusti2yennis, ! Eamb. ; in Ephemera, Eamb. ; Baetis, Ed. Pict. 
annulifera, ! Walk. ; in Falingenia, Walk. 
lasalis, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 
BelUeri, ! Hag. ; in Baetis, Hag. 
horealis, 1 nov. sp., (J im. 
canadensis, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 
cruentata, Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 205, note 19. 
cupulata, I nov. sp. 

determinata, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 
elegans. Curt. ; in Baetis, Curt. 
flaveola, Pict. ; in Baetis, Pict. 
flavescens, ! Walsh; in Falingenia (C), Walsh. 
flavipenms, Duf. ; in Ephemera, Duf. 
fluminum, Pict. ; in Baetis, Pict. 
fusca, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 
guttata, Pict. ; in Baetis, Pict. 

insignis, ! (Eonalds I. pi. xi. 22) ; Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 7. 
interpunctata. Say; in Baetis, Say; Falingenia (C), Walsh (1862). 
iridana, Kolen. ; in Baetis, Kolen. 
lateralis, Curt. ; in Baetis, Curt. 
longicauda, ! Ste. ; in Baetis, Ste. 
luridipennis, Burm. ; in Baetis, Burm. 

maculipennis, Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 206, note 19. 
montana, Pict. ; in Baetis, Pict. 
vdgrvmcma, Duf. ; in Ephemera, Duf. ; sp. dub. 
nivata, I nov. sp. 

Ficteti, Meyer-Diir ; in Baetis, Meyer-Diir. 
pulchella, Walsh; in Falingenia (C), Walsh. 
semicolorata. Curt. ; in Baetis, Curt. 
simplex, Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 204, note 19. 
sylvicola, ! Ed. Pict. ; in Baetis, Ed. Pict. 

tessellata, Hag.; in Baetis, Hag.; incertae sedis (perhaps a Leptophlehia). 
torrida, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 
venosa, Fab. ; in Ephemera, Fab. ; Baetis, Ste. 
vica/ria, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 
vitrea, I Walk. ; in Falingenia, Walk. 

on the Ephemeridce. 33 

Heptagenia [contimied). 

volitans, I Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 7, c? im. 

zehrata, ! Hag. ; in Bactis, Hag. 

Vin. Hexagenia, Walsh (1863); in Epheniera, Web. j Baetis, Say; 
Pali7igenia, Pict. 

albivitta, 1 Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 

? at w stoma, Web. ; in Ephemera, Web. 

bilineata. Say; in Baetis, Say; Palingenia, Walsh, 1862. 

decolorata. Hag. ; in Palingenia, Hag. 

Imnlata, ! Guer. ; in Ephemera, Guer. ; Palingenia, Pict. 

XXIII. IsoNTCHiA, nov. gen. Typ. I. manca. 
inan-ca, ! nov. sp. 
ignota, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 

n. Lachlanu, Hag. (1868). Typ. L. ahnormis. 
abnormis, Hag. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1868, p. 372-4, fig. ; 9 i™- 

XII. LEPTOPHLEBLi, Westw. (1840) ; in Ephemera, Reaumur ; Baetis, 
Ste. ; Potamanthus, Pict. ; Palingenia, Walk. 

annulata, ! Hag. ; in Potamanthus, Hag. 

auriculata, ! nov. sp. ; <? im. 

australasica, Pict. ; in Baetis, Pict. 

australis, ! Walk. ; in Ephemera, Walk. 

castanea, Pict. ; in Potamanthus, Pict. 

cincta, Retz. ; in Ephemera, Eetz. 

Colomhim, ! Walk.; in Ephemera, Walk.; Palingenia, Hag. 

costalis, Burm. ; in Baetis, Burm. 

cupida. Say ; in Ephemera, Say ; PotoAnanthus, Hag. 

dentata, ! nov. sp. ; (J im. 

disloca7is, ! Walk. ; in Ephemera, Walk. 

femoralis, Hag. ; in Potamanthus, Hag. 

fusca. Curt. ; in Ephemera, Curt. ; Potamianthus, Pict. 

furcifera, ! nov. sp. ; ^ im. 

helvipes, ! Ste. ; in Ephemera, Ste. 

tri,con.S2)icMa, 1 nov. sp. ; <J im. 

Krueperi, Stein; in Potamanthus, Stein. 

niarginafa, Lin. ; in Ephemera, Lin. ; Potamanthus, Hag. 

7Jiodes<a., ! Hag. ; in Potamanthus, Hag. 

viollis, ! Hag. ; in Cloe, Hag. [not described] . 

nehuhsa, ! Walk. ; in Palingenia, Walk. 

noduZaris, ! nov. sp. ; (J im. 

Picteti, Etn. ; for Potamanthus X marginatus, Pict. 

prisca, Pict. ; in Poiawiarii/ius, Hag. & Pict. 

scita, ! Walk. ; in Baetis, Walk. 

strigata, ! nov. sp. ; $ im. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART I. (mAECH.) D 

34 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Leptophlebia [continued). 

Taprohanes, Walk. ; iu Baetis, Walk. 
vespertina, Lin.; in Ephemera, Lin. ; Cloe, Oul. 

Maceoceecus, Westw. Partingt. Cyc. Nat. Hist. (1836) ii. 439= Ccem*. 

I. Oligoneueia, Pict. (1843-5). 

cmomala, Pict. Ephem. 290, pi. xlvii. ; Walk. Cat. 585 ; Hag. Stet. Eut. 
Zeit. xvi. 269, pi. i. ; Am. Syn. Ust, 304, ; $ im, 

X anomala, Pict. Ephem. pi. xlvi. ; Kirsch. Jahrb. Naturk. Nassau, heft 
ix. 4A-b::zrhenanob. 

pallida, (? Costa, Faun. Asprom. pi. i. 2) ; 0. rhenana, var. pallida, Hag. 
Stet. Ent. Zeit. xvi. 268, pi. i. 

rhenana, Imh. Bericht. x. 180; Hag. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xvi. 267, pi. i. ; Brau. 
N. Aust. 25 ; Mul. Ent. Mo. Mag. i. 262, ii. 182 ; ! Etn. Ent. Mo. 
Mag. V. 83. 

Trimeniana, 1 M'Lachl. Ent. Mo. Mag. iv. 177-8; Etn. op. cit. v. 83 ; $ im. 

OxYCTPHA, Burm. (1839) [misprinted Onycypha, Eamb. Nevr.] zzCcenis. 

discolor, Burm. Handb. ii. 797 = Ccems. 

lactea, Burm. Handb. ii. 796 ; Her.-Schsef. 346; Sieb. Beit. xii. ZzzCoenis 

Iwctuosa, Burm. Handb. ii. 797; Her.-Sch£ef. 346; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3= 
Ccenis, ^ im. 

VI. Palingenia, Burm. (1839) ; in Ephemera, 01. Typ. P. longicauda. 

alha, Say, in Baetis, Say; Hag. Am. Syn. 40=Baetis, 9 • 

albicans, Burm. Handb. ii. 803 ; Pict. Ephem. 149, pi. xiii. 1-3 ; I Walk. 
Cat. 548 (excl. $ ?); Hag. Am. Syn. hst, 304i= Campsii/rus. 

albifilum, ! Walk! Cat. 554 (excl. var.) ; Hag. Am. Syn. list, 304= Cow^'- 

X alhifilum var., ! Walk. loc. cit.^Asthenopus curtus, $ im. 
anmulifera, ! Walk. Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. v. IQQ—Heptagenia, ? im. 

atrostoma, Web., in Ephemera, Web. ; Pict. Ephem. 157 ; Walk. Cat. 550 ; 

Hag. Am. Syn. Ust ZO-^^Uexagenia ? 
hicolor, ! Walk. Cat. 552 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 4:Z-=:8iphlurus, ? subim. 

hilineata. Say, in Baetis, Say ; Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, 
p. 373, & Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 174-5, 189, 199= Hex agenia. 
X hilineata. Hag. Am. Syn. 4!lz=Hexagenia limhata, 
ColomhioB, ! Walk.; Hag. Am. Syn. list, 304!=Leptop>hlehia, $ subim. 
concinna, ! Walk. Cat. b53=:LeptopMehia cupida, $ im. 

continua, ! Walk. Trans. Eut. Soc. N. S. v. 199z=Hexagenia alhivitta, 
S im. 

curta, ! Hag. Am. Syn. Ust, 304; for alhifilum, var., W&lk. =Asthenopus. 

decolor ata. Hag. Am. Syn. 4Z=:Hexagenia, $ subim. 

dorsalis, Burm. Handb. ii. 803, 1015; Pict. Ephem. 153, pi. xUi. 5; Walk. 
Cat. 549; Hag. Am. Syn. list, ZOi= Asthenopus, $ . 

[dorsigera, Hag. Am. Syn. Ust ; not described.] 

flavescens, ! Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 373, & Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 177 =Heptagenia. 

on the Ephem&)'idm. 35 

Palinoenia [continued,). 

ftUiginosa, Georg. ; ia Ejohemera, Georg.=:longicauda. 

gigas. Hag. Verb, zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, 1854, p. 227; iucertte sedis. 

Heciiba, ! Hag. Am. Syn. i^O=Enthyplocia, $ im. 

Iwraria, Burm. Handb. ii. 802; Her.-Scbasf. 346; Sieb. Beit. xii. 3; Hag. 

Stet. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. 229 ; Loew, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xvi. 

947= Po?iy )» itarcys virgo. 

hmneralis, ! Walk. Cat. 55'2=:Colohurus, 9 subim. 

indica, Pict. Epbem. 151, pi. xiii. 4; Walk. Cat. 54:9zzPolymita/rcys, ? im. 

interpunctata, Say, in Baetis, Say; Walsb, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 
1862, p. 374, & Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbilad. ii. 177, 190= Hopta- 


lata, ! Walk. Cat. 550, ^ . 

latipennis, ! Walk. Cat. 554 (excl. var.) ; Hag. Am. Syn. list, ZOizzCamp- 
surus, im., subim. 

limbata, ! Pict. Epbem. 146, pi. xii. ; Walk. Cat. 548 ; ! Walsb, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 373, & Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbilad. 
ii. 176, 199, witb No. 4-=Hexa^enia, 

X limhata, Hag. Am. Syn. 4:2z=Hexagenia hilineata. 

hngicauda, 01., in Epliemera, 01. ; (Swam. 1675 ; ed. Tyson, p. 44, pi. i.- 
V. 2 [aqnat.] pi. v. 1, 3 et seq.-viii. [aer.] ; Bleguy, 1680; 
Scbfef. Ic. iii. pi. ceiv. 3) ; Burm. Handb. ii. 803 ; Her.-Scbffif. 
346; Pict. Epbem. 155, pis. xiv, xiv bis, xvi.; Corn. (1818) '; 
Walk. Cat. 549; Hag. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xv. 316-9, xx. 431; 
Loew, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xi. 409-10. 

fnacrops, Pict. Trait, d. Paleont. II. ii. 371 ; Hag. Verb, zool.-bot. Ver. 
Wien, 1854, p. 227; Pict. & Hag., Org. Rest, im Berns. ii. 74, 
pi. vi. 2 b., pi. viii. 5=PoJijinitarcys. 

natata, ! Walk. Cat. 551= Ephemera gv,ttidata, $ subim. 

nehulosa, ! Walk. Cat. 55'i=Leptophlehia, $ im. 

occultata, ! Walk. Cat. 551; Hag. Am. Syn. 4;3=Hexagenia hiUneata, ? 

pallipes, ! Walk. Cat. 55S=Leptophleiia eupida, $ • 

puella, Pict. Epbem. 145, pi. xi. 4-5 ; Walk. Cat. 548 ; Hag. Am. Syn. 40 
= Campsurus, $ im. .f" 

pulchella, Walsb, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 375, & Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Pbilad. ii. 177, 20B=Heptagenia. 

yai'igmj/t, Pict. Epbem. 157 ; Walk. Cat. 550 [not described] =:PoZi/»n'ia.rc!/s. 

terminata, Walsb, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 376, & Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Pbilad. ii. 177 = neptagenia pulchella ? 

[wnhrata, Hag. Am. Syn. list, 304; not described.] 

virgo, 01., in Ephemera, 01. ; Pict. Epbem. 141, pi. ix-xi. 3 ; ViUa, 1847, 
1-6; Walk. Cat. 547 ; Letzner, 1854 ; Brau.N. Aust. 25; Oul. 1867, 
p. 26; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 132 = Poly mitarcys. 

viridescens, ! Walk. Cat. 550= Hexagenia hilmeata, 9 subim. 

vittigera, ! Walsb. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad. 1862, p. 373, & Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Pbilad. ii. 174:= Pentagenia. 

vitrea, ! Walk. Cat. 555=Eeptagenia, $ subim. 

2 D 

36 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

VII. Pentagenia, Walsh (1863); iu Palingenia (A), Walsh (1862), 
Typ. P. vittigera. 

quadripunctata, Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 198, note 16 j subim., 
9 im. 

vittigera, ! Walsh ; in Palingmia, Walsh. 

V. PoLYMiTARCYS, Etu. (1868); in Ephemera, 01. ; Palingenia, Burm. 
Typ. P. vinjo. 

in(licu$,Tic,i.; in Palingenia, Pici.; $ im. 

macrops. Hag. ; in Palingenia^, Hag. 

Sojvignii, ! nov. sp. (Savigny, pi. ii. 5, Ephemera; iu Palingenia, Pict. ; not 

described) . 
virgo, 01. ; in Ephemera, 01. ; PoMngenioj, Pict. 

XI. PoTAiviANTHUs, Pict. (1843-5) ; restricted, Etu. (1868); in Ephemera, 
auct. — Typ. P. luteus. 

ceneus, Pict. Ephem. 229, pi. xxxiii. ; Walk. Cat. 545 — E'p/iemereZZa, ? im. 

annulatus, Hag. Ceyl. Syn. i. ^IQ—Leftophlehia, S ■ 

apicalis, Ste., vn Ephemera, Ste.; Pict. Ephem. 236; Walk. Cat. 544 = 
Epheinerella ignita, <? im. 

brunneus, Pict. Ephem. 217, pi. xxvii. ; Walk. Cat. 542 z: Leptophlebia 

castaneus, Pict. Ejihem. 215, pi. xxvi. 4, 5 ; Walk. Cat. 54f2=:Leptophlehia, 

$ im. 
cinctus, Eetz., in Ephemera, Retz. ; Pict. EjDhem. 219, pi. xxviii. (excl. 5) ; 
Walk. Cat. 543; Brau. N. Aust. 27; Hag. Brit. Syn. 20; Ausser. 
Neur. Tirol. Id7 = Leptophlehia. 
concinnus, \ Walk., in Palingenia, Walk.; Hag. Am. Syn. 5l = L&pito- 
phlehia eupida, g im. 

costalis, Burm., in Baetis, Bnrm. ; Pict. Ephem. 237 ; Walk. Cat. 546 = 

Leptophlebia, subim. 
cupidus, Say, in Ephe)iiera, Say; Hag. Am. Syn. 51; Walsh, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 372, & Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 172, 
189, 194, notes 14, 15 = Leptophlebia. 
dilutus, Ste., in Ephemera, Ste.; Walk. Cat. 545; Hag. Brit. Syn. 19; 

[misprinted dilectus, Pict. Ephem. 236J zzEphemerella ignita. 
dispar, ! Ste., in Ephemera, Ste.; Pict. Ephem. 234; Walk. Cat. 542 = 

Leptophlebia helvipes, $ im. 
erytlvrophthalmus, Sehr., in Ephemera, Schr. ; Pict. Ephem. 222, pi. xxix. 
(misprinted erythrocephalus) aquat., pi. xxx. ; Walk. Cat. 
544; Hag. Brit. Syn. 21=: Epheinerella ignita. 

exspectans, ! Walk. Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. v. 198= Ephemera, $ subim. 

fasciatus, ! Hag. Ceyl. Syn. i. 4^7 6= Ephemera. 

femoralis, Hag. loc. cit.=.Leptophlebia. 

Ferreri, Pict. Ephem. 203, pi. xxv. 1; Walk. Cat. 539; «? im. 

fuscus, Curt., in Epheynera, Curt.; Pict. Ephem. 235; Walk. Cat. 543; 

Hag. Brit. Syn. 19= Leptophlebia. 
Geerii, Pict. Ephem. 211, pi. xxvi. 1-3; Walk. Cat. 541; Brau. N. Aust. 
27; Hag. Brit. Syn. 18; Ausser. Neur. Tirol. 136=Le2}top)hlehia 
gibhus, Pict. Ephem. 226, pi. xxxi.-xxxii. (aer.) ; Walk. Cat. 544=£'p7ie- 

halteratus. Fab., in Ephemera, Fab. ; Pict. Ephem. 236 ; Walk. Cat. 546= 
Leptophlebia cincta, $ im. 

on the Ephemeridce. 37 

PoTAMANTHUs (continued) . 

hdvqjes, ! Ste., in Ephemera, Ste. ; Pict. Ephem. 235; Walk. Cat. 543 = 

Leptophlebia, $ im. 
hyalinus, Zet, in Ephemera [hyalinata'] , Zei. ; Pict. Ephem. 237 = I'epfo- 

phlebia cincta. 
inanis, Gmel., in Ephemera, Cxmel. ; Pict. Ephem. 235; Walk. Cat. 544 = 

Leptophlebia cincta, $ im. 
II inanis, Pict. Ephem. 232, pi. xxiv. 4; Walk. Cat. 547; iucerta) sedis 

(allied to Tricorythus) ; Gen. XIII. 
Krueperi, Stein, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vii. A-li^— Leptophlebia? , im. 
luteus, Lin., in Ephemera, Lin. ; Pict. Ephem. 205, pi. xxv. 2, 3 ; Walk. 

Cat. 539 ; Hag. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. 229. 
marginatus, Lin., in Epliemeroj, Lin. ; Hag. Brit. Syn. 17, & Stet. Ent. 

Zeit. xxvi. 229:= Leptophlebia. 
I marginatus, Pict. Ephem. 208, pi. xxv. 4, 5 ; Walk. Cat. 540 ; ? Oul. 

1867, p. 27 =: Leptophlebia Picteti. 
wmor, ! Ste., in Ephe^ner a, Ste.; Pict. Ephem. 237; Walk. Cat. 546= 

Leptop>hlebia fusca, $ im. 
modestus, ! Hag. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1864, p. 39= Leptophlebia. 
nebulosus, ! Walk., in Palingenia, Walk. ; Hag. Am. Syn. 52 ; Walsh, 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. ii. 193, note 13, 194, note 15= Lepto- 
phlebia, (J im. 
odonatus, Walsh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 372, & Proc. Eut. 

Soc. Philad. ii. 17l = nebulosus, S im. 
priscm, Pict. Trait, d. Paleont. II. ii. 371 ; Hag. Verh. zool.-bot. Ver. 
Wieu, 1854, p. 227 ; Pict. & Hag. Org. Eeste im Bernst. ii. 77, pi. 
vi. 3, h= Leptophlebia. 
rose^^,s, Ste., in Ephemera, Ste.; Pict. Ephem. 236; Walk. Cat. 545 = 

Ephemerella ignita, im. 
sii(7ma, ! Ste., in Ephemera, Ste.; Pict. Ephem. 235; Walk. Cat. 541 = 

Leptophlebia marginata, $ im. 
submarginatus, ! Ste., in Ephemera, Ste.; Pict. Ephem. 236; Walk. Cat. 

54-5 =Leptop)hlebia helvipes, $ im. 
talcosus,\ Ste., in Epihemera, Ste. ; Pict. Ephem. 234; Walk. Cat. 541 = 
Leptophlebia marginata, $ im. 

X Semblis, Pz. Expl. Schasf. Ic. 
X marginata, Pz. op. cit. Ic. cciv. =Palingenia longicauda. 

XXI. SiPHLUKUs, Etn. (1868) [mis-spelt Siphlonurus] ; in Baetis, 
Say; Ephemera, Zet. ; Palingema, Walk. Tj-p. S.flavidus. 
altematus. Say; in Baetis, Say; Baetis (A), Walsh. 
annulatus, ! Walk ; in Baetis, Walk. 
? aridus, Say; in Baetis, Say; Baetis (B), Walsh. 
armatus, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 6 ; (J im. 
bicolor, ! Walk.; in Palingenia, Walk. 
? debilis, Walsh; in Baetis (C), Walsh. 
femoratus, Say ; in Baetis, Say ; Baetis (A), Walsh. 
Jlavidus, ! Ed. Pict.; in Baetis, Ed. Pict. 
lacustris, ! Etn. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 7. 
Linna;anus, ! nov. sp. ; <? im. 
? siccus, Walsh; in Baetis (B), Walsh. 

XIV. Tricorythus, Etn. (1868); in Ejjhemera, Sayv^ny, Co-'/m's, Pict. 
varieavda, Pict., (Savigny, pi. ii. 6, 7); in Ccenis, Pict. 

38 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Fossil Ephemeridce. 

The oldest known fossil of this Family has been dis- 
covered in the Solenhofen slate. It is a fragment of a 
wing [PL I. fig. 10] and is in the British Museum. The 
best preserved of the extinct Epliemeridce are those found 
in Stettin Amber. These species are such as would be 
likely to occur in a large river. They differ but slightly 
from extant species, and some of them are referable to 
recent European genera. 

Many remains of insects from formations older than 
the Tertiary have been referred to the Ephemericl ce , but 
with doubtful accuracy. The following works contain 
notices of such fossils. 

1845. Brodie's History of Fossil Insects, p. 127, pi. x. 4. [The actual 
specimen is in the British Museum ; it exhibits an affinity to the Plani- 

1856. P. Goldenburg, in Bunker & Meyer's Paleontographica, iv. 
33-5, 111. iii. 5 & vi. 5, 6, described and figui'ed three species of a genus 


[I consider this genus not to belong to the Epliemeridce, becaiise the 
subeosta ends abruptly at the nodus in the anterior wing ; and because 
the thickened basal veiulet is absent. Dr. Dohrn ranks it with Ev.gereon.'] 

1861. H. A. Hagen, in Meyer's Paleontogr. x. 115-118, pi. xv. 2, 3, 5, 
described and figixred Ephemera cellulosa, E. ? procera, and E. mortua, 
together with E. prisca (Syn. Sciaria prisca, Germar, Nov. Act. Leopold. 
xix. 211-212, pi. xxiii. 11 ; Id., Giebel, Insect, d. Vorwelt, p. 230 ; Deutschl. 
Petrefakt, p. 640). [Cellulosa and procera have since been referred to 
Bictyoneura. It is impossible to determine the nature of the others, 
from the figixres.] 

1864. J. D. Dana, in Silliman's American Journal of Science, xxxvii. 
34, described the genera Miamia and Hemeristia. 

[In 1866, Mr. S. H. Scudder erected a Family Paleopterina for these. 
Dr. Brauer, in 1866, cited them amongst the EpthemeridcF. Perhaps 
these genera are related to the Planipeymia, as Mr. M'Lachlau suggests, 
or perhaps (but this is hardly probable) to Bictyoneuroj.'] 

1868. Dr. A. Dohrn, in Meyer's Paleontogr., gave a figure and de- 
scriijtion of Eugereon Bceckingii. [He referred it to the same gi'oup as 
Bictyoneura. Dr. Brauer, in the same year, ranked it amongst the 
Ephemeridce. The condition of the mouth-organs clearly separates it 
from the Ephemeridce ; and the neuration of the wings favours Dr. Dohrn's 
determination of its relationship.] 

1867. J. W. Dawson, in the Geological Magazine, iv. 385-388, pi. xvii. 
1-5, described and figured Haplophlehium Barnesii, Platepheniera antiqua, 
Honwthetas fossilis, and Xenonewa a.ntiquorum. [They have all been 
regarded as allies of the Epliemeridm. Haplophlehium, however, on 
account of the well-marked nodus in the fore-wing, and the character of 
the reticulation between the principal longitudinal nerviires is, I think, 
related to Bictyoneura and Eugereon: Platephemera and Homothetus may 
possibly be of the Epihemeridce, biit there is nothing in the figures to make 
this certain : and there is no reason for considering that Xenon.eura be- 
longs to this Family.] 

on the Ephemeridoe. 39 

1868. S. H. Scudder, in Geol. Mag. v. 175-7, and 218-19, catalogued 
three genera in addition to those of Prof. Dawson's paper. [" Gereplie- 
inera simjplex is represented by a slight fragment of the tip of a wing ; the 
wing must have been large and broad ; the veins distant, weak and simple. 
It is apparently a member of the family Ephemerina.^' Platephemera an- 
tiqua is referred to the same family, although the base of the wing is 
wanting, as well as a piece of the tip. A fragment of what is " probably " 
a portion from the middle of a wing is named Dyscritius vetustiis, not- 
withstanding that "it is impossible to determine " from it " either the 
approximate size of the insect, or the family to which it belongs." Li- 
thentomurn Hartii is also described. Mr. Scudder correctly observes at p. 
218, that Pal ephemera medimva, Hitchcock (previously named Mormolu- 
coides amtiquorum, Hitchcock) is not a nymph of an Ephemerid] . 

1868. S. H. Scudder described, in the Paleontology of Illinois, p. 571-2, 
figs. 8-10, a genus Euphemerites with two species, E. gigas and affinis, 
which he ranks among the EphemeridcB. 

Palaeontologists have adopted a ridiculous course with 
regard to some insect fossils. Whenever an obscure 
fragment of a well-reticulate insect's wing is found in a 
rock, a genus is straightway set up, and the fossil named 
as a new species. The species is then referred to the 
EphemcriclcB, and is immediately pronounced to be a syn- 
thetic type of insects at present distantly related to one 
another in organization. This enunciation of synthetic 
types is often nothing less than a resort to random con- 
jecture respecting the affinities of animals which the 
writer is at a loss to classify. An insect allied to the 
Ephemeridce which chirped like a Locust (such as Xeno- 
ncura is imagined to have been), is a tolerable sample of 
these synthetic types. 

When a fossil comprises only a fragment, or even a 
complete wing of an Ephemerid, it is hai"diy possible to 
determine the geims, and impossible to assert the species. 
The utmost that can be learned from such a specimen is 
the approximate relations of the insect. Neuration by 
itself is not sufficient to define the species or even the 
genera of recent EphemeridcB. 

The following list contains the names of the fossils 
hitherto reputed Ephemeridce upon questionable grounds. 
I shall take no further notice of them. 

Genus Dictyoneura, Goldenb. 1856. 

anthracophila, Goldenb. 1856. 
cellulosa, Hag. 1861. 
Humholdtiana, Goldenb. 1856. 
lihelluloidyes, Goldenb. 1856. 
procera, Hag. 1861. 

40 Eev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Genus Dysceitius, Scud. 1868. 
vetustus, Scud. 1868. 

Genus Ephemera, Hag. 1861 ; (nee Lin.). 
cellulosa, Hag. lSQ\ = Bictyonev/i-a. 
? mortua, Hag. 1861 ; incertae sedis. 
prisca, Germar, Hag. 1861 ; vide Sciaria. 
procera, Hag. 1861 = Dictyoneura. 

Genus Eugereon, Dolim. 
BcecMngii, Dohrn, 1868. 

Genus Ephemeeites, Geinitz, Hag. 1865 ; in Leonhard & Geinitz, Jahrb. 
f. Mineral. &c., 1865, p. 385 [Brauer] . 

Genus Euphemebites, Scud. 1868. 
affinis, Scud. 1868. 
gigccs, Scud. 1868. 

Genus Gekephemeea, Scud. 1868. 
simplex, Scud. 1868. 

Genus Haplophlebitjm, Dawson, 1867. 
Barnesii, Dawson, 1867. 

Genus Hemeeistia, Scud. 1864. 
Brownsoni, Scud. 1864. 

Genus Homothettjs, Dawson, 1867. 
fossilis, Dawson, 1867. 

Genus Lithentomum, Scud. 1868. 
Hartii, Scud. 1868. 

Genus Miamia, Scud. 1864. 
Brownsoni, Scud. 1864. 

Genus Moemolucoides, Hitchcock. 
antiquorum, Hitchcock. 

Genus Palephemeea, 'H.itchcock=Mormolucoides. 
medioBva, Hitchcock zzJf. antiquorum. 

Genus Platephemeea, Dawson, 1867. 
antiqua, Dawson, 1867. 

Genus Scueia, Germar. 
prisca, Germar ; cf. Ephemera, Hag.; incertfe sedis. 

Genus Xenoneuea, Dawson, 1867. 
antiquorum, Dawson, 1867. 


on the EpliemeridcB. 41 


(Arkipteea, Brulle ; Anisopteba, Stephens) . 

The Ephemeridce arehexapod insects whicli have many- 
jointed caudal setas ; which cai-ry their fore-wings erect 
and unfolded; and which in the imago have abortive 
mouth organs. 

Antennte aristate ; the basal two joints the largest, the 
bristle many-jointed. Ocelli three. Oculi compound or 
complex. Legs slender, the anterior pair the longest; 
tarsi distinctly jointed, terminated by claws. Anter- 
ior wings large, creased lengthwise, but never folded 
together ; costa united by a stout cross-veinlet to the 
radius near the base of the wing ; subcosta uninterrupted 
at the nodus. Posterior wings sometimes absent, some- 
times rudimentary, at the utmost small. Abdomen ten- 
jointed: the first abdominal segment joined immoveably 
to the metathorax ; the ninth provided in the male with 
a pair of abdominal legs in the foi'm of claspers (forceps); 
the tenth bearing (two at the fewest, three at the most) 
multiarticulate caudal setae, which are used as balancers ; 
the alimentary canal straight, apparently destitute of 
salivary glands, and inflated with gas; many short ex- 
cretory tubules are appended to the large intestine ; the 
penis is situate at the apex of the ninth segment, and 
is either hidden or exposed ; the oviducts terminate in 
the joining of the eighth and seventh segments. 

In coition, the male flies under the female and seizes 
her prothorax with his elongate anterior legs, simulta- 
neously bending the tip of his abdomen upwards and 
forwards, and clasping the proper segment of her body 
with his forceps. During their connexion, which is of 
brief duration, the pair are chiefly supported by the female, 
and they gradually descend slowly in the air, sometimes 
even to the ground. When they separate, the male 
rejoins his companions. The female retires to the water, 
and deposits the eggs impregnated, settling again and 
again upon the surface of the water with extended setse, 
until the extruded eggs become detached from the rest. 
This done, she, in some genera, returns to the general 
assembly, and " pairs again, and then again deposits 
eggs ; and so on, until all the eggs are disposed of : thus 
the same female may be served by several males ; and like- 
^vise the same male may frequently serve several females. 

42 Eev. A. E. Eaton^s Monograph 

not being exhausted by one union. But in other genera, 
the coitus once consummated, the eggs are deposited in 
one mass altogether. 

The egg laid in the water, after some time develops 
into a nymph, which at first has only the two outer 
caudal setfB, and respires through the integument at 
large. But, subsequently, when the nymph increases in 
bulk, special breathing organs grow out from the pos- 
tero-lateral region of some of the abdominal segments, 
as well as from the hinder segments of the thorax. 
These are usually lamellar in form, and nearly always 
external. The thoracic out-growths persist as the wings ; 
those belonging to the abdominal segments are deci- 
duous with the integument, and they are not reproduced 
after the insect emerges from the water as the sub-imago. * 
A cloaca at the end of the intestine is a supplementary 
breathing organ. From the tenth segment, between the 
two set£e first formed, a third seta grows, which in some 
genera is afterwards cast oS" at the same time as the 
mouth-organs, and the gills. The tarsi are jointless, 
and end in a moveable claw. The food of the insect is 
obtained from the large quantities of mud which it 

The adult nymph sometimes floats on the surface of the 
water, with the dorsum of the thorax exposed to the air, 
buoyed up by gas which at that time accumulates be- 
tween the old and the young integuments, and in the 
emptied alimentary canal: and sometimes it crawls a 
short distance out of the water. In either case, the, 
thorax opens along the middle dorsal suture. Through 
this opening the subimago extricates its head and fore- 
legs from the old skin : the wings suddenly expand fully ; 
the hinder legs are freed, and then the insect creeps out, 
and files heavily to some convenient resting place, where 
on alighting it assumes the posture characteristic of its 
genus. In some genera, the subimago is the permanent 
aerial state of the female ; in most cases, however, the 
subimaginal pellicle is cast sooner or later, according to 
the temperature of the air and the habit of the genus. 
The dingy appearance of the subimago, the comparative 
shortness of its setae and tarsi, and the ciliate terminal 
border of the wings, nearly always distinguish it from the 

* The term " pseudimago " used by some authors is spurious, and " sub- 
imago" has precedence over "pro-imago." 

on the Ephemeridce . 43 

It is well known that, in some genera, differences be- 
tween the sexes are apparent in the oculi, setse, and 
tarsi. The oculi are always smallest in the female, and 
in the male are sometimes divided into two parts. The 
female usually has shorter setge than the male. The 
middle seta is often shorter than the two outer setae, or 
altogether absent. Sometimes the male wants the middle 
seta, whilst the female has it equal to, or only shorter 
than, the others ; frequently neither sex possesses the 
central seta. The proportions of the tarsal joints of the 
male are not the same as those of the female ; and his 
anterior legs exceed hers in length. 

The composition of the abdomen of Ephemeridce has 
been the subject of much dispute. Some consider it to 
be ten-jointed, others reckon nine joints. The ''tenth 
joint" throughout this paper means the dorsal arcus 
immediately above the set», the part from which the 
seta3 proceed, and the ventral arc often formed of two 
valve-like pieces under the anus — the intermediate appen- 
dices of M. Pictet. The ninth joint is that which bears 
the forceps in the male, and which, in the female, is 
sometimes prolonged behind into a broad lobe beneath, 
concealing the tenth joint. This lamina has been mis- 
taken for the egg- valve in some species. The eighth 
joint is the first posterior to the opening of the oviducts. 
From the apical edge of the seventhjoint, beneath, the egg- 
valve grows out. The next five segments are not pecu- 
liar in point of structure. The first joint is immoveably 
united with the metathorax, and often resembles it in 
colour. Hence certain Entomologists have reckoned 
this joint a part of the thoracic region. That this joint 
1 belongs to the abdomen may, however, be demonstrated 
in the nymphs of some genera, in which it is furnished 
vnth a moveable pair of branchial plates. Now the 
branchial out-growths of the thorax are always fixtures 
in the nymph. In certain four-\\anged genera, those 
branchial plates of the first segment are present, and may 
be contrasted with the rudimentary hind-wings. 

In drying, the colour and form of Ephemeridce soon 
change. Colour is of little importance, even in fresh 
examples ; but form is necessary to the distinguishing 
of the species. They are, therefore, best preserved in a 
liquid. It is sufficient for ordinary purposes, to dip the 
freshly-killed specimen into dilute spirits, and then 


Rgv. a. E. Eaton's Monograph 

transfer it to a tube, or homoeopathic globule bottle, 
partly filled with water. Next, Price's glycerine is added 
to the water, — one or two drops a day, — until the bottle 
is gradually filled. A small drop of acetic acid may be 
added finally, to prevent the growth of mould. The 
name of the species may be written on the disk of the 
cork, the date and locality of capture round its side. 
Hind-wings of the species of Baetis and Gentroptilum 
should be mounted on slips of glass, for microscopical 
examination. Pinned specimens are often difficult to 
determine, in consequence of their shrinking ; to card 
them is to render them fit for nothing. 


Symbol a ( ) species fossiles, [ ] nondescriptas, claudunt. 

Oligoneuria . . 



Asthenopus .... 
Polymitarcys . . 



Hexagenia .... 
Euthyplocia . . 


Potamanthus . 
Leptophlebia I 

,, n 

» ni 

» IV 


Genus [XIII].. 

Tricorytliiis ... 


Ephemerella .. 






Genus [XXII]. 




Heptagenia . . 






2 ? 























7 + (l) 





















13+ [2] 







1 + ?1 









on the Bphemeridce. 


Symbola ( ) species fossiles, [ ] ambigue definitas, claudunt. 


anomala . 


rhenana . 


[pallida] . 




abuormis . 


latipennis . 


albifiliim . 


albicans . 




quadridentatus . 

)> ? 

[pueUa] . 





Polymitarcys virgo 


Savignil . 








lata . 


vittigera . 


quadripunetata . 


albivitta . 








biliueata . 

Eutbyplocia Hecuba . 




guttulata . 


flaveola . 


[myops] . 





glaucops . 








Potamanthus luteus 



Eio Janeiro. 
Germany ; Turin. 

Umroti District, Natal. 
Sautarem, Brazil. 
New Orleans. 

France; Germany; Madrid. 
The Nile. 
Fossil in Amber. 
Central Europe ; Caucasus, 
Silhet ; Sarawak. 
Illinois ; Texas. 

The Amazons ; Texas. 

Matamcras; Tamaulipas. 
Texas ; Illinois ; Maryland. 
Hudson's Bay Ter. ; Canada ; Texas ; 
Mexico ; Illinois. 

Vera Cmz ; Mexico ; Veragua. 

Northern & Central Europe. 

Albany Eiver; Canada; Northern United 

Illinois ; New York. 

S. England ; France ; Switzerland. 
Northern & Central Europe & Spain. 
Moscow ; Germany ; Switzerland ; North 

Cuna, Hindostan. 

Ceylon ; Masuri, North India. 
North China. 

England ; France ; Germany. 


Rev. A. 

E. Eaton's Monograph 

Leptophlebia aiistralis . 




Sidney ; (Moreton Bay ? ). 


fiircifera . 

Melbourne ? 






New Zealand. 



North Australia. 


[costalis] . 

New Holland. 


nodularis . 

Christ Church, New Zealand. 



New Zealand. 





annixlata . 

Eainbodde, Ceylon. 


femoralis . 

Eainbodde, Ceylon. 


dislocans . 

Cape of Good Hope. 


auriculata . 

Cape of Good Hope. 


Colombiae . 

British Colombia. 


marginata . 

Temperate & Arctic Europe & America. 


helvipes . 

Gt. Britain ; Germany ; Switzerland. 


castanea . 

Villeneuve, Vaud. 


Krueperi . 







Fossil in Amber. 



Northern & Temperate Europe. 


vespertina . 




West Farms, New York. 



Nova Scotia ; Cincinnati ; Washington. 


nebulosa . 

Albany Eiver ; Illinois. 



Gt. Britain ; Switzerland. 


modesta . 

Carinthia ; Corsica. 

Cxen. XIII. 



Tricorythus varicauda . 

Upper Egypt. 


maerura . 

Temperate Europe. 



) England ; Prussia ; Geneva. 


dimidiata . 

Temperate Europe. 


diminuta . 

E. Florida. 





perpusiUa . 



[discolor] . 

Cape of Good Hope. 








luctuosa . 

England ; Berlm ; L. of Thun. 

EphemereUa ignita 

Temperate Europe ; Madrid. 



VUleneuve, Vaud. 


aenea . 

Mt. Saleve, Geneva. 



Nova Scotia ; Illinois. 






Illinois ; Indiana ; Upper California. 


dipterum . 

Europe ; the Madeiras ; Egypt. 








on the Ephemeridce. 




France ; near Paris ? 


russuliim . 

Europe ; North China. 


mendax . 











Centroptilum luteolum 

Alten ; Temperate Europe. 





lituratum . 

Mt. Saleve, Geneva. 





biuoculatus . 

Temperate & Arctic Europe ; Hudson's 
Bay Territory. 





scambus . 



finitimus . 

Val Montjoie. 




Kbodani . 

Temperate Europe ; the Madeiras. 








buceratus . 



amnicus . 

Mt. Blanc District. 



Mt. Brevent, Val de Chamounix, 



Val d'Entremont ; Faucigny. 


pumilua . 

Temperate Europe ; Madrid ; Corsica. 


niger . 

England ; ? Sweden. 






incog. (Europe). 





posticatus . 



unicolor . 

Illinois ; Washington ; ? Porto Eico, 




„ ? 

[verticis] . 



pygmfeus . 

The S. Lawrence. 


fluctuans . 







Bed Kiyer ; New York ; Mexico. 


fasciatus . 





., ? 


Winnepeek Eiver. 


[Ephoron leuko 

n] Belville on the Passaick. 


flavidug . 



annatus . 

Ireland; England. 


lacustris . 






annulatus . 

Trenton Falls, New York. 


[bicolor] . 

Albany Eiver. 


femoratus . 

lUinois ; Ohio. 


altematus . 

Illinois; S. Peter's Eiver ; Washington. 



Illinois ; Indiana. 


Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 1 

Siphlurus ? 


Illinois. 1 1 




Gen. XXII. 


Eainbodde, Ceylon. 





[solida] . 



[signata] . 








„ ? 

[ignota] . 

? United States. 



Otago, New Zealand. 


haleuticus . 

? Melbourne. 



Fossil in Amber. 



Gt. Britain ; Switzerland ; Austria. 



Versoix, Lake Leman. 



Mt. Blanc District. 








Albany Eiver. 


cupulata . 

N. Cbina. 



Lake Winnipeg. 



Illinois ; New York. 


cruentata . 






pulchella . 







Illinois; Indiana. 


flavescens . 




Albany Eiver. 






England; France; Switzerland. 



Temperate Europe ; Hammerfest. 


fliiminiini . 

Germany ; Lake Leman. "" 


sylvicola . 

Spain. J 


volitans . 

England. ^ 



Mt. Blanc District ; Carinthia. /i 









Albany Eiver ; S. Lawrence. 



Tennessee ; West Farms, New York. 



Canada. ' 

,9 ? 

[tessellata, Hag 

] Puget Sound ; Washington. 



Scandinavia; Corsica; and Temperate 



Gt. Britain. 





Picteti . 

Tessin ; Ober Engadine. 


insignis . 



montana . 

Mt. Brevent ; Austria. 


lateralis . 

England, Wales ; Carinthia ; ? L. Leman ; 


[Bellieri] . 


on the Epliemcruhv. 49 






" Circa aqiiaeductxim Fodinarum Idren 



Valdivia, Chili. 



Philippine Isles. 




Thus, the number of described recent species of Ephe- 
merld((i is about 178, exclusive of ten which are either 
hardly determinable, or probably mere conditions of well- 
characterised forms which have been otherwise named. 
There are three fossil species determinable. 

Epheheeidaeum genekum kecentium summa analytica. 

Metathoracic w-iugs present 4 

Metathoracic wings wanting 2 

3 long subeqiaal caudal setae 3 

2 long caudal setas ; the third rejected ; Gen. XXII. $ ? ; 
Cloeon, PI. II. f. 7. 

Cross-veiulets of wings numerous towards the anterior margin ; 

Gen. XIII; Tricorythus, PI. II. f. 3. 
Cross-veinlets of wings disposed in very few transverse rows ; 

Canis, PI. II. f. 4. 

Longitudinal ueuration of posterior wings considerably complex 7 
Longitudinal ueuration of posterior wings sjDarse (2-3 principal 

uervui'es only) ......... 5 

Lateral margins of the hinder abdominal segments simple . 6 

Lateral margins of the hinder abdominal segments produced 

into a slender subulate process on each side ; LacMania, 

PI. I. f. 1 ; Oligoneuria, PI. I. f. 2. 

\\ C Posterior wings very narrow ; Centroptilum, PI. II. f. 8. 

6 ) Posterior wings oblong, obtuse ; Gen. XXII. $ ? ; Baetis, PI. 

( II. f. 9, PI. in. f. 1. 

r. ( Posterior pairs of legs well developed 10 

' ( Posterior pairs of legs very short and feeble .... 8 

C Cross-veinlets in the marginal area before the nodus of the an- 
t. \ terior wing, few and indistinct ...... 9 

i Cross-veinlets in marginal area before the nodus of anterior 
(_ wing, numerous and well defined ; Polymitarcys, PI. I. f . 5. 

C Terminal margin of anterior wing free from cross-veinlets ; 
q \ Campsuj-us, PI. I. f. 4. 

1 Terminal margin of anterior wing hero and there met by cross- 
(. veiulets; Asthenopus, PI. I. f. 3. 


50 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

^ Oculi even in both sexes . . . . . • . . 14 
10 i Oculi in S ascalaphoid ; i. e., intersected by a slightly im- 
(. pressed hne ......... 1 1 

/' Penultimate segment in ? beneath prolonged into a short 

jl \ lamellar process 12 

1 Penultimate segment in ? beneath simple; Potamanth%t,s, 
(. PL II. f . 1. 

r Proximal joint of leg of forceps of S short .... 13 

12 \ Proximal joint of leg of forceps of <? the longest ; Gen. XXII. 
C (? ? ; Leptophlebia, PI. II. f . 2-2c. 

-.of Hinder tarsi 4-jointed; Ephemerella, PI. II. f. 5. 
(_ Hinder tarsi 5-jointed ; Colohurus, PI. III. f. 3. 

r Penultimate segment in $ beneath prolonged into a short 
14 } lamellar process ......... 15 

(. Penultimate segment in $ beneath simple .... 16 

r Cross-yeinlets crowded, indistinct ; Boetisca, PL II. f. 6. 
15 } Cross-veinlets regular, well-defined ; IsonycMa, PL III. f. 4 ; 
{_ Heptagenia, PL III. f. 5. 

,^( 3 long caudal seta3 17 

( 2 long caudal setae 18 

r Cross-veinlets crowded, well-defined ; Euthyplocia, $ , PL I. f. 8. 
17 < Cross-veinlets regular, well-defined ; Pentagenia, $ , PL 1. f. 6 ; 
( Ephemera, PL I. f. 9. 

,o f Hinder tarsi 5-jointed ; BixMurus, PL III. f. 2. 

\ Hinder tarsi 4-jointed 19 

C Middle seta very short ; Pentagenia, $ , PL I. f . 6 ; Eexagenia, 
19 ^ PL I. f. 7. 

( Middle seta rejected ; Palingenia. 


Materials for a complete analysis of the genera of the ' 
Ephemeridce are not at hand. Of some, only one sex iai 
at present known : [of others, only mutilated specimensji 
deprived of legs, or examples with the legs shrivelled up 
in drying, so as to prevent their proportions being made 
out, are in European collections. Our grounds for 
establishing comparisons between the genera are conse- 
quently very limited. 

In determining from the imago the affinities of a genus, 
the principal points to be noted are, — First, the neura- 
tion of the anterior wing ; Secondly, the structure of the 
hinder pairs of legs ; and. Thirdly, sexual peculiarities. 

In the neuration of the anterior wing, the most im- 
portant features are the disposition of the nervures dis- 

on the Ephemeridcti. , 51 

tributed to the inner and terminal margins. It should 
be noted whether the longitudinal neuration is sparse 
and simple, or plentiful and complex : next, whether the 
cross-veinlets are scanty or numerous (especially in the 
costal and subcostal areas before the nodi) : and then, 
whether the intern eural veinlets of the terminal margin 
(if there be any of them) are derived from the longitu- 
dinal nervures, or from the cross-veinlets, or from the 
terminal margin only ; and if they are only from the 
margin, it should be ascertained whether they are soli- 
tary or in pairs. Minute details of neuration are value- 
less ; only the general aspect or style of the neuration 
need be studied. 

In the hinder pairs of legs, the length of the tlhice, as 
compared with the femora, should be noted ; then the 
number of the tarsal joints, and the form of the uiigues. 
If a fifth joint is present in the tarsus, its joining with 
the tibia may be obliterated, or indistinct, or clearly 

As to the sexual peculiarities, it is important to examine 
first the oadi. Do the oculi of the male differ from those 
of the female in size only? or are they also divided into 
two parts ? If they are divided, it must be ascertained 
whether the divisions are only ascalaphoid (as in Lepto- 
pJdcbia) , or whether the upper part is elevated into a 
turbinate protuberance {as in Baetis) . 'Next the forceps 
\ should be examined. Are the legs of the forceps sessile 
i (as in Baetis) ? or are they inserted upon a lamellar ex- 
tension of the penultimate segment (as in SipJilnrus)? 
'What are the relative proportions of their joints ? It is 
[also very important to note whether the female has or 
ihas not a lamellar extension of the ventral margin of the 
apex of the penultimate segment. • Next the setce should 
be examined. Are their joints long, or short ? Have 
"they long or short pubescence towards their tips ? Is 
the middle seta as long as the others in both sexes ? or 
abbreviated in both, or rejected in both ? Or is it re- 
jected by, or abbre\aated in, the male only ? Then it 
should be noted whether the anterior legs of the male 
have the femora unusually short, or not ; and whether 
the anterior legs of the female are well developed or 
rudimentary. It should be ascertained also whether the 
eggs are extruded all at once, or not. 

2 E 

52 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograxih 

Last of all^ the form and neuration of the posterior 
wings (if there be any) should be taken into considera- 

The abdomen may further be examined as to the mode 
in which the last segment is finished oif beneath ; 
whether by a simple membrane, or by plate-like folds of 
the integument beneath the insertion of the seta3 (as in 
Ephemera and Baetis). In Lachlania, Olicjoneuria, and 
Ccenis, the posterior segments are furnished at the tip 
with slender lateral processes ; on account of this and 
other reasons (e. g., the structure of the setee) , I am in- 
clined to consider the first two genera to be allied to 
Ccems more closely than might be inferred from the 
arrangement of the genera adopted by me. Heptagenia 
is the only genus known which possesses a true egg- 

In the immature insect, the attitude assumed by the 
subimago during repose is of value in classification. The 
points to be noted are whether it elevates the anterior 
legs, or not. If it does, are they held together, or 
separated ? Are the wings spread abroad, or held up- 
right ? Are the caudal setee laid together, or separated ? 
The average duration of the subimago stage should also 
be taken into consideration. Does it last only a few 
minutes, or an hour or two, or a whole day, or longer ? 
or is it the permanent state of the female ? 

In the nymph, the liahit of the insect is of first import- / 
ance. Does it burrow, or creep? or does it run and^l 
swim actively ? These points can be inferred from the 
structure of its mandibles, legs (especially the anterior 
legs), setse, and antennas. Next in importance is thi\i 
structure of the branchial organs. Are they lamince 
fringed with short slender processes ? and, if so, are thej 
simple (as in Ccenia) , or compound laminae (as iii 
Epheinera) ? Or are the lamince fringeless ? If so, are\ 
the lamina? simple (as in Baetis) , or compound (as ill 
Cloeon) , or complex (as in EphemereUa) ? or are they 
furnished at the base with a fascicle of branchial filaments 
(as in Heptagenia)? Bcetisca has the branchiee concealed 
under an extension of the dorsum of the thorax. The 
labium., with the tivo pairs of maxillce. and their palpi, have 
next to be considered. Are the palpi of the lower 
maxillfe two-jointed, or three-jointed ? Last of all, the 
number and position of the branchial organs must be noted. 


oil the Ephemcrida?. 53 

and their relative sizes. In some genera there is a 
minute pair of branchial processes on the first abdominal 
segment^ which is very liable to be overlooked. Some- 
times the anterior pairs of plates differ in texture and 
form from those of the segments behind them. These 
last items have more to do with the determination of the 
order of succession of genera closely allied to one 
another, than with the determination of the position of 
a genus in the family at large. 

Arrangements of genera founded upon the structure 
of the imago, or of the nymph, alone, can be only tem- 
porary. The relations of genera can be definitely ascer- 
tained, only by taking into consideration all the peculiari- 
ties presented by the structure of representative species 
at the principal epochs in the course of their develop- 
ment from the e^^. 


long. al. = longitude costaj alae anticae. 
exp. al.=explicatio alariun anticarum. 

set.zrlongitudo setarum caudalium; e. 17., sub Ephemera vulgata legitur 
" set. 33 & 34-32 & 36 mm." i. e., longitude setarum exterioris 33-32 
mm., interioris 34-36 mm. 

mm. — millimetres ; mensura Gallica adhibita. 

im. & subim.riimago et subimago. 

Symbola descriptiouibus prsposita significant, — 

V. s.=:vivum specimen. 

V. V. s.=vidi specimen vivum. 

s. s.— specimen siccum. 

V. s. s.=:vidi specimen siecum. 

I !=:vidi specimen geuuiuum siccum. 

Cum termiuologia doctoris Julii Miiller,* terminologia colorum una et 
eadem est, prseter in locis sequentibus : — 

Testaceus et luridus concolores putantur. 

Isabellinus, Mul. = furfixrosus {Anglice, bran-colour). 

Fuscus et umbrinus. Mill., similiterque olivaceus et pistazinus, Miil., con- 
colores esse putantur. 

FerTVigineus= Anglice, steel-blue. 

Rubiginosus=4)i£fZtce, rust-red. 

* Terminologia Entomologica. J. Miiller. Briiun, 1860. 

64 Rev, A. E. Eaton's Mumujraijh 

Genus Lachlania. 

(Ala, PI. I. fig. 1.) 

LacJdania, Hag. 1868. 

Imago ?. Caput transversum, ocellis subsequalibus ; 
prothorax etiam transversus. Alas quatuor. Setae duge. 
lu dentibus segmentorum abdominis latera pi^oducuntur. 

Lachlania ahnormis. 
L. ahnormis, Hag. 1868. 

Imago ? , s. s. "Fusca, subtus pallida, capite, pro- 
thorace atque pedibus nigris. Alse grisese, pellucidae, 
crassioribus nervorum griseo-fuseis : in anticis prima, 
secuuda, et quarta venarum longitudinalium furcatse 
sunt, et serie una transversalium intersecantur ; in 
posticis venarum trium longitudinalium media furcata 
est, et nervi transversales absunt. SetsB albidge.^^ (Hag. 

Long'. Corp. ? 6-7, set. 5, exp. al. 18-19 mm. 

Hah. — Cuba. 

Dr. Hagen gives '' ovivalvula transversa" as a cha- 
racter : but as he called the ventral process of the 
penultimate segment of Leptoplilehia an egg-valve, it is 
uncertain whether Lachlania has a true egg-valve or 

Genus Oligoneueia. 
Oligoneuria, Pict. 1843-5. 

Neuratio alarum, in hoc genere, pro singula speciey 
diversa est. , 

Imago. Oculi integri ; prothorax transversus. Alse ^ 
quatuor ; anticte nervis longitudinalibus robustis parum 
divisis, et nervis transversalibus marginem costalem so- 
lum et alae apicem versus : in processu tenui libero basis 
alge anticEe supra singulariter excurrit. Pedes debiles, 
tibiis anticis femoribus multo longioribus ; tarsi prse- 
cipue infirmi, quadri-articulati, unguibus obtusis. Abdo- 
minis segmenta singula intermedia lateribus in processii 
tenui utrinque producta. Set« tres sequales. Pedes 
forcipis maris quadri-articulati, proximo articulorum 
longissimo. Ovivalvula femina caret. 


on the Ephemeridce. 55 

The curious species comprised in this genus appear in 
considerable numbers towards evening. The males of 
the extra-European species being at present unknown, 
I have not separated the group, in spite of the differ- 
ences of their wings. My divisions of the genus may be 
tabulated as follows: — 

Ala? anticas radius et subcosta confluentes : nervorum 
longitudinalium sequentium primus — 

et tertius bifidi ; secundus obsolescens bipartitus : — 
0. Trimeniana : 

bipartitus ; secundus simplex ; tertius — 

bifidus : — 0. rhenana et pallida, (PI. I. fig. 2). 
simplex : — 0. anomala. 

Oligoneuria anomala. 
0. anomala, Pict. 1843-5. 

Imago $ , s. s. " Corpus fuscum vel brunneum. Alee 
pallide grisese ; anticte nervis transversalibus circa sex. 
Setae longe pubesceutes, pube sparsa bases versus." 

Long. Corp. ? 13, set. 8, exp. al. 32 mm. 

Eah.— Rio Janeiro (KolL MS.) . 

Oligoneuria rhenana. 
(Genitalia maris, PL III. fig. 7 ; caput, fig. 7a.) 

0. rhenana, Imh. 1852. 0. anomala, pars, Pict. 1843-5. 
? Subimago, v. v. s. Alae fumatas, costas versus satura- 
• tiores. Setarum bases glabrae, apices pilosi. 
'} I Imago, V. V. s. Oculiatri; caput et thorax lutes- 
~V centes. " Abdomen albicans, segmentorum apices versus 

ochraceo tinctum," juncturis obscuris, et setis albis. 

Pedum antici fuliginosi ; posteriores albi, femoribus cre- 

taceis et unguibus obscuris. Alarum crassiores nervorum 

saturate fumati. 

? . " Corpore lutescenti, setis glabris; et nervis 

alarum albicantium lutescentibus.^^ (Hag.) 

Long. Corp. c? 9-12, ? 7-9 ; set. $ im. 15, subim. 

10; set. $ im. circa 4, subim. circa 3; exp. al. $ 23, 

2 28 mm. 
Hab. — The large rivers of Germany ; and at Turin 

(Hag.) . July and August. I have taken specimens 

between Cologne and Bonn, in the evening, at the end 

5G Rev. A. E. Eaton's MouiKjraiili 

of July, on a Eliine steamer; but, unfortunately, I 
neg-lectecl to make a memorandum of the posture of tlie 
subimago ; tliey were blown along the deck of the 
steamboat helplessly, being unable to maintain their 

Oligoneuria pallida. 
(Genitalia, PL III. fig. 8. a-c; caput, fig. 8.) 
0. rhenana, var. pallida, Hag. 1855. 

Imago, s. s. 0. rlienance similis esse videtur. Dr. 
Hagen forcipem delineavit ; sed figura a forcipe 0. 
rhenanm longe discrepat. 

Long. Corp. (^ 9, ? 7 ; set. r? 10, $ 4 ; exp. al. S 
20, ? 24 mm. 

Hah. — Hungary. 

I have some doubt about the correctness of Dr. 
Hagen's figure of the forceps ; for the relative propor- 
tions of the joints resemble those of the forceps of 
Baetis or Ephemera. There is great danger of misrepre- 
sentation being the utmost that one can extort from 
dried s]3ecimens. 

Oligoneuria Tnmeniana. 

(Processus ventralis penultimi segmentorum, $ , PI. , 
III. fig. 9, 9a.) i 

0. Trimeniana, McLach. 1868. /|j 

Imago, V. s. s. ? . Caput et thorax lutei, pectore 
lutescenti. Al« pellucid £e, venis fumato-albis. Pedes ; 
albicantes, femoribus furfurosis. Setae cretaceas, ad June- ! 
turas apices versus sub-pilosae. Ovee virides. 
Long, Corp. ? 12, exp. al. 41^ mm. 

Hah. — Mapulnulo Mission Station, Umroti District, |j 
Natal. March. '' 

The wings have a satiny lustre. 

Genus Campsurus. 
(Ala antica, PI. I. fig. 4.) 

Ephemera, Perch. 1836 ; Palingenia, pars, Pict. 1843-5 ; 
Campsurus, Etn. 1868. 

Imago. Oculi integri. Alse quatuor, anticge reticulo 
subtili. Pedes debillimi, unguibus longis tenuibus obtusis 

on tlte Ej)hemeridw. 57 

confunuibus. S seta media caret; pedum postei-iores 
brevissimi, antici longi femoribus imprimis brevissimis ; 
ultimi segmentorum latera broviter producimtur. $ sette 
tres jequales ; pedes breves debillimi (etiam antici) ; 
ovivalvula caret. 

The genus Camfsurus occupies in America the posi- 
tion of Polymitarcys in the Old World. Many species of 
this genus are so alike in colour that it is difficult to 
discover the females. Their habitat is probably limited 
to large rivers of a tolerably high temperature. 

Campsurus latipennis. 

(Genitalia maris, PL III. fig. 10, 10a.) 

Palingenia latipennis, Walk. 1853 (non var.) . 

Imago, V. s. s. cJ ? . Thorax fusco-luteus ; pro- 
thorax tumescens, a fronte angustus, sulco longitudiuali 
medio, et foveis lateralibus, altera pone oculos subtrian- 
gulari, alteraque apud coxam utrinque. Alarum anticarum 
area marginalis usque ad tertiam partem ab apice fusces- 
cens, nervis transversalibus tenuibus subrectis simplicibus 
paucis claudentibus. Pedes antici fusci. Abdomen supra 
linea elevata longitudiuali media, et posterioribus seg- 
mentorum fuscis ; infra testaceum. Seta3 cretacese. 

Long. Corp. $ ? 7 ; al. ^ 8, ? 9 ; set. $ 22 mm. 

Hah. — Para. 

Camiosurus albifilum. 
(Genitalia mai-is, PL III. fig. 11.) 
Palingenia albifilum, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thorax fusco-testaceus ; prothorax 
veluti in sp. prtecedente. Alee pellucidge, anteriores ner- 
vorum cretacei ; transversales apicales arose marginalis 
antica3 pauci subrecti. Pedes antici fusci, coxis testacois. 
Abdomen ochraceum, setis albis ; segmentorum apicalium 
quatuor, cteterum juncturtB, et lineas longitudinalis ele- 
vatae dorsalis margines, cinereo tinctee. Forceps et penis 
pallida lutescentes. Setse albse. 

Long. Corp. S 12, al. 13, set, 47 mm. 

Hab. — Para. 

58 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Campsimis albicans. 

Ephemera albicans, Perch. 183^; Palingenia albicans, 
Burm. 1839. 

Imago, s. s. Prothorax lutescens, latera versus viola- 
ceus; meso-etmeta-thoracesfulvi. AlsBanticsealbicantes, 
crassioribus nervorum et bases versus violaceo tinctge ; 
algs posticse fere in toto albge. Pedes albicantes, tibiis 
et femoribus anticis solum violaceis. Caput nigrum. 
Abdomen pallidum, apicem versus fulvum. 

Femina in Cat. Brit. Mus. descripta a mare C. albi- 
cantis longe discrepat. Pro specie innominata optime 

Long. Corp. (^ 10, exp. al. 30 mm. 

B"a6.-~Brazil. (Perch.) 

Campsurus cuspidatus, n. sp. 
(Genitalia maris, PI. III. fig. 12.) 

Imago, V. s. s. c? . Prothorax gibbus, virescenti-mu- 
rinus. Alae albae, vitrinae, invariee. Abdomen supra 
fumato-albidum, infra fere cretaceum. 

Long. Corp. ^ 10"5, al. 11 mm. 

Hab. — Guatemala. (De Selys Longchamps.) 

The name cuspidatus indicates the form of the last 
ventral plate. 

Campsurus quadridentatus, n. sp. 
(Genitalia maris, PL III. fig. 13.) 

Imago, V. s. s. S. Thorax et pedes pallide testacei. 
Alse opac«; anticse subcostis et radiis nigricantibus. Ab- 
domen ochraceum, atrescenti-umbratum, praecipue apicem 
versus, et linea longitudinali media atra in segmentorum 
primis sex. 

Long. Corp. S 12, al. 13 mm. 

Eab. — Santarem, Brazil. (Bates.) June. 

Named from the form of the last ventral plate. 

Campsurus puella. 
Falingenia puella, Pict. 1843-5. 

Imago, ? s. s. " Caput et thorax lutescentes : pedes 
fuscescentes, apicibus femorum pallidis. Prothorax 

_ on the Epheuicritlm. 59 

tumesceus, margine antico iu angulo prominente pro- 
ducto/' (Pict.) 

Exp. al. 9 26 mm. 

Hah. — New Orleans. 

It is doubtful whether this species can be re-determined. 

Genus Asthenopus, nov. gen. 

(Ala antica^ PL I. fig. 3.) 

Palingenia, p.. Walk. 1853 ; Campsurus (B), Etn. 1868. 

Imago. Oculi integri. Alae quatuor. Pedes debiles 
veluti in Campsuro. S Setge duee longse ; pedes forcipis 
tri-articulati ; prothorax transversus. ? Seta intermedia 
brevissima, vel obsoleta. 

The wing figured belongs to an undescribed species 
from Texas^ specimens of which are in Mr. M'Lachlan's 

Asthenopus curtus, n. sp. 

(Grenitalia maris, PL III. fig. 14, 14 a b.) 

Palingenia alhifilum, var., Walk. 1853; P. curta, Hag. 
MS. 1861 ; Campsuriis ciirtus, Etn. 1868. 

Imago (^, V. s. s. Prothorax transversus piceus ; meso- 
et meta-thoraces lutei . Alas anticae obscuratae costas versus, 
nervis transversalibus arete marginalis apicis paucis, sim- 
plicibus et subrectis. Pedum antici fusci ; posteriores 
lutei. Abdomen supra nigricans, subtus ochraceum, 
immaculatum ; segmentum singulum supra linea longitu- 
dinali media, punctoque rotundato utrinque, pallidioribus. 
Setce albte. 

Long. Corp. ^ 8, al. 10, set. 35 mm. 

Rob. — Para. 

Asihenopus dorsalis. 

Palingenia dorsalis, Burm. 1839. 

Imago ? J s. s. Prothorax transversus, tumescens, 
lutescens, macula in medio violacea. Caput nigricans. 
Ala antica nervis fuscescentibus, et margine costali vio- 

60 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

laceo-fusco. Pedes antici nigricantes. Abdomen fulvo- 
griseum^ striga supra fusca in medio^ postice quam antice 
latiori. Setae albicantes. (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. ? 11, esp. al. 38 mm. 

Hah. — Brazil. (Burm.) 

Genus Poltmitarcys. 
(Ala antica, PI. I. fig. 5.) 

Ephemera, p., 01. 1791 ; Palingenia, p., Burm. 1839 ; 
Polymitarcys, Etn. 1868. 

Imago. Oculi integri ; alas quatuor; pedes debillimi, 
femoribus brevissimis. S Forcipis pes vel quadri- vei 
tri-articulatus, secundo articulorum longissimo. Setarum 
media est brevissima. Ungues antici tenues, obtusi et 
impares. $ caret ovivalvula, et setas tres ^quales habet. 

Polymitarcys virgo. 
(Genitalia maris, PL III. fig. 15, 15 a b.) 

Ephemera virgo, 01. 1791. E. marocana ?, Fab. 1793. E. 
lutea, Pz. 1804. Palingenia horaria, Burm. 1839. E. albi- 
pennis, Yoigt, 1840. Palin. virgo, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Imagine pallidior, setis pubes- 

Imago, V. s. s. cj . " Oculi atri ; caput infra in fronte 
atrum." Prothorax testaceus ; meso- et meta-tlioraces 
lutescentes. Alee albte ; nervi transversales apicales 
arese marginalis simplices et subrecti. " Pedes albi- 
cantes, femoribus anticis infra cum tibiis suis fere in toto 
atris." Abdomen cretaceum, griseo-nebulosum apicem 
versus. Setae et forfex albee. 

Long. Corp. S ? 16-17 ; exp. al. $ 33 ; set. ^ im. 
23, subim, 18; set. $ im. 13 mm. 

Eah. — Central Europe, in large rivers (e. g., Paris, 
Cologne, and Mannheim); Madrid. 

The subimagines rise from the rivers in immense 
numbers late in the evening, in August, and soon moult. 
The species from Morocco is possibly distinct from P. 

on the Ephemeridce. 61 

Polymitarcys Savignii, n. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PL III. fig. 16, 16 a.) 

{Ephemera, Sav. 1817 ; Palingenia Savignyi, Pict. 1843-5.) 

Imago (^, V. s. s. Capitis vertex cinereus. Prothorax 
murinus, linea longitudinali in medio atra ; raeso- et 
meta-thoraces lutescentes. Alse albas ; anticas costis et 
subcostis in majore parte nigricantibus. Pedum antici 
griseo-tincti, posteriores cretacei. Abdomen cinerascens, 
juncturis, lateribus, ventrequesub-ocliraceis, etsetis albis. 
Nervi transversales apicales areee marginalis anticee 
simplices et subrecti. 

Long. Corp. 10, al. 11 mm. 

Eab.—The Xile. 

M. E. Pictet has several specimens of this species. 

Polymitarcys indicus. 
Palingenia indica, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subiraago $ , s. s. " Caput parvum, nigricans. Pro- 
thorax brevis, gibbosus, et fulvus, in medio fuscus. 
Mesothorax fulvus, strigis longitudinalibus tribus, 
quarum duse alarum radices versus prodeunt. Area 
marginalis antica violaceo-tincta. Pedes antici fulvi, 
tibiis strigisque in femoribus singulis nigricantibus. 
Setae parum ciliatae, fulvfe." (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. ^ 12, exp. al. 30 mm. 

Eah.—T\\e East Indies. 

Mr. M^Lachlan possesses specimens of two other 
species, undescribed, from N. W. India and Bombay. 

Polymitarcys macrops. 

Palingenia' macrops, Hag. 1856. 

Apex are^e marginalis anticae nervis reticulatis. 
Species in electro. 
Long. Corp. c? subim. 11, exp. al. 23 mm. 

Genus Palingenia. 

Ephemera, p., 01. 1791 ; Palingenia, p., Burm. 1839; 
restricted, Westw, 1840. 

Nympha fodiens. Segmentorum abdominis 2-7 bran- 
ehiifera; laminfe branchiales duplices, et bene fimbriatte. 

62 Rev. A. B. Eaton's Monograph 

Palpi maxillares tri-articulati ; inferiores ultimis articu- 
lorum late expansis. Mandibulee antice longe prolongatse, 
per-robustse, extrinsecus sen-atas. Frons bicornuta, cor- 
nibus dentatis, dentibusque lateralibus. Labrum subro- 
tundatum^ apice acuto. Tibia? anticge intus dentatas. 

Intel' ultimam metamorphosem exuyias alarum mas 
saepe evertit; feminge tamen subimago seepissime status 
adultus est^ pelle retenta. (Swam.) 

Imago. Oculi inteo-ri. Setarum media est brevissima. 
Al86 quatuor. Tarsi postici quadri-articulati. Ovival- 
vula femina caret. Forcipis pedes pedicillati^ quadri- vel 
forsan quinque-articulati^ proximis articulorum longissi- 

The nymphs live in burrows which they excavate a little 
below the water-mai'k^ in the clayey banks of large and 
tranquil rivers. 

Pa ling e Ilia longicauda . 
(Genitalia maris, PI. III. fig. 17, 17a.) 

Kemerohius , Glut. 1634. Ephemera longicauda, 01. 1791. 
E. fuliginosa, Georgi, 1802. E. jlosaguce, Illig. 1802. 
Semblis marginata, Pz. 1804. E. Sivammerdiana, Lat. 
1805 ; E. Swamnierdamiana, Shaw, 1806. 

Pedes postici bi-unguiculati. 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Al» cervinee, nervis luridis. '^ Tho- 
rax luteus ; prothorax longitudinaliter quinque-striatus," 
(Pict.) . Tarsorum posticorum primus, secundus et 
tertius articulorum subeequales, quarto paulo breviores. 
Ungues tenues conformes. Abdomen supra saturate um- 
brinum. Pedes, venter, setgeque, pallide lurido-ochracei. 

Long, coi-p. $ 23, al. 24, set. 70 mm. (Pict.) 

Hab. — The large rivers of Central Europe (e. g. in Ger- 
many, Hungary, Austria, and the Netherlands) ; also in 
the Caucasus. About Midsummer. 

Swammerdam's supposition, that the aquatic stages of 
development occupy three years, seems merely a gratuitous 
sui^mise ; for he reared no specimens, and founded his 
conjecture upon the differences of size presented by the 
nymphs alone. But though in this instance Swammer- 
dam was inaccurate, his famous treatise will remain a 
monument of his perseverance, and his extraordinary 
powers of research. 

on the Ephemeridce. 63 

Paling enia lata. 

(Genitalia maris, PL III. fig. 18, 18 a b.) 

Palingenia lata, Walk. 1853. 

Tarsi postici uni-unguiculati. 

Adult. ($ , y. s. s. Alse et thorax fuliginosi. Pro- 
thorax lineis longitudinalibus fuscis impressis quinque, 
viz. : in medio una, latero-dorsalibus duabus, alterisque 
intermediis duabus. Pedes sub-fuliginosi, vol testaceo- 
cervini; tarsorum. posteriores uni-unguiculati, proximis 
articulorum paulo cseteris longioribus. Abdomen supra 
fuscum. Setae lutescentes pilosaB. 

Long. Corp. ^ 20, set. supra 70, exp. al. 43 mm. 

Hab. — Silhet and Sarawak. 

The specimens from Borneo have paler legs than tliose 
from India. 

Genus Pentagenia. 

(Ala antica, PL I. fig. 6.) 

Palingenia (A), Walsh, 1862 ; Pentagenia, Walsh, 1863. 

Imago. Alfe quatuor. Oculi integri. Setarum media 
in $ brevissima, in $ caeteris parum brevior. Tarsus 
posticus quadri-articulatus ; articulorum tres priores 
aequales, et quarto breviores ; ungues dissimiles. Femina 
caret ovivalvula. Pedes forcipis quadri-articulati, secundo 
articulorum longissimo. 

Pentagenia vittigera. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 1.) 

Pal. vittigera, Walsh, 1862 ; Pent, vittigera, Walsh, 1863. 

Subimago. '' Alee opacse, flavescentes." 
Imago, V. s. s. S. ''Oculorum partes superiores 
exeraplaris viventis flavescentes, inferiores rubiginoste." 
(Walsh.) Medium dorsi fuliginosum; latera venterque 
testacea, paucis segmentorum apicalium flavis exceptis. 
Nervi alarum pallidissime testacei, vel electro colorati ; 
plurimis nervorum transversalium in area marginali, 
puncto nodali subcostee, lineaque infra eundem in quoque 
nervorum (praeter unum) sequentium duorura, atris. Pedes 

64 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

subtestacei ; autici apicibus.femoruin juncturisque tarso- 
rum fuscis. Aj^ud segmentorum abdominis juncturas 
dorsales, linege flavescentes dute breves divergentes 
sunt. Setas albae pubescentes. 

? simillima, pedibus sub-gambosis. Alse^ bases ver- 
sus, et in areis niarginalibus imprimis, lux-ido tinctae. 

Long. Corp. S 17-19, ? 17-20; al. 18-19; set. S 
40-50&5,subim. 18&4-5; set. ? 13 & 10-5-20 & 15 mm. 

Hah. — Illinois and Texas. 

Pentagenia guadripunctata. 
P. 4-punctata, Walsh, 1863. 

Subimago. " Alae opace albicantes." 

Imago 5 , " Striga dorsalis picea in segment© sin- 
gulo abdominis hexagonum symmetricum format. Ala 
antica in medio serie curvata punctorum fuscorum ne- 
bulis parvis cinctorum ; viz. — in costa uno, unoque in 
nervorum sequentium quarto, sexto, et nono. 

Long. Corp. 19*5 ; exp. alar. 40 ; set. ? 22"5 & 19"5, 
subim. 17 & 14; set. S subim. 15 & 3 mm. 

Hah. — Illinois. 

Genus Hexagenia. 
(Ala antica, PI. I. fig. 7.) 

Baetis,-p., Say, 1824; Ephemera, Guer. 1829-48; Palin- 
genda, p., Pict. 1843-5; Palingenia {B) , Walsh, 1862; 
Hexagenia, Walsh, 1863. 

NympLa fodiens a Dom. Walsh, in " The American 
Naturalist, Oct. 1868," figuratur. 

Imago. Oculi integri. Setarum media brevissima. 
Alte quatuor. Tarsus posticus quadri-articulatus, primo 
articuloi'um vix secundo longiore ; ungues dissimiles. 
Ovivalvula femina caret. Pedes forcipis quadri-articulati; 
articulorum secundus est longissimus. 

Hexagenia alhivitta. 

(Forceps, PL IV. fig. 2, 2 a.) 

Baetis alhivitta, Walk. 1853. Palingenia continua, Walsh, 


Subimago paulo imagine obscurior. 
Imago $ , Y. s. s. Dorsum atrum, striga longitu- 
dinal! lata media nivea, in prothorace oblonga ; in 

071 the Ephemei'idce. 65 

meso- et meta-thoracibus mitriformi, et in abdomine 
marginibus serratis, claudente in segmentis singulis api- 
calibus lineas duas breves divergentes atras. Venter 
sub-hepaticoloratus, striga longitudinali testacea, atque 
apicibus segmentorum obscuratis. Alte vitringe, pallide 
fuliginoso tinctas, nervis piceis ; auticarum costas fuscee ; 
posticarum nervi transversales obscure marginati. Pedes 
testacei ; antici fuscescentes^ tarsis atris, ultimis articu- 
lorum fuscis. Setae cervinas, fusco cinctte. 

Long. Corp. c? 15, al. 15 ; set. im. 35, subim. 23 mm. 

Hah. — The Amazons and Texas. 

Mr. M'Laclilan has a specimen of an undescribed In- 
dian species, in some respects closely related to this. 

Hexagenia (?) atrostoma. 

Ephemera atrostoma, Weber, 1801 ; Palingenia atrostoma, 
Pict. 1843-5. 

" E. flava, dorso alisque fuscis, ore oculisquo atris. 
Thorax marginatus canaliculatusque. Abdomen cauda 
biseta, setis longissirais flavis.''^ (Weber.) 

Eab. — Brazil (Weber). 

Hexagenia clecolorata. 
Palingenia clecolorata, Hag. 1861. 

Imago in spiritu setheris conservata. '' Lutea ; caput 
fusco-nigrum ; pedum antici nigricantes, posteriores 
lutei; abdomen luteum, strigis lateralibus obscure fuscis, 
et setis luteis ; alee vitrinee, flavescenti tinctas, nervis 
luteis, subcostis fuscis exceptis." (Hag.) 

Long. Corp. 16, set. 30 (?) ; exp. al. 30 mm. 

Hah. — Mexico; Matamoras; Tamaulipas. Common. 

Perhaps this is only a colour variety of the following 
species, but I am unable to decide the point. 

Hexagenia Umhata . 

(Forceps, PI. IV. fig. 3, 3a.) 

Ephemera Umhata, Guer. 1829-43 ; Palingenia Umhata, 
Pict. 1843-5. Palingenia hilineata. Hag. 1861. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alee pallide flavicantes, plurimis 
nervorum transversalium corvinis. Setaa pilosee. 


66 Rev. A, E. Eaton's Monograph 

Imago, V. s. s. S "Oculorum partes superiores acute 
virescenti-flavse, partes inferiores nigrse. Seta? fuscae, 
proximis dimidiorum articulorum pallid is." (Walsh, v. s.) 
Strigfe laterales dorsi prothoracis nigrge retro produ- 
cuntur, et findentesjuxta bases alarum, circa mesothoracis 
apicem desinunt. Alarum nervi plerumque picei, bases 
versus pallidi; interdum vero longitudinales lutei, et 
transversales solum picei sunt. "Pedes antici fusci, 
basibus plerumque articUlorum tarsalium 2, 3, 4, albi- 
cantibus vel flavescentibus ; posteriores acute flaves- 
centes, paucis articulorum tarsalium cum apicibus, quin- 
toque in toto, fuscis. Abdomen supra striga in medio 
fusca, lineisque lateralibus obliquis ab apicibus segmen- 
torum " quibus in trigonis paribus flavicantibus vel 
fulvescentibus latera dorsi finduntur." 

? . Ac? in nervis alarum vitririis (" hyaline " Walsh) 
vel flavescentibus discrepat. Setae flavte. 

Long. Corp. d 20-21, $ 22; set. ^ 40, $ subim. 20; 
exp. al. c? 38, ? 30 mm. (Pict.) 

Hah. — Arctic America, Texas and Mexico; in largo 
rivers. Mr. M^Lachlan has many specimens. 

Hexagenia hilineata. 

(Forceps, PI. lY. fig. 4.) 

Baetis hilineata, Say, 1824. Falingenia viridescens & 
occultata, Walk. 1853. Baetis angulata, Walk. 1853. 
Falingenia limhata, Hag. 1861. Falingenia hilineata, 
Walsh, 1863. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alae griseae, nervis piceis, bases 
versus lutescentes. Alarum posteriores apvid margines 
terminales atro limbatee. 

Imago, V. s. s. S " Oculorum dimidiorum superiora 
cinamomeo-fusca, inferiora atra" (Walsh, v. s.) . Pedum 
antici picei, apicibus tibiarum et proximis articulorum 
tarsorum atris ; " interdum 2, 3 et 4tus articulorum bases 
versus pallidiores sunt: posteriores in s. s. ochracei ; vel 
(veluti in v. s.) femoribus obscure virescentibus, cum 
genubus, tibiis, tarsisque fuscis. Nervi alarum picei; 
harum anterior areis margi^ali et submarginali, atque 
posterior margine termin^ii, fuscis. 

? s. s. " Dorsum prothoracis in fronte et ad latera 
nigrum. Abdominis striga dorsalis maculam cretaceam 

071 the EpliemeridoB. 67 

oblongam vel triangulam apud latera segmenti singuli 
utriiique relinquit ; striga ipsa segmentorumque apici- 
bus fuscis." (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. S 17-21, ? 21-29; set. S 42-51, subim. 
18; set. ? 20, subim. 18-19; al. S 17-20, ? 21-23 mm. 

Hah. — Arctic America, to New Orleans; in lakes and 

The Hexagenice are said to appear in suitable localities 
in astounding profusion. The late Mr. Walsh says he 
has seen shrubs broken down by the accumulated masses 
of one species upon them ! The name of the shrub, and 
how many thousand specimens of the Hexagenia in ques- 
tion go to the pound, are unfortunately omitted from his 

Genus Euthyplocia, no v. gen. 

(Alse anticge partes, PI. I. fig. 8, 8a.) 

Palingenia, p., Hag. 1861. 

Imago ? . Also quatuor. Sette tres, longte, sub- 

Euthyplocia Hecuha. 
Palingenia Hecuha, Hag. 1861. 

Imago, V. s. s. ? . " Capite nigro-fusco ; prothoraco 
fusco, polito ; coxis luteis ; alis magnis opacis, cervino- 
tinctis, costas versus obcuratioribus, nervis griseis. Ab- 
domen supra nigro-fuscum, subtus lutescens; setis 
saturate fumatis.^^ (Hag.) 

Long. corp. 22, exp. al. 78 mm. 

Hah. — Vera Cruz (Salle) ; Veragua. 

There is a specimen of this insect in Mr. M'Lachlan's 
collection, and another (the type) in that of Baron De 
Selys Longchamps. The legs are lost, and the colours 
are so faded, that I have preferred citing the old de- 
scription to redescribing the species. In what Dr. Hagen 
suspects to be the male, the undivided eyes are almost 
contiguous, the median seta is very long, and the an- 
terior legs are long and feeble. 


68 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Genus Ephembea. 

(Ala antica, in parte^ PL I. fig. 9.) 

Ephemera, Lin. 1735.* 

Nymplia fodiens. Segmentorum abdominis 1-7 bran- 
chiifera: laminarum prima? minutissimffij bipartitee, di- 
midiis linearibus marginibus integris ; posteriores quoque 
duplices, sed dimidiis acute lanceolatis, marginibus bene 
fimbriatis. Palpi maxillares bi-articulati : superiores longi, 
liirsuti, secvindo articulorum primo longiore : inferiores 
apicibus articulorum ultimorum dilatis, obliquis. Man- 
dibuloe latus externum in cornu prorecto longissimo valde 
prorsus producitur. Frons breviter bicornuta, cornibus 

Alis conniventibus erectis, pedibus anticis elevatis efc 
prorectis, sctisque caudalibus subparallelis, subimago 
quiescit. Setarum laterales inter se approximantur vel 
subtus vel supra mediam. 

Imago. Oculi integri ; alaequatuor; seta? tres longas, 
subfequales. Tarsi postici quadri-articulati ; articulorum 
tres priores subteqviales ; ungues dissimiles. Pedes for- 
cipis quadri-articulati, secundo articulorum longissimo. 
Ovivalvula femina caret. 

Species of this genus usually appear in moderate 
numbers. The apical cross-veinlets of the marginal area 
of the fore-wing are variable in the same species. The 
pale spots of the thorax of the subimago, mentioned in 
the description of U. vulyata, are found in the other 
European species. 

Ephemera vulgata. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig'. 5. 5a. Macula? abdominales, 
fig. 5b.) 

Ephemera macnlata, Lin. 1747. E. vulgata [De G. 
1755]; Lin. 1758. E. covwmnis, Hetz. 1783. E. danica, 
Ronalds, 1856. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alse vel flavo-virentes, vel vires- 
centi-grisetB, vel cinereee, nervis fuscis ; anticge in medio 
fusco vel piceo maculates ; nervi transversales maris cor- 
vino marginati : margines terminales late griseo tincti. 

* EpJiemerum, Hampe (1844), is a geuus of the Phascei, an Order of 
the Acrocarpoua Mosses. 

on the EphemeridcB. 69 

Vertex capitis macula lutea : pi'othox\ax lineis longitudi- 
nalibus duabus atris ; mesothorax supra macula magna 
lutescente, ex qua in fronte et a posteriore strigaj cur- 
vata3 duae producuntur; metathorax luteus, maculis 
L-formatis nigris duabus. 

Imago, V. V. s. S • Caput atrum, oculis supra fuligi- 
nosis, infra vel paulo saturatioribus vel nigris. Thoracis 
tergum aterrimum nitens. Ala3 virescenti-grisea) vel 
pallidissime flavo-virenteSj maculis piceis et nervis atris : 
posteriores marginibus terraiualibus late, et nervis trans- 
versalibus anguste, griseo tinctis. Pedes olivacei ; antici 
femoribus atro-piceis, et tarsis fuscis ; posteriores tibiis 
tarsisque fulvis, apicibus articulorum ultimorum et ungui- 
bus fuscis. Abdomen umbrino-olivaceum, juncturis et 
apicibus segmentorum plus aut minus ochraceis : trian- 
gulos acutos duos, lineasque interpositas breves duas, 
segmentorum posteriorum supra quidque liabet, infraque 
liueas longitudinales atras quatuor, viz., duas longas 
sub-parallelas, et duas breves divergeutes : in anteriori- 
bus segmentorum trianguli in strigis cui'vatis se conver- 
tunt, et notulee interpositee obsolescuntur. Setse fuscas, 
juncturis fuliginosis, atque pubescentes, pr^cipue apices 
versus. Forceps fuscus. 

$ plane omuino mari similis^ alis pallidioribus ex- 

Var. cJ et ? , v. v. s. Pro maculis trigonalibus, linecS 
curvata3 segmentis singulis sunt. 

y Long. Corp. 14-22; al. $ 16-17, ? 18-24; set. $ im. 

; 33 & 34-32 & 36, subim. 16 & 17-19-5 & 21 ; set. ? im. 

t22 & 24-26, subim. 17 & 16-18 & 19 mm. 
I Hah. — Moscow (OuL); Scandinavia (Zet.) ; England, 
IN Germany, France, and Switzerland. May and June. 
f. This species is plentiful in warm rivers and tranquil 
streams in England, and in some of the Swiss lakes (e. g., 
near Brunnig) . 

Ephemera guttulata. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. IV. fig. 6, 6a. Maculae abdominales, 

fig. 6b.) 

Ephemera guttulata, Pict. 1843-5. Ephemera decora, 
E. siniulans & Falingenia natata, Walk. 1853. Ephemera 
natata, Hag. 1861. 

70 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Subimago, v. s. s. c? ? • Alee vix nigricantes^ 
maculis et marginibus nervorum transversalium piceis. 
Pedes purpureo-brunnei. Setse fuliginosae, juncturis 

Imago, V. s. s. (^ . Alse vitrinae, in nervis transversa- 
libus piceo crebre maculatee. Pedes et setae lutei, junc- 
turis fuscescentibus. Maculae magnas dorsi abdominis 
transversEe, subquadratae, angulis posticis retro pro- 
ductis, et lateribus emarginatis : venter bilineatus. 

? simillima, alis sparse maculatis. 

Long. corp. S 11, ? 13-15; al. S 13-15, ? 15-19; 
set. (J im. 25, subim. 14 ; set. ? subim. 15 mm. 

Hah. — From Northern Illinois and from Connecticut 
northwards ; in rivers. 

This species resembles E. vulgata in having the back 
of the abdomen spotted instead of being merely streaked, 
and also in the general formation of the male genital 
organs. M. Pictet's specimen seems, from the figure, to 
have been a male imago. 

Ephemera flaveola. 

E. flaveola, Walsh, 1862. 

Subimago, v. s. s. ^'Alae fumatae. Setae obscure et 
pallide virescentes." 

Imago, V. s. c?. ^'Vertex capitis rubiginosus ; ter- 
gum thoracis pallidius. Alse vitrinfe; anticte apud costas 
flavescenti-tinctae, et tribus prioribus nervorum longitu- 
dinalium flavescentibus. Pedes flavescentes ; antici 
apicibus femorum et tibiarum, proximis articulorum tar- 
salium et apicibus juncturisque caeterum, rubiginosis. 
Abdomen flavescens, striga pallida utriaque segmentorum 
3-7. Set» albicantes, juncturis fuscis.'^ 

$ V. s. " Abdomen vitelli-coloratum. Nervi trans- 
versales alarum fusci, eis ad apices et apud margines 
terminales exceptis.^' 

Long. Corp. $ 7-5-9-5, ? 9-10-5 ; set. S im. 20 «& 
14, subim. 12 & 10; set. ? im. 12 & 10 ; exp. al. S 17- 
19, $ 19-20. (Walsh.) 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) ; and New York. 

on the Ephemeridce. 71 

/ Ephemera myops. 

E. myops, Walsh, 1863. 

" Ephemera, jiaveold major ; oculi eis specie! illius mi- 
nores, et ab ipsis remoti. Segmentorum abdominis 1-5 
rubiginosa, sextum et nonvim pallidiora, septimum et 
octavum flavescentia : vel omnia segmentorum flaves- 
centia sunt. 

Long. Corp. c? 12-13 ; exp. al. 26-27; set. 27 & 19-29 
& 21 mm. 

Hab.—Roc'k Island, Illinois.'^ (Walsh.) 

Dr. Hagen ad paginam 177 operis supra citati (Walsh 
1863) diagnosem quam forsan ad E. myopis varietatem 
pertineat donavit : — 

" Alae vitrinje, maculosa). Abdomen flavum, immacu- 
latum. E. daniece subsimilis." 

Long, Corp. 19, exp. al. 42 mm. 

Sa?).— New York. (Hag.) 

Ephemera Uneata. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 7, 7a. Notte abdominales, 

fig. 7b.) 

E. danica, Pict. 1843-5 {nee Miil.). E. Uneata, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alee virescenti-grisefe, raarginibua 
terminalibus pallido griseo late tinctis, et nervis traus- 
versalibus atris. Horum pauci in medio al^e antica3 atro- 
brunneo marginati sunt, ideoque seriem macularum for- 

Imago, V. V. s. S . Thorax supra fusco-piceus. Alse 
vitrinse, nervis et maculis atris ; anticas in areis margi- 
nal! submarginali, atque late marginem terminalem 
versus, corvino tinctte. Pedum anteriores femoribus 
piceis, tibiis tarsisque atris: posteriores virescenti- 
grisei, coxis, maculis utrinque femorum, et apicibus junc- 
turisque tarsorum, atris. Abdomen fusco-virescenti- 
griseum, apicem versus lutescens : segmentorum poste- 
riora singula strigis atris dorsalibus sex, infraque lineis 
longifudinalibus atris duabus ; illarum dua3 longas unaque 
brevis utrinque supra medium dorsi sunt. Seta) fusca), 
juncturis atris ; forceps lutescens. Strigarum duae breves 
ab anterioribus segmentorum absunt. 

72 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

? . Simillima mari. Prothoracis tergum virescenti 
griseum, strigis lateralibus atris duabus. Meso- et meta- 
thoraces lutei, strigis obscuris inter alas duabus. Alse 
vitrinoe, nervis transversalibus atris^ et nervis longitudi- 
nalibus cum areis marginalibus et submarginalibus, vires- 
centi-griseis. Pedes antici fusci^ apicibus femoris, tibiae, 
articulorumque tarsalium, atque tibise basi, atris. Caput 
ochraceum, circa ocellos luteum, oculis (veluti in S) 

Long. Corp. $ 15-20, ? 21-25; al. S 16, ? 20-21; 
set. c^" 30 & 35-6 ; set. ? im. 24 & 26-25 & 24, subim. 
15 mm. 

Hob. — The Thames, and the Kennet, near Eeading; 
near Paris ; and Genthod, near Geneva. June and July. 
It frequents rivers or tranquil waters. 

I have no doubt that the two females referred by Dr. 
Hagen to E. glaucops, Pict. subim. (Hag. 1863), were 
specimens of E. lineata. The E. danica of M. Pictet's 
collection is E. vulgata, Lin. 

Ephemera danica, 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 8. Maculse abdominalis, 
fig. 8a.) 

E. danica, Miil. 1764. E. maculata, Vill. 1789. E. 
vulgata, Don. 1795. E. cognata, Ste. 1835-6. E. his- 

panica, Rbr. 1842. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alee fumat^, nervis atris, lutescen- 
tibus bases versus ; vel flavo-virentes. Pedes lutei, tibiis 
et tarsis posticorum flavo-virescentibus, apicibus articu- 
lorum nigricantibus. Abdomen flavicans, maculis corvinis, 
et setis piceis. 

Imago, V. V. s. S . Caput et tergum thoracis aterrima 
vel picea ; os et prosternum straminea ; oculi fuliginosi. 
Al^e vis corvinge ; anticas areis marginalibus et submar- 
ginalibus anthracinis, maculis fuscis, et nervis atris. 
Pedum antici atri ; posteriores atro-fusci, juncturis satu- 
ratioribus. Abdomen cretaceum, postice seepe fusco 
sufFusum : posteriora segmentorum strigas quatuor supra 
habentj infraque lineas longas, atras vel fuscas, duas ; 
anteriora lineis intermediis supra carent, vel etiam omni- 
bus. Setas piceae. 

071 tho Ephemcridce. 73 

? abdomine pallide ochraceo, lineis et strigis fuscis. 
AljB vitriua3 : autica) in arcis marginalibus et submargi- 
nalibusj postica3 margines tei*minales versus, nigricanti 
tinct03. Pedum posteriores saturate virescente grisei, 
juncturis atris. 

Long. Corp. ^ 16, ? 16-23; al. $ 16, ? 14-22; set. 
(? 35 & 30, ? 14-25, subim. 17 mm. 

Hab. — Spain (Rbr.) ; France (Blanch.) ; England ; 
Lapland (Pict.); Moscow (Oul.) ; Belgium and Germany. 
In brooks, streams, and cold swift rivers ; from May to 

This is the May-fly of anglers. Fishermen apply 
various names to it, according to the state and sex ; thus 
the ''Green Drake" (? subim.), ''Bastard Drake'' ( ^ 
subim.), and the "May- fly" (? im.) . It frequents 
colder and more rapid streams than E. vulgata. Mr. E. 
Brown, of Burton-on-Trent, tells me that on one occasion 
he saw the River Dove almost covered with the sub- 
imago, at a part where it is upwards of twenty or thirty 
feet broad. 

Ephemera glaucops. 

(Forceps, PL IV. fig. 9.) 

E. lutea, Sulz. 1776 : {nee Lin.). E. glcmcops, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alao pallide cervino tinctte, nervis 
transversalibus atris rufo-cervino marginatis, ideoque in 
medio ala3 antica3 et prope basin maculas formantibus ; 
margines terminales, vel griseo vel rufo-cervino late 
tincti; nervi longitudinales flavescentes. Oculi saturate 

Imago c?, v. V. s. Oculi supra vel olivacei vel rubi- 
gineo-lutoscentes, infra saturate olivacei vel purpureo- 
rubiginei : os flavescens. Corpus rubigineo-luteum vel 
luteum ; " prothorax maculis fuscis duabus " (Pict.). 
Alae vitrinag, maculis paucis, et margines terminales versus 
tinctae, longitudinalibus nervorum (transversalibus ipsis 
atris) et marginibus transversalium, atque areis margina- 
libus et submarginalibus, plus aut minus lutescentibus. 
Pedum antici lutoscentes, apud juncturas atri : posteriores 
testacei, juncturis saturatioinbus vel virescenti-gnsei. 
Segmeutorum abdominis posteriora singula strigas atras 

74 Rev. A. E. Eaton*8 Monograph 

quatuor supra habent, infraque lineas duas ; strigis inter- 
mediis duabus anteriora segmentorum carent. Forfex 
lutea, juncturis atris vel piceis. Setas fuliginosge, junc- 
turis obscuris. 

? V. s. s. Simillima, sed mari pallidior. 

Long. Corp. S 16-17, ? 16; al. S 14-15, ? 16; 
set. c? 23, subim. 17, ? im. 14 mm. 

Eab. — Moscow (Oul.) ; Germany (Burm.) ; Switzer- 
land and North Italy. In lakes ; the end of July, and 

Ephemera immaculata, n. sp. 
(Forceps, PL IV. fig. 10.) 

Imago, V. s. s. c? • Thoracis tergum brunneo-luteum. 
Pedum antici picei, femoribus bases versus pallidioribus ; 
posteriores brunneo-testacei. Al« vitrinas, immaculatas ; 
antica3 areis submarginalibus, postica3 apud margines 
terminales, fuliginoso tinctae; nervi obscuri. Abdomen 
fuscum, apicibus segmentorum lineisque spiracularibus 
saturatioribus. SetfB umbrinee, invaria3. 

Long. Corp. $ 10*5, al. 11 mm. 

Hab. — Cuna, Hindostan. 

In the Oxford Museum. 

Ephemera exspectans. 
Potamanthus exspectans, Walk. 1860. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alee pallide furfurosse, nervis 
transversalibus purpureo - brunneis. Tergum thoracis 
fulvescens, striga utrinque fusca. Abdomen lineis longi- 
tudinalibus tenuibus atris, supra quatuor, infra duabus. 
Setse olivaceo-luteee, juncturis fuscis. Pedes lurido- 

Long. Corp. ? subim. 11, al. 14 mm. 

Hab . — Hindostan . 

Ephemera fasciata . 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 11, 11a.) 

Potamanthus fasciatus, Hag. 1858. 

Subimago, v. s. s. $ . Alse cervina) ; antic£B nervis 
transversalibus atris, paucia in area marginali justa sub- 

on tho Ephemeridce. 75 

costara obscure marginatis, et areis submarginalibus cum 
crassioribus nervorum longitudinalium lutescentibus. 
Pedes pubesceutes. 

Imago, V. s. s. S . Thoracis tergum testaceum. Alao 
vitrinse ; anticas apud costas et apices versus pallide luteo 
tinctoe; nervorum longitudinales furfurosi, transversales 
atri, puncto nodali subcosta) subfuliginoso. Pedes pallide 
testacei ; antici tarsis nigricantibus (prioribus articulorum 
fuscis exceptis) et tibiis fuscis. Abdomen sub-ocliraceum 
vel stramineum, supra lineis longitudinalibus duabus, et 
macula parva trigonali ad apicem cujusque segmentorum 
posteriorum utrinque, atris : prioribus segmentorum 
tnanguli absunt. Setfe furfurosee, juncturis saturatio- 

Long. Corp. $ 13-14, al. 14-15, set. c? im. 32-40, ? 
15 mm. 

Hab. — Eainbodde, Ceylon ; Masuri, North India. 

Ephemera serica, n. sp. 
(GenitaKa maris, PI. IV. fig. 12, 12a.) 

Subimago, v. s. s. AlfB pallide testacea); feminga 
plures nervorum transversalium, qui tres priores ner- 
vorum longitudinalium alte anticee interjacent, et pauci 
caeterorum, atri ; in mari quidem plures etiam cseterorum 
atri sunt. 

Imago, V. s. s. c^ . Caput lutescens, circa ocellos rufo- 
brunneum. Tergum thoracis furfurosum vel bruuneo- 
ochraceum, macula elongata utrinque prothoracis atra. 
Alee vitrinse, nervis veluti in subimagine ; punctum 
rotundatum apud punctum nodale, et alia in mediis ner- 
vorum transversalium circa medium alae picea; ala3 pos- 
ticaeimmaculatse. Pedes ochracei, coxis singulis maculis, 
apicibus femorum et tibiarvim anticarum, atque basibua 
harum, atris. Abdomen pallide ochraceum, lineis longi- 
tudinalibus atris tribus infra et supra. Setse ochraceae, 
irregulariter atro annulatse. 

? simillima. 

Long. Corp. ^ 11, $ 14; al. ^ 13, ? 18; set. ? 
subim. 17 mm. 

E.ab. — Northern China. 

76 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Genus Potamanthus. 

(Ala antica, in parte, PL II. fig. 1.) 

Ephemera, p., Lin. 1767. Baetis, p., Curt. 1834. Fo- 
tamanthus, p., Pict. 1843-5 ; Etn. 1868. 

Imago. Oculi maris subpartiti. Alae quatuor. Setae 
tres subsequales. Artus forcipis tri-articulati, proximo 
articulorum longissimo. Tarsi postici quinque-articulati : 
articulorum primus brevissimus, tibias adnatus, vix obso- 
letus ; secundus tertio vel quarto multo longior : ungues 
dissimiles. Ovivalvula femina caret. 

Fotamanthus luieus. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. IV. fig. 13, 13a.) 

Ephemera lutea, Lin. 1767. E. marginata, ? Mill. 1776. 
E. reticulata, Fourc. 1785. E. hyalina, Pz. 1804. Baetis 
me?/m. Curt. 1834. B. marginalis,B\irm. 1839. E.flavi- 
cans & E. chlorotica, Pamb. 1842. P. luteus, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, v. s. s. c? . Alfe flavse, costas versus paulo 
saturatiores, nervis tranversalibus nigris. 

? . Alae virescenti-griseo tinctee, apud bases flaves- 
centes, nervis flavescentibus. 

Imago, V. s. s. <?. Thoracis tergum luteum vel 
ochraceo-farfurosum. Alse vitrinee, flavescentes costas 
versus ; nervorum longitudinales flavi, transversales atri. 
Pedum antici sub-furfurosi, tarsis pallidis, sed apicibus 
tibiarum, juncturis et proximis articulorum tarsalium 
fuscis; posteriores straminei, unguibus juncturisque tar- 
sorum obscuris. Abdominis dorsum furfurosum, junctu- 
ris saturatioribus : segmentum singulum puncto sub- 
laterali apicali fusco, et puncto basali in linea spiraculari 
nigro, utrinque. Forceps flavus vel stramineus. Setee 
sub-furfurosa3, juncturis piceis, breviterque pubescentes. 

$ . " Clarior mari, macula fusca super prothoracem, 
et juncturis tarsorum anticorum obscure fuscis." (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. S 10-11, ? 9 ; al. $ 12-13; exp. al. ? 
29 ; set. S im. 15-19, ? 12 mm. 

7I«6.— England (Curt. & M'Lach.); France (Geof.); 
Germany (Sulz,, Pict.). 

on the Ephemeridce: 77 

Potamanthus Fcrreri. 
P. Fcrreri, Pict. 1843-5. 

Imago, S • "Thorax pallide furfurosus, macula dorsali 
pone protlioracem fusca. Al« vitrina), nervis pallidis- 
sime flavescentibus, et pluribus transversalium indiscretis. 
Pedum antici pallide fusci, femoribus coxisque saturatio- 
ribus, et juncturis flavis ; posteriores pallide furfurosi, 
invarii. Abdominis dorsum fuscum, latera versus fulvum, 
macula media trigonali super singula segmenta 3 venter 
fulvus. Set» et forceps pallide flava3/' 

Long. Corp. ^ 13, set. 18, exp. al. 30 mm. 

Z/a&.— Turin (Pict.). 

Genus Leptophlebia. 
(Ala antica, PI. II. fig. 2a.) 

Ephemera, p., Lin. 1746. Baetis, p., Burm. 1839. 
Leptophlebia, p., Westw. 1840. Potamanthus, p., Pict. 
1843-5. Palingenia, p., Walk. 1853. Leptophlebia (re- 
stricted), Etn.'l868. 

Imago. Alps quatuor. Setarum media est longa vel 
abbreviata. Oculi maris sub-parti ti. 

It is with very great hesitation that I venture provi- 
sionally to retain in this genus the majority of the species 
placed in it. Ignorance of their preparatory stages of 
development compels one to class them all together, for 
the present. The group to which L. fusca belongs seems 
at first sight to be clearly distinct from the rest ; but the 
nymph of L. fusca resembles that figured by Professor 
Pictet as the nymph of L. cincta ; and besides this, in 
the closely allied genus Baetis, it is found that considerable 
differences in the form and neuration of the posterior 
wings of species are compatible ^vith their being in the 
same genus : therefore L. fusca, in spite of appearances, 
can hardly be separated from the group of which L. mar- 
ginata is the type, with safety. On the other hand^ the 
differences between the group last mentioned, and that 
of which L. cupida is the type, are, upon the whole, 
equivalent to those between Ephemera and Hexagenia ; 
therefore it may be a mistake to consider them as sections 
merely of one genus. When the nymphs are known, all 
doubts will bo set at rest ; but not until then. Most likely 

78 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

differences will be detected between the maxillaa and 
maxillary palpi of the typical species of the several series, 
sufficiently marked to require their generic separation. 

Series 1. Sp. typica, L. austraUs. 

Imago. Tarsus posticus veluti in Potamantho, sed 
unguibus conformibus uncinatis. Setarum trium media 
quidem est longa, et caeteris subsequalis : plerumque 
tamen abrumpitur, igiturque cauda biseta esse videtur. 
Forcipis artus tri-articulati, proximo articulorum longis- 
simo. Costee alarum posticarum haud excisse sunt (nisi 
in L. aurictdata) . 

Occurrunt species in Australia, et circa litora Oceani 
Indici usque ad Promontorium Spei Bonse. 

Leptophlehia australis. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. IV. fig. 14, 14a. Alse anticas areas 
marg. apex, fig. 14b.) 

Ephemera austraUs, Walk. 1853. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alarum anticarum nervi transver- 
sales fusco vel virescenti-griseo marginati, marginibus 
plus aut minus coufluentibus : paucitas illorum spatium 
lambda-forme clarum relinquit, quod apicem angulumque 
analem oblique interjacit, atque ad basin alte crus breve 

Imago, V. s. s. S . Tergum thoracis piceum, politum. 
A\se vitrinse, nei-vis luteo-piceis, et apice arose marginalis 
anticas sub-viresceuti-griseo, nervulis transversalibus nu- 
merosis obliquis et subrectis. Pedum antici fusco-picei, 
posteriores flavescentes, femoribus obscure nigro bicinctis, 
et tarsis testaceis. Abdomen luteo-fuscum vel luteo- 
castaneum. Setae piceae. 

Long. Corp. S 7-10, al. 9-11, set. 23 & 22 mm. 

Hab. — Tasmania. (Brit. Mus.) 

Leptophlehia australasica. 

(Ala antica, PI. II. fig. 2. Genitalia maris, PI. IV. 
fig. 15, 15 a, b.) 

Baetis atistralasica, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, s. s. " Alaa nigricantes, nervia saturatiori- 
bus." (Pict. e figura.) 

on the Ephemeridce. 79 

Imago, V. s. s. 3". Thoracis tergum atro^piceum. Alee 
vitrinas, lurido sub-tinctte, nervis atro-piceis ; marginea 
virescenti-grisei nervorum simplicium transversalium in 
areis margiualibus et submarginalibus, in apicibus illarum 
confluent. Pedum antici atro-picei ; posteriores rufo- 
lutei, femoribus atro bicinctis. Abdominis dorsum rufo- 
fuscum, venter rufo-luteus ; segmentorum 2-8 singula 
maculis apicabbus utrinque juxta media rotundatis atris, 
lineisque obscuris obliquis ex apicibus retrorsum fere ad 
bases productis. 

? . Simillima. Processus ventralis e segmentorum 
penultimo excisus. 

Long. corp. ^ 9-10; al. ^^ ? 11 3 set. c? 32 mm. 

Hah. — Sidney and (?) Melbourne. 

Leptophlehia furcifera, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 16, 16b. AresB marginalis 
apex, fig. 16a.) 

Imago, V. s. s. ^ . Tergum mesothoracis brunneo- 
luteum: metathorax aterrimo-sanguineus. Pedum pos- 
teriores (exemplar anticis caruit) testacei, femoribus fusco 
bicinctis, at trochanteribus juxta bases obscure fuscis. 
Alfe vitrina), iridi-coloratae, nervis piceis : anticee apex 
arege marginalis rufo-fusco tinctus, nervis trans versalibus 
simplicibus numerosis subrectis et obliquis; cseteri ner- 
vorum transversalium inter costam, subcostam, duosque 
nervorum longitudinalium sequentium rufo-fusco margi- 
nati : puncta nodalia subcostas nervique sequentis nebidis 
parvis fuliginosis, veluti etiam punctum bifurcationis 
quarti nervorum pone costam, circumfunduntur. Abdo- 
men sanguineo-atrum, linea in medio longitudinali, lineis 
spiracularibus, maculisque trigonalibus latero-apicalibus 
segmentorum 2-6, pallidis. Setae cretaceae, juncturis in 
vices atris. 

Long. corp. S , et al. 11, set. 13 & 16 mm. 

Hah. — Melbourne. (M'Coy.) 

Leptophlehia inconspicua, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 17, 17b. Areso marginalis 
apex, fig, 17a.) 

Imago, V. s. s. S- Thoracis tergum politum. Ala) 
vix lacteo tinctee, nervis piceis. Pedes picei; interdum 

80 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

tarsi antici et posteriores pedum pallidiores sunt. Ab- 
domen apicem versus piceum^ segmentis intermediis 
pallidioribus, maculis parvis ovalibus ad latera dorsi fla- 
vescentibus. Setas fusc^^ juncturis saturatioribus. 

Long. Corp. (^ 5-6, al. 6-7 mm. 

Hab. — ^Adelaide. 

Leptopldehia dentata, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 18, 18a, b; feminae, fig. 18c. 
Arose marginalis apex, fig. 18d.) 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thoracis tergum furfur osura. Alee 
cano tinctsB, nervis transversalibus anguste marginatis : 
juxta punctum nodale subcostse, atque in areae marginalis 
apice, sunt labeculge atrte : areas marginalis et submargi- 
nalis obscure luteee. Pedes lutei, juncturis tarsorum 
piceis, et apicibus tibiarum anticarum atris. Abdomen 
adusto-umbrinum, apicibus segmentorum satm'atioribus. 
Setae pilosas, ochraceae, juncturis obscuris. 

? simillima. Processus ventralis penultimi segmen- 
torum emarginatus. 

Long. Corp. c? 8, ? 7-9; al. <^ 11, ? 7-13; set. c? 
18, ? 15-16 mm. 

Hah. — New Zealand. 

Leptophlehia strigata, nov. sp. 
(Lamina penult, segment., PI. IV. fig'. 19.) 

Imago, V. s. s. $ . Thoracis tergum fusco-fulvum, 
lineis longitudinalibus duabus utrinque prothoracis atris, 
quarum exteriores ad bases alarum anticarum prodeunt. 
Alas vitrinas, nervis piceis, juxta bases luridte ; anteriores 
prope costas umbrino-fulvge. Pedes saturate furfurosi, 
femoribus obscure bicinctis, cingulis anticorum plus aut 
minus confluentibus ; tibise tarsique pallidi, juncturis 
saturatioribus. Abdomen auroreum, strigis duabus lon- 
gitudinalibus atris (e triangulis truncatis continuis con- 
structis), lineaque utrinque singulo segmento apicali 
obliqua nigra : subtus liriea longitudinali simplici in 
medio aterrima. Setse pallide rubiginosae, juncturis 

Long. Corp. $ 22, al. 16, set. 23 & 19 mm. 

Hab. — North Australia. 

on the E^hemeridoe. 81 

Leptophlebia costalis. 

Baetis costalis, Burm. 1839 ; Potamanthus costalis, Pict. 

Subimago, s. s. c?. ''^ Nigra, linea thoracis ante alas 
albida, abdomine pedibusque rufo-cingulatis ; alis sub- 
fumatis, venis omnibus areas marginalis primse et secundaa 
infuscatis/^ (Burm.) 

Long. Corp. ($ 6.'" 

Hah. — New Holland. Perhaps allied to L. dentata. 

LepfophleMa nodularis, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 20, 20 b, c. Ala postica, 
fig. 20a.) 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alte vix nigricantes ; anticEe ner- 
vis transversalibus anguste nigricanti marginatis, mar- 
ginibus plus minusve apud medium al^e et inter medium 
apicemque confluentibus ; posticee unicolores. 

Imago, V. s. s. c? . Thorax supra atro-piceus. Alfe 
vitringe, nervis atris; nervi transversales are^e marginalis 
areeeque submarginalis anguste et obscure marginati, 
atque inter se apud medium costse iterumque paulo ante 
apicem approximantes, ita ut psene maculas fingant; arege 
pars basalis fusca. Pedum antici obscure lutescentes, 
femoi'e in medio, genu, tibiaeque apice nigro circumdatis ; 
posteriores furfurosi, femoribus solum nigro cinctis. Ab- 
domen decoloratum. Setas albicantes, bene nigro annu- 

Long. Corp. c? 9; al. 10-12; set. 16 mm. 
Hab. — Christchurch, New Zealand (Fereday) . The 
penis has no appendages. 

Leptophlebia scita. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 21, 21a.) 

Baetis scita. Walk. 1853. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alfe vel nigricantes, vel fuliginosae, 
nervis atris (transversalibus marginibus saturatioribus) ; 
antica macula pallida in medio : apud punctum nodale 
subcostae hujus, et in apice quoque areae marginalis, tres 
vel quatuor nervorum transversalium ferme inter se 
approximant, ita ut maculas saturatiores duas faciant. 


82 Eev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Imago, V. s. s. S • Thoracis tergum fuliginosum . Alge 
vitrinae, cano tinctse, nervis fuscis : antica macula basali, 
marginibus angustis nervorum, arese marginalis, ma- 
culisque super costam duabus quasi in subimagine, fuscis. 
Posteriores pedum lutei, femoribus in mediis obscure 
punctatis, tarsisque fuscescentibus. Abdomen saturate 
fuscum, apicibus segmentorum saturatioribus ; segmento- 
rum intermedia singula maculis brevibus trigonalibus 
duabus juxta bases, flavescentibus. Setje albse, vel cer- 
vinae, juncturis subinde saturatis. Forceps lutevis. 

? mari simillima. 

Long. corp. S 6, al. 7-8 mm. 

Hah. — New Zealand. 

LeptopMehia Taprohanes. 

(Genitalia maris, PL IV. fig. 22, 22a.) 

Baetis Taprohanes, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. $ . Corpus atrum. Pedum antici 
atri, posteriores picei. Alae vitrinee, pallidissime fusco 
tinctfe, nervis fuscis: antica areis marginali atque sub- 
marginali fuscis, apicibus saturatioribus, nervis transver- 
salibus in apice illius simplicibus rectisque. Abdominis 
juncturse pallidse. Setas fuscae. 

Long. al. c? 12, set. super 30 mm. 

Hah. — Ceylon. 

LeptopMehia annulata. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. IV. fig. 23, 23 a, b.) 

PotamantJiUs annuJatus, Hag. 1858. 

Subimago, s. s. ^ . " Alis nigro fumosis." (Hag.) 

Imago, V. s. s. $ . Tergum thoracis fuscum. Alas 
vitrinae, nervis atris: anticae juxta costas fusco tinctae, 
nervis transversalibus numerosis curvatis simplicibusque 
in areis marginalibus apices versus. Pedes saturate fusci. 
Abdomen testaceum, apicibus segmentorum fuscis. 
Seta3 fuliginosEe. 

Long. Corp. c? 9, al. 10, set. 35 & 37 mm. 

Hah. — Rainbodde, Ceylon. 

on the Ephemeridce. 83 

Leptophlebia femoralis . 
Potamanthus femoralis, Hag. 1858. 

Subimago, s. s. " Alls griseo fumatis." 

Imago, s. s. " Capite thoraceque fusco-seneis, pedibus 
pallidis, femoribus cingulo medio nigro, setis brunneis, 
abdomine albido, apice fusco, segmentis omnibus apice 
fusco marginatis ; alis vitreis, venis fuscis." (Hag.) 

Long. set. ^ 33, ? 15; exp. al. i ? 18 mm. 

Hab. — Rainbodde. 

LeptopMehia dislocans. 
Ephemera dislocans, Walk. 1860. 

Imago, V. s. s. ? . Al^e vitrinae, vix lacteo tinctee, 
nervis umbrinis : horum transversales in medio atque 
apud costam a\se anticge fusco marginati, et apicem arese 
marginalis versus recti, obliqui et fere simplices. Pedes 
luteo-picei, femoribus annulis in mediis piceis. Abdomen 
luteo-castaneum, apicibus segmentorum piceis : segmen- 
tum singulum striga obliqua indiscreta laterali. Setae 

Long. al. $ 6, set. 18 mm. 

Hab. — The Cape of Good Hope. 

Leptophlebia auriculata, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PL* lY. fig. 24, 24a. Ala postica, fig. 


Imago, V. s. s. ^ . Picea, tborace atro. Alas vitrinae, 
nervis atro-piceis ; nervi transversales in apice areee 
marginalis simplices; alee posticge piceo tinctae, spatio 
subcostali incolorato. Pedum antici picei ; posteriores 
rufo-picei: femora omnia atro-bicincta (vel ? bimaculata) . 
Abdomen junctui'is saturatioribus, et setis vel atro-piceis, 
vel corvino-atris. 

Long. Corp. c? et al. 9, set. 20 mm. 

Hab. — Graham's Town. 

The form of the hind-wing rather closely resembles 
that of one of the less oblique species of Avicula or Perna. 
The name has reference to the excessive dilatation 
of the marginal area, which reminds one of the "ears" 
of such shells. 

2 G 

84 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Series 2. Sp. tjpica, L. Colombice. 

Subimago, $ . Tarsorum antici quinqne-articulati, 
posteriores quaclri-articulati : articulorum peuultimus cse- 
teris brevior, duo priores sequales. Alee posticse minimge. 
Setse tres sequales. 

Leptophlehia Colotuhice. 

Ephemera Colombice, Walk. 1853; Palingenia Colomh'ce, 
Hag. 1861. 

Subimago, v. s. s. 9 • Thoracis tergum luteura. Ala9 
semi-opacfe, sub-testacete; nervi transversales apicales 
arege marginalis anticas nuraerosi, simplices, obliqui, at 
curyati. Pedum antici saturate caryopliyllei, tarsis luteis ; 
posteriores lutei. Abdomen supra castaneum, infra 
lutescens ; segmenta intermedia singula apicibus stri- 
gisque lateralibus obliquis atris. Set» fuliginosEe, junc- 
turis et mediis articulorum saturatioribus. 

Long. Corp. $ 10, al. 15, set. 9 mm. 

Hab. — British Colombia. 

Perhaps Bactis tesseUata, Hag., is to be referred to 

this species (see Heptagenia tesseUata) . 

Series 3. Sp. typica, L. marginata. 

Nympha reptans, laminis branchialibus pinnati-partitis 
ptene filiforme-dissectis. (Pict.) 

Alis erectis, setisque lateralibus a media varis, stans 
super pedes omnes, subimago quiescit. 

Imago. Pedibus anticis elevatis et divergentibus mas 
dormit. 9 Tarsi ferme quadri-articulati (rarissime arti- 
culus quintus tibige adnatus obscure indicatur) : articu- 
lorum penultimus casteris brevior, duo priores subaequales; 
ungues postici dissimiles. Sette tres gequales vel sub- 
asquales. Pedum forcipis nuraerus articulorum a duobus 
ad quatuor pro specie variat, primus tamen semper long- 
issimus est. Costte alarum posticarum hand exciste. 

Leptophlebia marginata. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. IV. fig. 25, 25 a, b. Alje anticae 
pars, PI. II. fig. 2a.) 

Ephemera marginata, Lin. 1767. E. viridescens, Fourc. 
1785. E. procellaria, Schwarz, Nomencl. Rosels. Insect. 

on the Epliemeridce. 85 

Belust. E. stigma & talcosa, Ste. 1835-6 ; Pofamanthus 
stigma & talcosus, Pict. 1843-5. P. marginatiis, Hag. 1863. 

SubiraagOj v. v. s. Alte fuliginosee vel corvinse, venis 
flavescentibus, transversalibus anguste nigricante mar- 
ginatis ; posticas bases versus vel in toto pallidiores, 
nervis transversalibus apud margines terminales nigri- 

Imago, V. V. s. $ . Oculi piceo-hepaticolores, vel rufo- 
fuliginosi. Tei-gum thoracis fuscum vel aterrimum, 
politum. Alae vitrin^, nervis fuscis : antica apicibus 
areas marginalis et areas submarginalis fuscis vel sub- 
fuliginosis. Pedum antici nigro-picei, tarsis cinereis : 
posteriores picei vel fusco-lutei, tibiis interdum brunneis, 
tarsisque plus minusve fuliginosis. Abdomen ferme 
supra fuscum vel fusco-piceum, juncturis flavescentibus, 
infra fuliginosum, juncturis pallidis, et maculis satura- 
tioribus sub plexus nervoi-um: interdum tamen seg- 
mentorum 2-7 cinerea sunt, lineis spiracularibus satu- 
ratis, maculisque sub plexus nervorum luteis, atque 
castera sunt fusco-picea. Set® atr^e, vel cinerea3, junc- 
turis vix obscuratis. Forceps fuliginosus vel testaceus. 

? vel mari similis ; vel abdomine supra piceo, apici- 
bus segmentorum saturatioribus, etsubtils atro-fuliginoso, 
tibiis anticis testaceis. Processus ventralis penultimi 
segmentorum incisus est. 

Long. corp. ^ 6-12, ? 6-11; al. ^ 7-11, ? 7-12; 
set. cJ im. 12-20, subim. 9; set. $ im. 8-16 mm. 

Hah. — Temperate and Arctic Europe and America. 
In England it appears in April, May, July, September 
and October, and frequents rivers. 

Leptophlehia helvipes. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. lY. fig. 26, 26 a-c. Ala postica, 
fig 26d.) 

Ephemera helvipes, dispar & suhmarginata, Ste. 1835-6. 
Poiamanthus Geerii, helvipes, dispar, & submarginatns, 
Pict. 1843-5. Baetis reticulata, ? Burm. 1839. Cloeon 
cuUciformis , Walk. 1853. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alas cervinae vel nigricantes, 
nervis transversalibus late nigro-marginatis ; paucitas 
horum in medio alae anticae maculam transversalem circa 
costae medium pellucidam facit. 

86 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Imago, V. V. s. Oculi supra saturate purpureo-brunnei, 
subtus fusci. Tergum thoracis aterrimum, politum. Alse 
vitrin^e, crassioribus nervorum furfurosis. Pedum antici 
atri, tarsis corvinis ; posteriores picei, tibiis tarsisque 
fuliginosis. Abdomen supra fusco-piceum, juncturis in- 
terraediis pallidis ; subtus fusco - fuliginosum, maculis 
obscuris sub plexus nervorum. Forceps furfurosus. 
Setre testaceaSj juncturis saturatis. 

? simillima mari, processu ventrali penultimi seg- 
mentorum acute exciso. 

Long. Corp. S 10-11, ? 9-11; al. ^ 10-11, ? 10-13; 
set. S im. 12 & 13-14 & 16, subim. 7 ; set. ? im. 9-13, 
subim. 9 & 10-10 & 12 mm. 

Hab. — Great Britain ; Germany; and Switzerland (Pict. 
Mus.) . In May, June, July, and August, frequenting 
streams, rivers and lakes. The name is applicable to 
dried specimens. 

Leptophlebia castanea. 
Potamanthus castaneiis, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, v. s. " Prsecedenti similis, macula tamen 
cordiformi super mesothoracis apicem^ et juncturis tho- 
racis, pallidis.'" 

Imago, S V. s. ''Oculi latericio-rubentes ; alitor 
feminse similis. '^ 

$ . ''Tergum thoracis striga pallida longitudinali. 
Pedes set^eque pallide fusci." (Pict.) 

Long. Corp., al., et set. ? circa 8 mm. 

Hab. — A small stream near the marsh of Villeneuve, at 
the upper end of the Lake of Geneva, in July. The body 
of this species is of a maroon-brown colour. (Pict.) 

Leptophlebia (?) Krueperi. 
Potamanthus Krueperi, Stein, 1864. 

Imago, s. s. c?. " Picea, pleuris pedibus abdo- 
mineque aurantiacis, alis posticis laete fuscis, setis cauda- 
libus flavescentibus obscure annulatis. Alae anticae apud 
costas vix flavescentes." 

Long. corp. S 10"5, exp. al. 12 mm. 

Hab. — Greece. In the collection of the Berlin Museum. 

on the Ephemeridce. 87 

Leptophlebia Picteti. 

Potamanthus marginatus, Pict. 1845-5 {nee Lin.) . 

Subimago. " Alas obscure grisesB ; antica area margi- 
uali pallide fusca/^ 

Imago, ^. ^'Oculi obscuri. Tergum thoracis atrum, 
prothorace fusco. Alae vitrinae, nervis longitudinalibus 
rufescentibus ; aiiticge areis marginalibus et submargina- 
libus fuscis. Pedes rufescentes; tibiae singulge basibus 
lineisque ex eis "productis, et punctis prope apices, atris. 
Abdomen acute fuscum supra, apicibus segmentorum 
saturatioribus, praecipue latera versus. Forfex seteeque 

? " mare saturatior." (Pict). 

Long. Corp. (^ 8, ? 7; set. cJ' 10, $ subim. 9; al. 
exp. S 18, ? 20 mm. 

Hab. — Near Geneva, principally in October. 

Leptophlehia prisca. 
Potamanthus priscus, Pict. 1854. 

Exp. al. 13 mm. 
Species in electro. 

Leptophlehia cincta. 
(GenitaHa maris, PI. IV. fig. 27.) 

Ephemera halterata (?), Fab. 1777. E. cincta, Retz. 
1783. E. nigra, Fourc. 1785. E. inanis, Gmel. 1790-3. 
E. albipennis, Fab. 1793. E. hyaUnata&vitrea, Zet. 1840. 
Potamanthus cinctus, inanis, halteratus, hyalinus, & 
Cloe fuscata, Pict. 1843-5. Cloeon fuscata, Walk. 1853. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alae atrae, nervis obscure flaves- 
centibus. Thorax piceus vel atro-piceus. Abdomen ( ($ ) 
cinereum, apicem versus fuscum, apicibus segmentorum 
obscure canis. 

Imago, V. v. s. ^ . Oculi supra fuliginosi, infra atri. 
Tergum thoracis aterrimum, politum. Alae vitrina3, 
crassioribus nervorum vix electro-coloratis. Pedes albi 
vel cretacei, femoribus anticis saturatioribus, et tibiis 
tarsisque sub-testaceis. Abdomen rarissime in toto 
fuscum; plerumque tamen segmentorum 2-7 vitrea sunt, 

88 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

apicibus interdum lutescenti suffusis, lineis spiracularibus 
in parte atris^ et plexubus nervorum rubiginosis ; atque 
apicalia sunt fusca vel picea, juncturis vel flavescentibus 
vel rufescentibus. Setee forfexque albicantes ; base vel 
tri- vel quadri-articulata, et basin versus nigricana. 

? . Nervi crassi alarum picei. Pedes setgeque testacei, 
posterioribus tar orum albican tibus. Abdomen saturate 
fusco-piceum, juncturis flavescentibus^ et processu penul- 
timi segmentorum late exciso. 

Long. corp. c? ? 7-8 ; al. c? ? 7-9 ; set. c? im. 8 & 9 
-8 & 11, subira. 9 & 7 ; set. ? im. 7 & 10-8 & 11 mm. 

Hub. — Northern and Temperate Europe, in streams and 
rivers. June, July, and August. 

Leptoplilebia vespertina. 

Ephemera vespertina, Lin. 1758. E. alhipennis, Retz. 
1783. Baetis fusca, Burm. 1839. Cloe vespertina, Oul. 


Subimago, s. s. "Nigra, alisposticisalbis. Est inter 
minores generis sui, toto corpore et alis anticis nigris ; 
solas alse posticas alb^e, quibus ab omnibus generis sui 
speciebus manifesto difiert. 

Hah. — Copiose in Smolandia ad fluvium Sathaella." 
(Lin. abstract.) 

Leptophlebia mollis, n. sp. 

(Forceps maris, PL IV. fig. 28.) 

Cloe mollis. Hag. 1861 ; not described. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alae pallidissime brunnescenti-albas. 
Abdomen femin« fuscum. 

Imago, V. s. s. $ . Tergum thoracis vel luteo-piceum, 
vel saturate fuscum . Pedum antici testacei, tarsis albis ; 
posteriores pallidissime testacei. Alae vitreae. Segmen- 
torum abdominis 2-7 alba, juncturis obscuris; caetera 

Long. Corp. c? 6, ? 5 ; al. c? 7, ? 7'5 mm. 

Eab. — West Farm, New York. 

Series 4. Sp. fypica, L. cupida. 

Imago. Alee posticEe, et genitalia, eis specierum in 
serie praecedenti similes. Setarum media manifeste 

on the Ejjhemendce. 89 

brevissima. Tarsorum posteriores quinque-articulati ; 
articulorum primus obsolescens, tibiae adnatus, secundus 
tertio subasqualis, quartus ceteris brevior 3 itaque saepe 
quadri-articulati esse videntur. 

Leptophlehia cupida. 

(Genitalia maris^ PL IV. fig. 29, 29a ; feminas, fig. 29b. 
Alas anticas pars, PL II. fig. 2b.) 

Ephemera cupida, Say, 1823. Palingenia concinna, pal- 
lipes, Baetis dehilis & (?) E. hehes, Walk. 1853. Pota- 
manthus cupidus, concinnus, & Baetis ignava, Hag. 1861. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alas pallide nigricantes; ^'pos- 
teriores apices versus vix saturatiores." (Say.) 

Imago, V. s. s. ^."Oculi supra fuscescentes, infra 
atri " (Say, e v. s.). Tergum thoracis piceum vel fuscum. 
Alas vitrinffi, nervis et apice arete marginalia anticge pal- 
lide fusco-piceis. Pedum antici fuscescentes vel vix 
rufescentes, tarsis atris ; posteriores testacei, tarsis ni- 
gricantibus. Abdomen piceum, ''supra juncturis, linea 
longitudinal! in medio strigisque brevibus duabus apud 
basin segmenti singuli, pallidis^^ (Say, e v. s.). Setse 
fuscse, juncturis obscuris. 

? . Al^ vitrin^, vix lurido tinct^. Processus ventralis 
penultimi segmentorum emarginatus. 

Long. Corp. ^8, ? 10 ; al. cJ 8, ? 11 ; set. S subim. 
14, 9 15 mm. 

Hah. — Nova Scotia (Walk.); the Ohio River near Cin- 
cinnati (Say); Washington (Hag.), &c. 

Leptophlebia nehulosa. 
(Genitalia maris, PL V. fig. 1, la.) 

Palingenia nehulosa, Walk. 1853; Potamanthus nebu- 
losus, Hag. 1861. Pot. odonatus, Walsh, 1862. 

Imago (?, V. s. s. Thoracis tergum piceum. Alee 
vitrinae, nervis piceis ; anticte singulte nebulis raagnis 
rotundatis apices versus subfuscescentibus. Pedum an- 
tici fusci, posteriores testacei. Abdomen supra piceum, 
subtus subtestaceum. Setae testaceae, juncturis piceis. 

Long. Corp. <? 10, al. 10-11, set. 30 & 6 mm. 

Hab. — S. Martin's Falls, River Albany, Hudson's Bay 
(Walk.); Illinois (Walsh). 

90 Eev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Series 5. Sp. typica, L.fusca. 

Nympha reptans. Segmentorum abdominis 1-7 braii- 
chiifera; laminae branchiales simplices, pinnati-partitae 
quidem, sed pasne filiforme-dissectae. Palpi maxillares 
tri-articulati ; superioris primus articulorum largus caeter- 
isque conjunctim longior, secundus tertio subeequalis ; 
inferioris ultimus articulorum penultimo longior. 

Imago. Posteriorum alarum margo costalis valde ex- 
cisus. Tarsorum posteriores quinque-articulati ; articulo- 
rum primus obsolescens, tibiae adnatus, brevis, secundus 
longior, tertius et quartus secundo sensim breviores ; 
ungues dissimiles. Artus forcipis primus articulorum 
aliis longitudine subsequalis. 

Leiptoplilehia fusca. 

(Ala antica, PL II. fig. 2 c. Genitalia maris, PL V. fig. 
2, 2 a. Ala postica, fig. 2 b.) 

Ephemera fusca, Curt. 1834. E. minor & Baetis cin- 
gulata, Ste. 1835-6. Potamanthus brunneus, f us cus, minor 
& Cloe cingulata, Pict. 1843-5. Cloeon cingulata, Walk. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alae cinereae, nervis piceis. Tho- 
rax piceus : tibiarum anticas subfuliginosae, posteriores 
cervinge . 

Imago, V. V. s. $ . Oculi saturate fuliginosi. Tergum 
thoracis aterrimum politum. Alse vitrinae, nervis fuscis. 
Pedes brunneo-olivacei, femoribus et tibiis anticis piceis. 
Abdomen fusco-piceum, juncturis flavescentibus, setis et 
forcipe fuscis (in s. s. saturate fulvis) . 

$ mari similis, tarsis anticis pallidis. Setae fuliginosae, 
juncturis vix saturatioribus. Processus ventralis penul- 
timi segmentorum late excisus. 

Long. Corp. S 5-7, ? 6-7 ; al. c? ? 6-7 ; set. c? 8 & 12 
-11 & 12, ? 8-9, subim. 6 mm. 

Sab. — Great Britain ; Interlaken ; Mt, Saleve (Pict.) . 
In brooks and rivers. The end of May to August. 

A pair of branchial plates is omitted from Professor 
Pictet's figure of the nymph, which is, in other respects, 
a good representation of it. 

on the Ephcmeridce, 91 

Leptophlebia modesta. 
(Genitalia maris, PL V. fig. 3, 3 a, b.) 
Potamanthus modesties, Hag. 1864. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alarum anticao murinae, posticte 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thoracis tergum piceum vel ater- 
rimum. Al« vitrinse, venis testaceis vel fuscis ; posticaB 
vix lacteo tinct«. Pedum antici picei ; posteriores satu- 
rate fusci. Abdomen fusco-piceum. Setee virescenti- 
grisese vel fuliginosge, juncturis atris. 

? . " Processus ventralis penultimi segmentorum 
bifidus." (Hag.) 

Long. Corp. (J 6-7; al. $ ? 8-9; set. c? circa 
10 mm. 

Hah. — Carinthia (Zeller MS.) ; Corsica (Hag.). 

Dr. Hagen's diagnosis of tlie subimago seems to suit 
L. modesta ; but the specimen associated with the types 
of the imago in M. de Selys Longchamps' collection is 
Baetis Illwdani, $ subim. 

Genus [ ]. 

Imago diptera, cauda triseta ; Leptophlehice approxime 

[ ] inanis. 

Potamanthus inanis \\, Pict. 1843-5. 

Imago, s. s. " Caput nigrum ; thorax acute fuscus. 
AlfB vitretB, nervis tenuibus, fuscis; vix griseo tinct», 
sed apud costas obscuriores, et ad bases flavescentes. 
Pedes fusci. Abdomen albidum, apice fusco ; segmenta 
pallida, singula macula magna fusca utrinque. Set89 
griseae, nigro-punctatse." (Pict.) 

Hah.—BvsLzil. (Pict.) 

In the Vienna Museum. 

Professor Pictet thought that the forceps had little 
lamellar limbs : but he was not sure that the shape of 
these might not have become changed after death. 

92 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Genus Tkicokythus. 
(Ala mesothoracica, PL II. fig. 3.) 

Ej()heinera,Sa,Y. 1817. Coem's, Pict. 1843-5. Tricorythus, 
Etn. 1868. 

Imago. Alfe duas ; setae tres aequales ; oculi maris 
integri. A nervis alarum facillime e Cceni distinguitur. 

Tricorythus varicauda. 
Ccenis varicauda, Pict. 1843-5. 

Imago, s. s. " Pallide luteus, vel ocliraceus ; oculis 
maculaque in vertice atris : suturis (?) mesothoracis dorsi 
quoque atris ; alis vix flavescentibus, costis subcostisque 
paulo saturatioi'ibus ; et pedibus luteis vel ochraceis 
griseo variis. Segmentorum abdominis quinque apicalia 
punctis singulis ventralibus nigris. Setae albae, anguste 
nigro annulatae." (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. S 4, set. 9; exp. al. 10 mm. 

Hah. — Upper Egypt. 

Genus Ccenis. 

Ccenis, Ste. 1835-6. Brachycercus, Curt. 1834, Ma- 
crocercus, Westw. 1836. Oxycyplta, Burm. 1839. Cceneus, 
Agassiz, Nomenclat. * 

(Ala antica, PI. II. fig. 4.) 

Nympha fodiens. Segmentorum abdominis 1, 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7 branchiifera : laminarum anticge minutas, erecta? ; 
secundee magna?, crassae, caeteras tegentes ; reliqueetenuis- 
simge, semiovatae, bene fimbriatee, imbricatas, graduatim 
minores a fronte retrorsum ; omnes simplices. Pedes 
femoribus vel compressis vel gracilibus secundum 
speciem. Caput vel inerrae, vel cornibus tribus fronta- 
libus armatum. Palpi maxillares tri-articulati : supe- 
rioris proximus articulorum largus, tertio longitudine 

* Brachycerctis being a sexual name gives place to Ccenis. Ccenia, 
Newman, 1838, is a genus of Diptera. Ccenis was changed by Poseidon 
into an in\iilnerable man named Cceneus, one of the Lcqnthce. He being 
buried alive by the Centaurs in the com-se of the famous battle, was 
thereupon transformed into a bird. She somehow seems to have regained 
her original form ; for Virgil narrates the meeting of .^neas with Caeuis 
in Hades, in Mn. vi. 448. 

on the Ephemeridce. 93 

eequalis ; secundus brevior : inferioris primus articulo- 
rum multo largissiraus, caeteris conjunctim longitudine 
subsequalis ; tertius conicus, secundo semi-aequalis. 

Pedibus anticis depressis, alis duabus late expansis 
(fere nunquam erectis), et setis tribus subaequalibus 
pubescentibus parallelis, subimago quiescit. 

Imago. Caput et prothorax transversi ; oculi remoti, 
integri. Alse duee magnae, in longitudinem marginium 
terminalium ciliatre. Tarsi quinque-articulati (intermedii 
interdum tamen quadri-articulati) : posticus proximo ar- 
ticulorum brevissimo, tibiseque adnato, secundo tertio 
et quarto brevibus subsequaUbus^ quinto caeteris lon- 
giore : anticorum ungues breves, obtusi, conformes ; 
posteriorum ungues dissimiles. Setse tres subaequales, 
internodis (in <^) longis. Forcipis pedes inarticulati. 
Ovivalvula femina caret. Latera segmentorum abdominis 
plus minus ve retro producta. 

These insects live a very short time in their adult state. 
They fly in dense crowds over gentle streams, rivers and 
lakes, early in the morning and late in the day, at the 
beginning and end of summer. Dr. Hagen says that, in 
Prussia, the English species sometimes appear "in such 
quantities that objects near the water are covered an 
inch thick, and in the Curische Nehriing they are used 
to feed the pigs." With us, they are less abundant. 

Ccenis macrura. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. V. fig. 4.) 

Ephemera hrevicauda, Fab. ( ? sub. ?) 1793. C. ma- 
crura & interrupta, Ste. 1835-6. \_E. pusilla, Zet. MS., 
1840.] G. grisea, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alae griseo vel nigricanti tinctae, 
praecipue costas versus. Setae nigricantes. 

Imago, V. V. s. Caput nigrum, articulis antennarum 
proximis duobus, et junctura capiti-thoracicii, cervinis. 
Prothorax corvinus : meso- et meta-thoraces aterrimi 
nitentes. Pedes $ femoribus atris, tibiis tarsisque pal- 
lide nigricantibus : $ femoribus anticis griseis, posticis 
cretaceis. Abdomen S griseum, latera versus corvi- 
num ; segmentorum intermedia singula supra lineis in 
mediis longitudinalibus, punctis duobus apud bases duo- 

94) Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

busque subtua circa media, pellucidis : ? abdomine 
nigricante, latera juncturasque versus ochraceo, et subtus 
virescenti-griseo tincto. E lateribus segmentorum api- 
calium setul« tenues pallidte breves producuntur. Setae 
obscurae, juncturis nigricantibus. 

Long. Corp. ^ 4-5, ? 6 ; al. S 4-5, 9 7 ; set. S im. 
14 & 15-15 & 16, subim. 3 ; set. ? im. 3-5 & 2, subim. 
3 mm. 

JIah. — England; Switzerland; Voslau (Brauer); Lap- 
land (Zet.) . May to September. 

Spiders' webs and painted surfaces have provided me 
with dried specimens in widely distant localities. They 
fly at Reading from about 4*45 until 8 or 9 a.m., and 
again in the cool of the afternoon and evening, in June. 
I have seen subimagines with the dew thick upon their 
wings, resting on a flood-gate of the canal at 5.30 a.m. 
in June ; and when the sunlight reached them, they 
immediately began to moult. 

Ccenis (?) chironomiformis. 

(?) Br achy cercus chironomiformis, Curt. 1834; (?) Ccenis 
chironomiformis, Ste. 1835-6. Oxycypha lactea, Burm. 
1839; Ccenis lactea, Pict. 1843-5. (?) C. halterata, Hag. 



(Margine membrane subgenitalis c? anguste furfuroso, 
haud nigro veluti in prgecedente.) 

Imago, V. s. s. Caput et thorax brunneo-lutescentes, 
nervis alarum obscuris. Pedes albican tes, femoribus 
anticis brunneis. Abdomen supra griseum, apicibus 
segmentorum et linea longitudinali media albicantibus, 
'' strigisque indistinctis e spiraculis atris ; venter flaves- 
cens" (Hag.). Setae sub-fuscescentes; forceps et margo 
membranae subgenitalis anguste furfurosi absque macula 
basali obscura. 

Long. Corp. ? 4; exp. al. ? 7; set. ? 11 mm 
(Pict.) . 

Hab. — England (Curt.) ; Prussia (Burm., Hag.); Lake 
of Geneva (Pict.) . In May. 

The only specimens I have seen of this insect are in 
M. Pictet's collection : one (or more) of them is in 
spirits. The penis of this specimen was very similar in 
form to that of a dried specimen of C. macrura. 

on the Ephemeridce, 95 

Ccanis dimidiata. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. V. fig. 5. Ala antica, PI. II. fig. 4.) 

Ephemera minima, (?) Lin. 1747. E. horaria, (?) Lin. 
1758. Brachycercus minima, (?) Curt. 1834. Ccenis dimi- 
diata, hrevicanda & pennata, Ste. 1835-6. Cloe horaria, 
(?) Ramb. 1842. E. albipennis, Atk. 1843. Cloeon horaria, 
(?) Walk. 1853. 

Subiraago, v. v. s. Alae can^e, areis et marginali et 
submarginali fuliginosis ptene usque ad apices. Setae 
albfe, pubescentes. 

Imago, V. V. s. Caput et prothorax fusci, obscuri, 
antennis albis, oculis atris. Meso- et meta-thoraces picei. 
Pedum antici sub-fuliginosi, femoribus griseis ; posteri- 
ores cani, puncto atro ante femoris apicem. Abdomen 
vel in toto album vel cretaceum ; saspissime tribus seg- 
mentorum apicalium tantum cretaceis, et caeteris griseis, 
juncturis lineaque longitudinali media cretaceis. Ventris 
segmenta seepe griseo bi-punctata sunt. Genitalia et 
setae albee. 

Long. Corp. <$ 3-5, ? 4; al. <? 4, ? 3 ; 'set. c? 18 & 
13, subim. 3 & 2-5-3 & 3-5 ; sat. ? 3, subim. 2-25 mm. 

Hab. — England; Visp in the Valais; Belgium (De 
Selys Mus.); Prussia (Hag.); Moscow (OuL). From 
June to August. 

Ccenis diminuta. 

C. diminuta, Walk. 1853. G. arnica, (?) Hag. 1861. 

(Genitalia maris eis prascedentis parum similia.) 

Imago, V. s. s. Thorax luteus : alis vitreis, costas ver- 
sus nigricantibus ; pedibus albis, femoribus anticis cin- 
erascentibus. Segmentorum abdominis anteriora sub- 
virescenti-grisea, posteriora cretacea ; segmentis singulis 
ad latera lineis obscuris longitudinalibus. Genitalia et 
setae albae. 

Long. Corp. (^ 2'5, al. 3, set. 10*5 mm. 

Hah.—^. John's Bluff, East Florida (E. Doubleday) ; 
Pennsylvania (Hag.) . 

The posterior femora of C. arnica. Hag., have each a 
superior subapical black spot ; but I suspect it will be 
found to be identical with G. diminuta, Walk. 

96 Rev. A. E. Eaton^a Monograph 

Ccenis hilaris. 
Ephemera hilaris, Say, 1839 ; C. hilaris, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. ? . '' Thorax pallide fulvus, alis costas versus 
obscuris. Abdomen album, segmentis apicalibus singulis 
utrinque punctis tribus fuscis.^' (Say, abstract.) 

Long. Corp. 2 mm. 

Hah. — Indiana. September. (Say.) 

Ccenis perpusilla. 

(7. j9erpwst7Za, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. S - " Testacea ; alee antice sub-cine- 
reae : pedes setaeque albi." 

Long. Corp. 2*5, set. 12, exp. al. 6 mm. 

B"a&.— Ceylon. (Walk.) 

CcBnis discolor. 

Oxycypha discolor, Burm. 1839 ; Ccenis discolor, Pict. 
1843-5 ; Cloeon discolor, Walk. 1853. 

Subimago, ? s. s. ^^ Supra cinerea, subtus pallida; alis 
infuscatis, costa obscuration ; his filamentisque analibus 
longius pilosis." 

Long. Corp. ? 2'5 lin. 

Hah. — Cape of Good Hope. (Burm.) 

Ccenis argentata. 

C. argentata, Pict. 1843-5. 

(Confer cum C. macrurd et C. dimidiata.) 

Subimago, s. s. " Caput et thorax grisei, fulgore 
argenteo; prothorax vix clarior. Alfe grisete, costis 
subcostisque nigris. Pedum antici grisei ; posteriores 
albi. Abdomen basin versus griseum, apice albo. Setaa 
albae, vix nigro annulatis." (Pict.) 

Long. corp. $ 4, exp. al. 8, set. 3 mm. 

iJafc.— Sicily. (Pict.) 

on the Ephemeridce. 97 

Ccenis oophora. 

G. oophora, Pict. 1843-5. 

Fusca; alls albican tibus^pedibusflavescentibus. (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. $ im. 4>, exp. al. 11 mm. 

Hah. — Sardinia. (Kollar.) 

It is just possible that this species may be rediscovered, 
and determined by comparison with Pictet's figure ; but 
the chances are small. 

Ccenis luctuosa. 

(Forceps maris, PI. V. fig. 6.) 

(?) BracJujcercus Harrisella, Curt. 1834; (?) C. Harri- 
sella, Ste. 1835-6. Oxycypha luctuosa, Burm. 1839. Ephe- 
mera brevicatida, Blanch. 1840. Ccenis luctuosa, Pict. 
1843-5. C. halterata (nym^ha) , Etn. 1868. 

Subimago, V. V. s. Caput et prothorax corvini; meso- 
et meta-thoraces atri. Alae nigricantes, nervis obscuris. 
Pedes albi, interdum vix fumati ; antici tibiis tarsis et 
femorum apicibus anthracinis. Abdomen pallide fulvum, 

setis atris. 

Imago, V. V. s. J' & ? . Caput et thorax picei, sutu- 
ris et lateribus fuliginosis; tarsis anticis fuliginosis, et 
pedibus posticis nigricantibus juncturis atris. Abdomen 
rufo-fuliginosum, linea obscura brevi ad latera utrinque 
in singulis juncturis : forcipe setisque griseis vel nigri- 

Long. corp. ^ 6*5, ? 5-7; al. c^ 6, ? 5*5; set. c? 
im. 25, subim. 4; set. ? subim. 3 & 4 mm. 

Hah. — Somersetshire and Berkshire ; Berlin (Burm.) ; 
LakeofThun (Pict.). 

The name of this species probably has reference to the 
pale oblong spots near the bases of the long bristle-like 
processes from the lateral edges of segments 7, 8 & 9. 
These bristles are found in all the English species, and 
are longer in the imago than in any other stage of de- 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. PART I. (mARCH.) H 

98 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Genus Ephemeeella, 

(Ala antica, PL II. fig. 5.) 

Ephemera, p.. Pod. 1761 ; Fotamanthus, ^., Pict. 
1843-5 ; Fotamanthus, restrict.. Hag. 1849 ; EphemereUa, 
Walsh, 1862.* 

Nympha reptans, laminis branchialibns complexis qua- 
tuor. Segmentorum brancliiifera sunt 4, h, 6 et septimum. 
Palpi maxillares tri-articulati ; superiores brevissimi, ulti- 
mis articulorum penultimis longioribus ; inferiores duo- 
bus prioribus articulorum subaaqualibus, ultimis brevis- 

Ei LeptophlehicB subimaginis habitus similis est. 

Imago. Al^e quatuor; setae tres, subsequales; oculi 
maris sub-partiti. Tarsi quinque-articulati 3 articulorum 
proximus obsolescense tibiae adnatus, secundus tertio sub- 
Eequalis, quartus brevior : ungues dissimiles. Pes forcipis 
tri-articulatus, secundo articulorum longissimo. Lamina 
$ ventralis e penultimo segmentorum ; sed ovivalvula 

Ephemerella ignita. 
(Genitalia maris, PI. V. fig. 7. Ala postica, fig. 7a.) 

Ephemera ignita, Pod. 1761. E. erytliropthalma, Schr. 
1798. E.fusca, diluta, apicalis, rufescens, rosea & Baetis 
ohscAira, Ste. 1835-6 ; Potamanthus erythropthalmus, api- 
calis, dilectus, rostus & erythrocephalus, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alarum anticae saturate cinereae, 
posticae albo- cervine. 

Imago, V. V. s. ^. Oculi supra brunneo-carnei, vel 
caruei ; partes inferiores olivacea) vel flavo-olivacefe. Tho- 
racis tergum fuscum. Alae vitrinae, crassioribus nervo- 
rum longitudinalium cum punctis nodalibus vix piceis, 
vel electro-coloratis. Pedes paene sulphurei : antici tibiis 
lutescentibus, et tarsis obscure testaceis ; posteriores 
tarsis testaceis. Abdomen supra saturate fuscum, lateri- 
bus juncturisque ocliraceis ; subtus hepaticoloratum, in- 
terdum fuliginoso tinctum, lineis brevibus divergentibus 

* Ephemerella, Scbimp (1850, or 1860), is a genus of the Phascei, an 
order of the Acrocarpous section of the Mosses. 

on tlie Ephemeridcp. 99 

duabus punctisque sequentibus duobus apud basin singuli 
segmenti obscure indicatis. Setse fuliginosas, juncturis 
saturatioribus ; forceps testaceus. 

$ . Oculi flavo-olivacei. Tibite anticee testaceae. 
Puncta nodalia alarum eis maris distinctiora. Processus 
ventralis peuultimi segmentorum retusus. 

Long. Corp. S 8-9; al. c? 9, ? 10-11 ; set. S 10 & 11- 
12 & 11, subim. 8 & 7 ; set. ? 8 & 9, subim. 7 & 9 mm. 

Hah. — Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland ; also 
Madrid (E. Pict. AIus.). Frequents streams and rivers. 
June to September. 

Ephemerella gihha. 

Potamanthus gibbus, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago. " Also saturate grisejB, apud bases lutes- 

Imago, V. s. c?- " Oculi acute rubri. Corpus fusco- 
rubiginosum ; alis vitreis ; pedibus fulvis, anticis femori- 
bus tarsisque fuscescentibus ; setis fulvis, juncturis atris." 

$ . " Pallidior mare ; capite tlioraceque fulvis, illo 
atro-punctato, punctis super verticem confluentibus, 
hoc punctis parvis duobus fuscis in medio prothoracis 
terg'i, et pluribus commissurarum dorsalium mesothoracis 
fuscis. Abdomen rufesceus, supra punctis obscuris duo- 
bus in medio segmenti singuli." (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. ^ 6-7, ? 7 ; set. ^ 9, subim. 7 ; set. ? 
8, subim. 7 ; exp. al. S 15-16, ? 21 mm. 

, Ilab. — A streamlet near Villeneuve, at the head of the 

\ Lake of Geneva ; in July (Pict.) . 


6 Ephemerella cenea. 

Potamanthus caneiis, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago. " Al^e grise^ ; antica basi subcostoe fulvu." 

Imago, $ . " Caput et oculi fulvi, macula supra 
fusca. Prothorax macula utrinque fusca ; mesothorax 
seneus, politus. Alee vitrea), iridicoloratse ; nervorum 
longitudinales fulvi, transversales grisei. Pedes fulvi, 
juncturis tarsisque nigricantibus. Abdomen olivaceo- 
fuscum ; sette testacece, juncturis atris." (Pict.) 


100 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Long. Corp. ? 6, set. 8 ; exp. al. 18 mm. 
Etth.—Mt. Saleve. (Pict.) 

Professor Pictet^s figure of the nymph of E. cenea 
closely resembles a dark variety of the nymph of JE. 


Epliemerella invaria. 
(Genitalia maris, PL Y. fig. 8, 8a.) 

Baetis invaria & ftiscata, Walk. 1853. Ephemerella 
excrucians, Walsh, 1862. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alae setseqiie pallide nigricantes. 

Imago, V. s. s. ^. " Oculi supra flavi, infra fusci'' 
(Walsh, e V. s.) . Tergum thoracis saturate luteum, vel 
fuscura. Alae vitretie, vix flava? apud costas : crassioribus 
nervorum lutescentibus vel fuscis. Pedum antici picei ; 
posteriores testacei, tarsis subtestaceis, apicibus junctur- 
isque fuscis vel rubig-inoso-luteis. Abdomen supra piceum 
vel fuscum, vel rubiginosum, apicibus segmentorum satu- 
ratioribus ; subtus testaceum. " Setae albicantes, juncturis 
fuscis.'' (Walsh.) 

$ mari simillima. 

Long. S 5-5-7-5, ? 5-5-6-5 ; set. $ 11-13, ? 10-12'5; 
exp. al. cJ 14-5-20, ? 15-19 mm. 

Eab. — Nova Scotia (Walker) ; Illinois (Walsh) . 

EpliemerelJa consimilis. 
E. consimilis, Walsh, 1862. 

Imago, cJ . " Pedes immaculati ; antici apicibus tibia- 
rum et proximis articulorum tarsalium fuscis." (Walsh.) 

Mr. Walsh describes the prescutum of the mesothorax 
as being " half as long again as wide," and the meso- 
thorax itself as " being 4-5 times as long as wide : " 
whereas, in the preceding species, the one '^is scarcely 
longer than wide," the other is "scarcely three times 
longer than broad." 

Long, corp, ^ 5, set. circa 5 ; exp. al. 14 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) . 

on the Ephemeridce. 101 

Genus B^tisca. 

(Ala antica^ PL II. fig. 6.) 

Baetis, p.^ Say^ 1839 ; Bcetisca, Walsh, 1862. 

Nymplia reptans: '^adulta laminis branchialibus ex- 
teruis caret ; primum tamen segmentorum lamiuam dupli- 
cein obtectam utrinque habet. A thorace segmentorum 
abdominis quiuque priorum dorsa obteguntur, elementis 
tergi thoracis confluentibus et retrorsum productis ; 
itaque ne quidem ala?, nedum thoracis commissuras, videri 
possint^^ (Walsh). Caput a fronte bicorne; labium 
integrum ; maxillarum inferioris palpus bi-articulatus, 
ultimo articulorum singulariter bifido, et ptene cheli- 

Imago. Ala3 quatuor; setarum media abortiva; oculi 
maris integri. Tarsi quinque-articulati ; articulorum 
primus longus, tibi» adnatus, secundus primo brevior 
sed tertio a;qualis, quartus paulo brevior ; ungues 
dissimiles. Pes forcipis tri-articulatus ; articulorum 
primus longus, secundus longissimus, et tertius brevissi- 
mus. Femina ovivalvula caret ; processus ventralis 
penultimo segmentorum excurrit. 

Bcetisca obesa. 
(Genitalia maris, PL V. fig". 9.) 

1^ Baetis ohcsa, Say, 1839; Bcetisca obesa, Walsh, 18(32. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alee corvina?, lineolis brevibus 
transversa iibus numei'osis pellucidis ; antica semifasciis 
transversalibus pellucidis duabus, una e costa prope api- 
cem, alteraque basi*propriore. (Say & Walsh.) 

Imago, v. s. s. c?. Rufo-fusca. Ala? vitreee, nervis 
tenuissimis; "anticarum costte subcostaeque lutescentes.^^ 
Pedes testacei ; antici gamboso tincti, juncturis et ulti- 
mo articulorum tarsalium obscuris ; posteriores ultimis 
articulorum quoque obscuris. Presternum prominens, 
bidentatura. Abdomen subtus, prgecipue apicem versus, 
rubido-albo tinctum : segmentorum penultimum linea 
longitudinali in medio ventris fusca. Seta) pubescentes, 
alb 33, juncturis obscuris. 

102 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

$ simillima mari, processu ventrali segmentorum 
penultimi breviter inciso. 

Long. Corp. c? 7-8, ? 6-8; set. ^ ? im. 6-7, ? 
subim. 4-5; exp. al. c^ 20-22, ? 22-25 mm. 

Hah. — Illinois (Walsh), Indiana (Say); and California. 

Genus Cloeon. 
(Ala mesotlioracica^ PL II. fig. 7.) 

Epliemera, p., Lin. 1761 ; Cloeon, Leach, 1815 ; Cloe, 
p., Burm. 1839 ; Ccenis, p., Walk. 1853 ; Chloeon, Lub- 
bock, 1863 ; Oloeopsis, Etn. 1866. 

Nympha natans, laminis branchialibus utrinque sep- 
tem : laminarum septima simplex, caster^e bilamellares, 
omnes marginibus integris. Palpi biarticulati, articulis 
longitudine tequalibus ; inferiores depressi, apicibus 
obliquis; superiores tenuissimi, filiformes. 

Alis erectis setisque divergentibus subimago quiescit 
stans in pedes omnes. 

Imago. Alee seteeque dute. Oculi maris bipartiti, 
parte superiori sub-turbinata. Tarsorum posteriores 
quadri-articulati ; articulorum primus multo longissimus, 
tibiae adnatus, secundus brevis, tertius brevissimus; 
ungues dissimiles. Pes forcipis tri-articulatus, secundo 
articulorum longissimo : penis occultus. Ovivalvula 
femina caret. 

Cloeon dipterum. 
(Forceps, PI. V. fig. 10.) 

Ephemera diptera, Lin. 1761. E. striata & annulata, 
Miill. 1776. Cloeon pallida, Leach, MS., 1815. E. margi- 
nata, Gor. & Pritch. 1829. C. marmoratum & ohscurum, 
Curt. 1834. C. cognatum, dimidiatum, virgo & consobri- 
num, Ste. 1835-6. Cloe diptera, Burm. 1839. Cloe affinis, 
Ramb. 1842. Cloe virgo & cognata, Pict. 1843-5. 
E. culiciformis , Fonscol. 1846. C. diptera & cognata, 
Walk. 1853. Chloeon dipterumyhvibhockylSQd-b', Cloeop- 
sis diptera, p., Etn. 1866. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alse paUide cervino tinctse. 

Imago, V. V. s. $ . Oculi turbinati sub-earn ei, 
vel rufo-hepaticolorati ; inferi atro-picei. Tergum tho- 

on the Ephemeridce. 103 

racis aterrimum, politum. Alae vitrinfe, nervis quasi 
atris ; liorum tres priores incolorati : nervulf© apicales 
areaa marginalis rectte, paucae (3-5) ^ atque vix obliqua3. 
Pedum antici femoribus vel albidis apicibus cretaceis, 
vel virescenti-cinei'ascentibus, singulis maculis prte-apica- 
libus rufescentibus, et tibiis tarsisque vel cinereis vel 
carbonariis : posteriores albicantes vel cretacei, macula 
femoribus st\3pe indiscreta, atque juncturis et articulis 
terrainalibus tarsorura (proxima juncturarum excepta) 
atris. Abdomen supra atro-piceum, juncturis ochraceis ; 
infra saturate cinereum, maculis rubiginosis duabus in 
juncturis albidis singulis. SettB albas, juncturis in vices 
late atris. Forceps cinerascens, proximis articulorum 

Var. ^ . V. s. s. Parvum. Segmentorum abdominis 
2-7 grisea, apicibus strigaque trigonali ex eis utrinque 
producta rubiginosis : tria apicalia picea. 

Hah. — 'Belgium. 

? . Corpus luteum. Oculi olivacei, obscure bicincti. 
Capitis vertex rufescente bi-strigatus. Ala3 vitrinie, areis 
et marginalibus et submarginalibus tribusque priori- 
bus nervorum longitudinalium electro-coloratis, nervis 
transversalibus inclausis albis ; c^teri nervorum atri : 
liorum plures transversalium incrassati. Pedum antici 
gambosi, tibiis tarsisque testaceis juncturis obscui-is : 
posteriores femoribus fere electro-coloratis, cingulis et 
prieapicali et apicali rufescentibus, tibiis tarsisque testa- 
ceis, unguibus et 2-4 juncturarum obscuris. Setas rubido- 
alba3, juncturis in vices late atris. 

Long. corp. c? 5-10, ? 11; al. ^ 6-11, ? 10; set. 
^ 13-20, subim. 14; set. $ 12-15, subim. 12 mm. 

Hah. — Europe, and the Madeiras. In tranquil waters: 
May to July. 

I have seen female specimens of two species of Cloeon 
very closely related to G. dipterum ; one inhabits N. W. 
India, the other Knysna, S. Africa. 

Cloeon simile. 

(Forceps, PI. V. fig. 11.) 
G. simile, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alaa murina3, apud costas ot bases 
vix subflavescentes, nervis furf uresis. Sette fusco-atra). 
Oculi turbinati maris subolivacei. 

104 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Imago, V. V. 3. c?. Oculi turbinati olivaceij vel satu- 
rate virescenti-sulphurei ; inferiores atro-picei, vel atro- " 
virentes. Thoracis tergum vel aterrimuna, vel fuscum, 
politum. Alfe vitrinae ; subcosta tertiusque nervorum 
longitudinalium substraminei ; nervulae apicales areas 
marginalis multa3, sparsim conjunctas. Pedes olivacei; 
posteriores tarsis saturatioribus ; antici tibiis viridi- 
griseis vel atro-virentibus, et tarsis griseis vel atris. 
Abdominis dorsum piceo-fuscum ; venter cinereus, apice 
vix fulvescenti. Forceps virescenti-albus. Setffi rubido- 
albae, juncturis rubescentibus. 

$ mari simillima. Oculi atri. Caput circa ocellos 
castaneum, lineis vel strigis duabus concoloribus super 
verticem : carina facialis tuberculos duos parvos piceos 
utrinque liabet. Abdomen supra luteo-fuscum, juncturis 
luridisj et tracheis subcutaneis obscuris ; subtus oliva- 
ceum, ultimo segmentorum penultimoque stramineis. 
Pedes viridi-olivacei, tibiis tarsisque saturatioribus. 

Long. Corp. c? 9, ? 10 ; al. c? 8, ? 10-11 ; set. c? 
14-15j subim. 9; set. $ 10-14, subim. 7-9 mm. 

Sah. — ^Near Retford, in Nottinghamshire, and at Quy 
Fen, near Cambridge. September and October ; in still 

The name simile has reference to the similarity between 
the sexes. 

Cloeon suhinfuscatum. 
Che suhinfuscata, Ramb. 1842. 

Subimago, v. s. s. $ . Alfe saturate corvinae, nervis 
longitudinalibus luteis : nervulse apicales areae marginalis 
multas (circa 12) sparsimque divisas. Thorax lutescens, 
pedibus luteo-luridis. Setae juncturis obscuris. 

Long. Corp. $ 9, al. 11 mm. 

Hob. — Provence. (Rambur.) 

Cloeon ohscurum. 

Che ohscura, Ramb. 1842: nee Curt. 

Subimago, ? , v. s. s. Alae murinae, nervis luteis : ner- 
vulje apicales areae marginalis simplices (circa 8 in nu- 
mero) , et irregulariter flexuosae. Thorax rufo-testaceus : 
pedes testacei. 

on the Ephemendce. 105 

Long, al, 9, corp. 6 mm. 

Hab. — France ; probably near Paris. 

The name will not obtain, Curtis having previously 
applied " C. ohscurum" to C. dipterum, subim. 

Cloeon russulum. 

(Forceps, PL V. fig. 12.) 

Ephemera russida, Miil. 1776. Cloeon dimidiatum, 
Curt. 1834. E.cidiciformis & striata (?), Blanch. 1840. 
C/oe /jwmi7«., Ramb. 1842. Cloe dimidiata, Pict. 1843-5; 
Cloeon dimidiata & Cwnis sinensis, Walk. 1853 ; Ohloeon 
dimidiatum, Lubbock, 1863 & -5. Cloeopsis diptera, var., 
Etn. 1866 & -7. 

Subimago, v. v. s. AlfB canae ; apud crassiores ner- 
vorum sa^pe gramineo tiuctte. Setae cinerascentes. 

Imago, V. V. s. Variabilissima colore : <^ maribus 
Cloconis similis, Baetis hinocidati atque varietatum hujus, 
? uxoribus Centroptili luteoli et Baetis hinoculati colore 

Yar. 1. (^ . Cloeoni simili similis. Oculi turbinati 
fuliginosi. Tergum thoracis aterrimum politum. Pedes 
pallide virescenti-flavescentes, tarsis nigi-icantibus. Ab- 
domen saturate tuscum,juucturis flavescentibus, tracheis- 
que subcutaneis atris. Sette alba?, juncturis rufescenti- 
bus. Forceps albus, apices versus nigricans. 

Hah. — Reading (Berkshire), and near Cambridge; as 
well as in the Valais Canton, near Visp. 

Var. 2. (J . Baeti hinoculato similis. Oculi turbinati 
sulphurei vel flavi ; inferiores fuliginosi, vel virescenti- 
cinerei, vel etiam glauci. Tergum thoracis fuscum, vel 
fusco-luteum, vel saturate furfurosum vel testaceo-furfu- 
rosum. Ala3 vitrina? ; nervuhe apicales areas marginalis 
(6-8) obliquae, interdum sparse furcatee prope subcostam. 
Pedum antici virescenti-grisei, tibiis tarsisque griseis vel 
canis ; posteriores cretacei vel sulphurei, tibiis tarsisque 
obscure albis. Segmentorum abdominis 3-6 vel 7 alba, 
vix aut ne vix quidem lurido suifusa ; ceetera supra fur- 
furosa vel fusca, juncturis ochraceis, et subtus plus aut 
minus ochracea. Setae albae, juncturis interdum anguste 

106 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Hah. — Temperate Europe^ and North China. This is 
the normal form. 

Var. 3. S feminse similis, oculis thoraceque eis 
cJ var. 2 similibus. 

? . Oculi csesiij vel atro-fuliginosi. Capitis "v^ertex 
strigis longitudinalibus rufescentibus duabus. Thoracis 
tergum furfurosum, vel pallidissime sub-flavum, inter- 
dum aterrimumj politum : mesothoracis apex nonnunquam 
gramineus. Alte vitrin«, bases versus saspe gramineo 
tinct^e. Femora gramineo-alba, tibite tarsique albi, 
ultimis articulorum cinereis. Abdomen supra vel pallide 
sub-olivaceum, vel furfuroso-album : segmentorum 2-7 
singula macula parva in medio dorsi, duabus apud junc- 
turam apicalem, et linea curvata indiscreta utrinque, 
furfurosis; striga juxta spiracula cum tracheis subcu- 
taneis atris. Interdum abdomen est fuscum. Seta3 alba3. 

Hab. — Temperate Europe. 

Long. corp. S 5-9, ? 7-8 ; al. c? ? 7-8 ; set. S 
13-15, subim. 9 ; ? 10-12, subim. 6-8 mm. 

Hah. — Temperate Europe and Northern China. 

Cloeon mendax. 
Che (C) mendax, Walsh, 1862. 

Subimago. " Alve sub-opacfe, vix nigricanti tinctas." 

Imago, c? . ''Pallide rubiginosum, alis vitreis. Pedes 
pallidi, apicibus tarsorum obscuris. Abdomen subtus 
pallide virescens, pellucidum, apicem versus opacum." 

? . '' Supra pallidior ; interdum thorace sub-vires- 
centi." (Walsh.) 

Long. corp. c? 4, ? 4-5 ; set. ? 9, c? subim. 8 ; 
exp. al. S ? 14 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois. (Walsh.) 

Cloeon duhium. 
Cloe (C) duhia, Walsh, 1862. 

Subimago. " Aloe fumatse, nervis longitudinalibus 

Imago, $ . Baeti 'propinquo similis {q. cf.) sed 
minor. Maculae laterales in abdominis medio pellu- 

071 the Ephemeridce. 107 

cida}. luter nervos longitud males, super marginem 
terminalem, nervulaa forsan duplices sint/^ 

? . " Caput, thorax et abdomen pallide rubiginosi : 
liorum primuui et ultimum interdum obfuscata. Femur 
anticum plus aut minus rubiginosum. Venter pallide 
flavus vel virescens/' (Walsli.) 

Long. Corp. S 2-5-4, ? 2-5-3; set. S 4-5-5-5, ? 3- 
4*5; exp. al. ^ ? 8-10-5 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois. (Walsh.) 

Cloeon vimium. 

Cloe vicina, Hag. 1861. 

Imago. c?. Oculi rufi. Thorax fulvus, alis vitreis. 
Pedes albicantes ; antici bases versus fulvi. Abdomen 
album, pellucidum, tribus segmentorum apicalium supra 
fuscis, et setis albidis." 

? . " Corpus cretaceum, alis vitreis, pedibus et setis 
albicantibus." (Hag.) 

Long. Corp. c? 4; set. $ 10, $ 6; exp. al. 10 mm. 

Eah. — Washington. (Hag.) 

Cloeon vitriiwnne. 
Ephemera [Cloe) vitripennis, Blanch. 1851. 

Imago. '' Fusco-virescens ; capite supra flavo-rufo ; 
alis vitreis, iridic oloratis ; pedibus pallide testaceis, me- 
diis et apicibus femorum plus aut minus fuscis.^^ (Blanch.) 

flat.— Chili. (Blanch.) 

Genus Centroptilum. 
(Ala antica, PL II. fig. 8.) 

Ephemera, p.. Mill. 1776 ; Cloeon, p., Ste. 1835-6 ; Cloe, 
p., Burm. 1839; Baetis (A), Etn. 1868; Centroptilum, 
Etn. 1869. 

Nympha agilis; segmentorum abdominis 1-7 laminis 
branchialibus simplicibus et integris, ovatis vel obovatis. 
Maxillarum superiores palpis quadri-articulatis ; articu- 
lorum primus brevissimus, secundus longus et cteteris 
conjunctim fequalis. Maxillarum inferiores dimidiis labii 

108 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

subgequales, acute subtrigonales, angustee, palpis biarticu- 
latis, depressis, articulis longitudine subaequalibus ; arti- 
culorum ultimus apice late expanse subtruncato. 

Ei Gloeonis subimaginis habitus admodum siniilis est. 

Imago. C/oeom' simillima; nisi alls posticis binervatis, 
at per-angustis. 

Centroptilum luteolwn. 
(Forceps at ala postica, PL V. fig. 13, 13a.) 

Ephemera luteola, Mill. 1776. (?) E. alhipes & parvuJa, 
Scop. 1763. Gloeon ochraceum, hyalinatum & alhipenne, Ste. 
1835-6. GJoe halterata, Burm. 1839. Cloe tranalucida, 
ocliracea, hyalinata & alhipennis, Pict. 1843-5 ; Cloeon 
transhicida, halterata, hyalinata, alhipennis & ocliracea, 
Walk. 1853. Cloeon hioculatum, Hag. 1863. Baetis lu- 
teolus, Etn. 1868; Centroptilum luteolum, Yttn. 1869. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alse vix fumatae, vel pallidissime 
flavescentes. Femora ochracea, tibiee cinerete, tarsi 
nio'ricantes ; setee fumatse vel cinereee. 

Imago, V. V. s. S • Oculi turbinati acute vel saturate 
carnei, inferiores sub-olivacei. Tergum thoracis fuscum, 
vel piceum, vel atrum. Alte vitreee, nervis longitudinali- 
bus vix flavescentibus. Pedes cretacei, tibiis tarsisque 
plus aut minus canis vel fumatis. Segmentorum abdo- 
minis sex priora vitrina, alba, maculis apud apices 
utrinque furfurosis, aut apicibus in toto furfurosis ; cajtera 
furfurosa vel fusca, juncturis ochraceis ; venter pallidus, 
apice testaceo. Setas forcepsque albse. 

? . Dorsum furfurosum, vel testaceum, vel fusco- 
olivaceum; venter pallidus. Oculi olivacei, vel atro- 
virentes, vel atri. Thoracis tergum umbrinum, vel 
fusco-olivaceum. Pedes vel virescenti-flavi, tibiis tar- 
sisque pallide virescenti-griseis, vel ilavescentes, tibiis 
tarsisque canis. Abdomen interdum ochraceo-furfuro- 
sum ; tracheae subcutane^ saturatiores. 

Long. corp. S 6-7, ? 5-6; al. c? ? 6-7; set. $ 10- 
14, subim. 7 ; set. $ subim. 6-9 mm. 

Hah. — Switzerland, Germany, Great Britain and Nor- 
way (Alten); also Hudson's Bay territory. April to No- 

071 the Ephemeridoe. 109 

Centroptilum pennulatum, 

(Forceps et ala postica, PL V. fig. 14, 14a.) 

0. pennulatum, Etn. 1870. 

Imag'o, V. V. s. c^ . Oculi turbinati carnei, inferiores 
olivacei vel atri. Prothorax supra nigricanus vel furfu- 
rosus ; meso- et meta-thoraces fusci vel furfurosi. Ala9 
vitrince. Femora alba, apicibus cretaceis ; tibia? tarsi- 
que albi, ultimis articulorum vix cervinis. Segmentorum 
abdominis 2-6 vitrina, alba, juncturis vix castaneis ; 
caetera supra castaneo-rubiginosa, infra ochro-leuca. Se- 
t£B forfexque albse. 

? . Oculi virescenti-grisei : vertex capitis flavus, 
striga lata longitudinali saturate rubiginosa. Tergum 
thoracis furfurosum. Pedes cani, femoribus subcretaceis, 
vel gamboso-albidis. Abdomen supra pallide virescenti- 
griseum, juncturis pallidioribus ; infra pallidum immacu- 
latum: striga dorsalis longitudinalis in medio, apices 
segmentorum, et maculae trigonales ex his ad latera pro- 
rectEe, lutescentes. Setae pedesque eis maris similes. 

Long. Corp. $ 8-9, ? 8 ; al. c? ? 8 ; set. <S 14-17, 
$ 11 mm. 

Hah. — The Manifold, Ham, Staffordshire, and Grazelj, 
near Reading. August to October. 

Centroptilum lituratum. 

Ephemera cidiciformis, Scop. 1763 (nee Lin.). Cloe 
litura, Pict. 1843-5 ; Cloeon litura, Walk. 1853. 

Subimago. ^^Alae pallide fuscescenti-grisea3. Setse 

Imago, S • "Oculi turbinati sulphurei. Tergum thoracis 
fuscum, striga atra in medio a fronte retrorsum sed non 
metathorace tenus attinente: metathorax punctis atris 
duobus. Alae vitrinae ; pedes flavescentes. Abdomen rufo- 
fulvum, apicem versus obscurius, maculis lateralibus. 
Setse flavescentes, junctui-is ati'is.^' 

? . " Flava, oculis nigris, lineis rufescentibus parvis 
duabus super mesothoracem, et maculis paucis lateralibus 
super abdomen." (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. c? 8, set. 12, exp. al. 17 mm. 
Hab. — Mt. Saleve (Pict.); in the autumn. 

110 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Centroptiliim stenopteryx, n. sp. 

(Ala postica et forceps, PL V. fig. 15, 15a.) 

Subimago, v. s. s. ? . Alae vix fumatge. Thorax 
ochraceus, pedibus testaceis, tarsis pallidis. 

Imago, V. s. s. J uxori simillimus, corpore furfuroso, 
setis albis. [Oculi turbinati olim rufescentes ?] . 

Long. Corp. c? 4, ? 4-5; al. c? 4, ? 5-5; set. c^ ? 
5-6 mm. 

Ba&.— Carinthia (Zeller's MS.) . 

Genus Baetis. 
(Ala antica, PI. II. fig. 9.) 

Ephemera, p., Lin. 1746; Baetis, heach, 1815; Cloe, 
p., Burm. 1839; Brachyphlehia, Westw. 1840; Cloeon, 
p., Walk. 1853. 

Nympha agilis, laminis brancLialibus simplicibus, in- 
tegris, ovatis vel obovatis, septem utrinque. Palpi 
maxillares biarticulati, articulis longitudine subaequalibus ; 
superiores teretes ; inferiores proximis articulorum sub- 
cylindricis, apicalibus depressis et spathulatis atque lat- 
eral! ter incisis. Dimidia labii acuta, subulata, maxillis 

Subimago inter quiem Gloeoni vel Centroptilo simulat. 

Imago. Oculi maris partiti, superioribus diuiidiorum 
sub-turbinatis. Alas quatuor ; posteriores minimas, ob- 
longae, costa unidentata, atque tribus vel duobus nervo- 
rum longitudinalium, quorum secundus vel simplex vel 
divisus sit. Setae duee {B. ferruginens tamen tertiam 
mediam brevissimam habet) . Forcipis artus quadri- 
articulati, penultimis articulorum plerumque longissimis. 
Femina ovivalvula caret; nisi fugax sit. 

The species mostly inhabit rivers and streamlets. 
They appear principally in spring and early in the au- 
tumn ; but the exact period depends upon climate. 
Monstrous specimens seem to be more frequently met 
with in the autumn than in the spring ; they throw 
much light upon the morphology of insects in general. 

on the Ephemeridof}. Ill 

Baetis binoculatus. 

(Forceps et ala postica, PL V. fig. 16, IGa.) 

Ephemera bioculata,Ijm. 1758. E.fuscata, Lin. 1761. 
E. diaphana, Miil. 1776. E. flava, Schr. 1776. E. lutea, 
Fourc. 1785, E. notata, Gmel. 1790-3. E. cidiciformis, 
p., 01. 1791. E. striata, (?) Walck. 1802. Baetis 
hiocidatus, Leach, 1815; B. bioculata, Sam. 1819. B. 
flavescens (subim.) & autumnalis (monstr. (^), Curt. 
18d4. B.fuscata, (?) Ste. 1835-6. Brachyphlehia bio- 
culata, Westw. 1840; Cloe bioculata & autumnalis, Pict. 
1843-5; Cloeon bioctdata (excl. g.), autumnalis & striata, 
(?) Walk. 1853. Cloeon pumilum, Hag. 1863 ; Cloe 
pumila, Oul. 1867. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alarum anticas fumatfe, posteriores 
cretacege. Pedes maris femoribus virescenti-albis, tibiis 
fumatis, et tarsis nigricantibus ; femina femoribus anticis 
viridi-olivaceis, maculis obscuris singulis apices versus, 
atque posterioribus femorum et tibiarum stramineis, 
tarsis omnibus corvinis. Seta) fumatas. 

Imago, V. V. s. c?. Oculi turbinati citrini, vel acute 
flavi ; inferiores flavo-, vel atro-virentes. 

Var. 1. c?. Thoracis tergum furfurosum, vel fuscum, 
vel atro-piceum. A\se vitrinee, fulgore auroreo, et nervis 
albicantibus. Pedes cretacei; tibias tarsique antici 
atque ungues fumati ; posteriores tibiarum alhss. Seg- 
mentorum abdominis 2-6 vel 7 cretacea vel flavo-alba, 
spiraculis rubiginosis vel atris ; ca^tera supra vel furfu- 
rosa, vel fusca, vel fusco-olivacea, juncturis sulphureis ; 
subtus ochracea vel saturate olivacea. Setse albse. 

9 et Var. 2 (^ . Corpus pallide fuscum, vel fusco- 
olivaceum : subtus olivaceum. Oculi feminae atri, vel 
atro-picei. Ala3 vitrinte, nervis fuscis, vel piceis. Pedum 
antici femoribus fusco-olivaceis, tibiis et tarsis fuligi- 
nosis, vel tibiis corvinis et tarsis anthracinis : posteriores 
femoribus pi-asino-olivaceis, obscure apud apices maculatis, 
vel anuulatis atque tarsis griseis. Abdomen supra apici- 
bus segmentorum anguste fuscis, et tracheis subcutaneis 
vel atris vel fuliginosis : segmentum singulum subtus 
apud basin punctis obscuris duobus. Setas vel virescenti- 
albce, vel albas atque bases versus nigricantes, vel cinereae 
atque bases versus corvinae vel atrae. 

Long. Corp. S 6-8, ? 4-7 ; al. S 6-8, ? 6-7 ; set. 
(? 12-14, subim. 7-10, ? 10-12, subim. 8-10 mm. 

112 Rev. A. E. Baton^s Monograph 

Hah. — Great Britain, France, Switzerland (Pict.), 
Germany, Moscow (OuL), Scandinavia, and Hudson^s 
Bay (Dale Mus.) . May to October. In rivers. 

Mr. Walker's specimen from N. America (g., Brit. 
Mus. Cat.) represents a distinct and undescribed species. 

Baetis dehilis. 

Cloeon dehilis, Walk. 1860. 

Imago ? , V. s. s. " Fulva, capite nigro, abdomine 
testaceo ; setis pedibusque albis, alls vitreis, venis albis." 

Long. corp. 5, exp. al. 12 mm. 

Eah. — Hindostan. (Walk.) 

This species can only be identified by the type. 

Baetis scamhus. 

(Forceps et ala postica, PI. V. fig. 17, 17a.) 

B. scamhus, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. ^ . Alae setaeque cinerefe. Pedes 
cretacei vel virescenti-albi, tibiis tarsisque cinereis. For- 
ceps cretaceus. 

? . Femora maculis vix discretis, subapicalibus cinereis. 

Imago, V. V. s. c?. Oculi turbinati caryophyllacei, 
vel caryophyllaceo-fuliginosi : inferiores nigri. Tergum 
thoracis aterrimum vel piceum : alge vitrinae. Pedes 
cretacei vel virescenti-grisei ; tarsis anticis fumosis, pos- 
terioribusque tibiarum et tarsorum virescenti-albis, junc- 
turis et nnguibus vix obscmns. Abdominis segmentorum 
quatuor apicalia fusca, cetera alba vel virescenti-alba, 
fusco vix sufi'usa. Setae albas, prioribusjuncturarum vix 

? . Corpus olivaceo-fuscum. Alee vitrinre, nervis atro- 
piceis. Oculi saturate olivacei. Femora olivacea ; tibiae 
tarsique saturate fumosi. Setae quoque fumosee, junc- 
turis vix obscuris. 

Long. Corp. c? 6, ? 6*5; al. S Q, ? 7; set. ^ 12, 
subim. 7 ; set, ? 9-10, subim. 5 mm. 

Hah. — Ashbourne and Norbury, Derbyshire. June and 

OH the Ej.ihe7ncri(Jce. 113 

Baetis fmitimus, nov. sp. 

(Forceps et ala postica, PL V. fig. 18, 18a.) 

Imago, V. V. s. c^ . Oculi turbinati fuliginosi. Tho- 
racis tergum aterrimum politum. Alge vitrinae, nervis 
pellucidis. Pedes albi; antici femoribus cretaceis. Ab- 
domen album, tribus segmentorum apicalium fuscis. 
Setas forcepsque albfe. 

Var. V. V. s. Abdomen fuscum. Pedes virescenti- 
grisei, femoribus apices versus punctis singulis paulo 
obscuris, et tarsis anticis fere griseis. 

? , V. V. s. Oculi atro-fuliginosi. Pedes virescenti- 
nigri, tibiis et tarsis saturate albis. Abdomen piceum, 
apicibus segmentorum obscuratis. Setae albae. 

Long. corp. c? ? 5 ; al. c? ? 6; set. ^ 12-16, ? 
7 mm. 

Hah. — The streamlet by the Oratory, on the right- 
hand side of the Val Montjoie, between Contamines and 
Notre Dame de la Gorge. July. 

Baetis atrehatinus. 
(Forceps et ala postica, PL V. fig. 19, 19a.) 
B. atrehatinus, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Ala3 S cinerefB : ? saturate fu- 
mat». Pedes $ olivacei vel saturate virescenti-grisei, 
posterioribus tibiarum cinereis et lineis singulis brevibus 
externo-basalibus atris : tarsorum antici atri, posteriores 
saturate nigricantes juncturis atris, omnes ultimis articu- 
lorum piceis : $ tarsis rufo-piceis, juncturis atris. Setaa 
$ corvinae, ? atro-picege. 

Imago, V. V. s. c? • Oculorum turbinati rufo-hepati- 
colorati, inferiores fuliginosi. Tergum thoracis aterri- 
mum politum. Alae vitrinre; anticae tribus prioribus 
nervorum longitudinalium virescenti-griseis. Pedum an- 
tici femoribus atro-virentibus, tibiis atris singulis maculis 
pallidis sub-apicalibus, et tarsis saturatissime cinereis ; 
posteriores saturate olivacei, apicibus tibiarum tarsorum- 
que virescenti-griseis. Segmentorum abdominis 2-7 
fumata, singula lineis brevibus punctisque obscuris duo- 


114 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

bus dorsalibus, subtus strigia atris duabus, atque junc- 
turis virescenti-albis ; cetera fusco-picea, juncturis 
flavis. Setae rubido-albs, juncturis obscuris. Forceps 

? mari simillima ; secundo articulorum antennalium 
fere omnino rubiginoso, vertice capitis inter ocellos 
piceo ; abdomine vel luteo- vel rufo-piceo, juncturis 
ochraceis, setisque fuliginosis. 

Long. Corp. c? 7, $ 8 ; al. c? 6-7, ? 8; set. c? 11-13, 
subim. 8"5; set. ? 8-10, subim. 7'5 mm. 

Hab. — The river Kennet near Reading, Berkshire ; in 

Baetis Rhodani. 
(Forceps et ala postica, PL V. fig. 20, 20a.) 

Cloe Rhodani, Pict. 1843-5 ; Cloeon Rhodani, Walk. 
1853. Cloe maderensis, Hag. 1865. 

Imago, V. V. s. S • Oculi turbinati lateritio-fuliginosi. 
Thoracis tergum aterrimum politvim. Alse vitrese, nervis 
vix fuscis. Pedum antici tibiis tarsisque nigricantibus ; 
posteriores pallidiores, femoribus saturate virescenti- 
griseis vel 'pallida olivaceis, et tarsis vel atris vel nigri- 
cantibus. Dorsum abdominis fusco-virescenti-griseum, 
juncturis ochraeeis vel canis, et tribus segmentorum 
apicalium saturatioribus ; subtus saturate virescenti-gri- 
seum, segmentis singulis saspe strigis brevibus divergen- 
tibus prope bases, punctisque sequentibus duobus, nigri- 
cantibus. Set^e virescenti-grisese, juncturis fuliginosis 
vel rubiginosis. 

Var. ^ im. v. v. s. Oculi turbinati carneo-hepati- 
colorati ; inferiores saturate vix'escenti-grisei. Thoracis 
tergum luteum, postice nigro maculatum. Pedes cretacei, 
unguibus atris ; antici gamboso tincti, tarsis fumatis. 
Alse vitrinas, nervis virescenti-griseis, subcostis radiisque 
bases versus atris. Abdomen album, quatuor segmen- 
torum apicalium luteis ; segmenta pallida, apicibus luteo 
marginatis, marginibus ad latera antice productis. For- 
ceps albus. Seta3 albae, juncturis rubiginosis. 

Hab. — In the same stream as B . finitimus (p. 113). 

$ im. mari simillima. Tergum thoracis interdum 
brunneo-fuscum. Abdomen opacum. 

on the EpltemeriJce. 115 

SubimagOj v. v. s. cT . Alje cinerese. Pedum antici 
virescenti-grisei, maculis singulis crescentiformibus fe- 
niorurn apices versus obscuris, tibiis nigricantibus, et 
tarsis atris ; posteriores cretacei, tibiis fumatis, et tarsis 
atris. Sette atro-corvinse. 

Long. Corp. ^ 5-5-9, ? 6-5; al. S 5-5-9, ? 12; set. 
S 13-19, subim. 10-5; set. ? 16 mm. 

Hah. — Dovedale, Derbyshire, and Dorset; Geneva and 
Contamines; Corsica (Bellier); and Madeira (Wollaston). 
April to October. 

The Wollastonian specimens ticketted 69 & 70 appear 
to me the same species as the others. 

Baetis plimops. 
(Forceps et ala postica, PL V. fig. 21, 21a.) 

Ephemera hioculata (?),Fourc. 1785. E. testacca {?) , 

Gmel. 1790-3. Baetis vernus (?), Curt. 1834. B. cidicl- 

formis, (^phcBopa) , striata, verna, & E. duhia, Ste. 1835-6. 

Cloe verna, Pict. 1843-5 ; CJoeon vcrna, Walk. 1853. 

Baetis phceops, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alfe fumatfe vel murinaa. Femora 
testaceo- vel prasino-grisea, vel etiam virescenti-alba, 
maculis singulis obscuris v-formatis prope apices ; tibia3 
fumat^e, apicibus anticarum atris; tarsorum antici atri, 
posteriores cinerei juncturis atris. Setge forfexque 

Imago, V. V. s. S • Oculorum turbinati fuliginosi, in- 
feriores corvini. Tei'gum thoracis aterrimum vel piceum, 
politum, in exemplari recens nato fuscum. Alee vitrina?, 
nervis longitudinalibus sub-fuscis, et fulgore hyacinthino. 
Pedum antici femoribus sub-olivaceis, tibiis tarsisque 
canis, macula rotundata obscura prope apicem cujusque 
illarum; posteriores femoribus vel virescenti-griseis vel 
prasino-cretaceis, tibiis albis, et tarsis canis. Abdomen 
vel dorso fusco et ventre cinereo; vel dorso piceo-fusco, 
juncturis canis ; vel virescenti-griseo, tribus segmen to- 
rum apicalium saturate fuscis. Set^e albae vel fumatte. 
Pes forcipis duobus priQribus articulorum canis, et ceteris 

? mari simillima. Oculi atro- fuliginosi, vel atri. 
Tergum thoracis vel atrum, vel piceum, vel piceo-fuscum. 

I 2 

116 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Pedes femoribus olivaceis; crura cana vel anthracina 
juncturis atris, sed antica saturatiora. Setas albae, cor- 
vinae bases versus. 

Long. Corp. S ? G-8 ; al. S 6-7, ? 7-9; set. ^ 14- 
16, subim. 5; set. ? 10-12, subim. 7 mm. 

Hah. — Great Britain, and Norway (Hammerfest and 
Alten) . It mostly inhabits streams and rivulets, and 
appears in England in May, June, September and Octo- 

JBaeUs tenax. 

(Forceps et ala postica, PI. V. fig. 22, 22a.) 

B. tenax, Etn. 1870. 

Imago, V. v. s. $ . Ocvxlorum turbinati saturate folf- 
ginosi, inferiores nigro-fuliginosi. Tergum thoracis ater- 
rimum, politum. Aloe vitrinae, nervis albido-pellucidis. 
Pedes femoribus olivaceis, anticis crurura cinereis, et 
posterioribus fumosis juncturis vix obscuris. Abdomen 
fusco-olivaceum, juncturis pallidis, et setis albis. Peg 
forcipis albicans, proximo articulorum interdum obscu- 

? mari simillima. 

Long. Corp. $ 6-8, al. 7, set. 14-16 mm. 

Hah. — Ashbourne Green, Derbyshire; in rills and 
streamlets. June. 

Baetis huceratus. 

(Forceps et ala postica. PI. V. fig. 23, 23a.) 

B. huceratus, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alarum anticse fumatae, posticge 
pallidiores. Pedum antici femoribus olivaceis, tibiis nigri- 
cantibus, et tarsis atris; posteriores vel olivacei tarsis 
et maculis pras-apicalibus femorum crescentiformibus 
atris, vel femoribus saturate cretaceis, tibiis fumosis, et 
tarsis atris. Setae piceas. Pes forcipis prime et secundo 
articulorum pallidis, reliquis fumosis. 

Imago, V. V. s. ^ . Oculi turbinati saturate fuligi- 
nosi, vel fuliginoso-hepaticolorati. Tergum thoracis 

on the Ephemeridce. 1 1 7 

aterrimum. Alae vitrinas, tribus prioribus nervorum vix obscuris. Pedum antici saturate 
olivacei, cruribus atro-corvinis, vel nigricantibus maculis 
pra3-apicalibus tibiarum atris, et juncturis tibio-tarsalibus 
albicantibus : posteriores vel femoribus et tibiis olivaceis 
atque tarsis fumosis, vel tarsis atro-corvinis juncturis 
atris ; vel cruribus pallide nigricantibus, juncturis vix 
obscuris ; vel cruribus albis, juncturis atris. Abdomen 
supra vel fusco-piceum, juncturis pallidis ; vel cum 2-6 
segmentorum virescenti-griseis, et interdum apicibus, 
lineolis divergentibus duabus dorsalibus, atque strigis e 
spiraculisj obscuris : infra nigi"icans,juncturis albidis, s«pe 
duobus segmentorum apicalium ochraceis. Pes forcipis 
prirao et secundo articulorum olivaceis, et cseteris plus 
aut minus nigricantibus ; aut primo solum olivaceo. 
Setoe nigricantes, saspe albicantes apices versus. 

I neglected to describe the female. 
Long. corp. (^ 8-9, al. 8, set. 10-16 mm. 
Hab. — The Holybrook and Kennet, near Reading. 
April and May. #- 

Baetis amnicus, no v. sp. 
(Forceps et ala postica, PI. V. fig. 24, 24a.) 

Imago, V. V. s. S - Oculi turbinati saturate fuliginosi ; 
inferiores atro-fuliginosi. Thoracis tergum aterrimum, 
suturis pallidis. Alse vitrinae, lurido tinctas, nervis atro- 
olivaceis ; anticae areis marginalibus apices versus paulo 
obscuratioribus. Pedum antici saturate virescenti-grisei, 
tibiis tarsisque fumatis vel nigricantibus; posteriores 
femoribus interdum vix ochraceo-tinctis, genubus ru- 
fescenti strigatis, tibiis fere cervinis, et tarsis obscuris 
juncturis nigris. Abdomen supra fuscum, juncturis vix 
pallidis; subtus in majore parte cinereum. Seta3 albae 
vel cinereee, bases versus juncturis obscuris. Forceps 
ater, apices versus saturate fuliginosus. 
- ? . Alae vitrinas, nervis virescenti-griseis. Pedes 
virescenti-grisei vel olivacei, tibiis tarsisque nigricantibus. 
Setae nigricantes. 

Long. Corp. S 9-10, ? 7 ; al. c? 10, ? 8 ; set. ^ 26, 
? 13 mm. 

Hob. — Barberine, Nant Bourant, and Mottet, at an 
altitude of some 4560 feet. July. In mountain torrents, 
whence the specific name. 

118 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograith 

Baetis alpinus. 
Che alpina, Pict. 1843-5 ; Cloeon alpina, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, S. "Oculi rufi. Tergum thoracis saturate 
fuscum. AlfB vitreae, nervis fulvis, paucis distinctioribus 
in arege marginalis apice. Abdomen fuscum, juncturis 
albidis ; setas albas, juncturis fuscis.'^ (Pict.) 

Long. Corp. S 10, set. 11, exp. al. 23 mm. 

Hah. — A stream from Mt. Brevent in the valley of 
Chamounix, in August. (Pict.) 

Baetis melanonyx. 

Cloe melayionyx, Pict. 1843-5; Cloeon melanonyx, ^B\k. 

Imago, ^ . " Corpus saturate fuscum, ventre pallidiore. 
Oculi turbinati ruli. Pedum antici fusci ; posteriores 
cretacei, unguibus atris. Alee vitreee, nervis fuscis, 
transversalibus subtilissimis. Set« flavescsntes, junc- 
turis fuscis." (Pict.) 

Long. corp. c? 7, set. 9, exp. al. 18 mm. 

Hah. — La Valle d'Entremont, Faucigny ; at the end of 
June. (Were the eyes reddened in alcohol ?) . 

Baetis pumihis. 

(Forceps et ala postica, PI. V. fig. 25, 25a.) 

Ephemera mutica (?), Lin. 1758=2?. striata, lAn. 1761. 
Cloe pumila, Burm. 1839. 0. striata (?), Pict. 1843-5. 
Cloeon pumila, Walk. 1853. B. pumilus, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alas anthracinae : pedes virescenti- 
grisei, tarsis nigricantibus ; setse nigricantes. 

Imago, V. V. s. $ . Oculi turbinati atro-fuliginosi. 
Tergum thoracis aterrimum, politum. AlsB vitrinee, ful- 
gore talcoso. Pedes albi, tarsis, apicibus tibiarum, femo- 
ribusque anticis, nigricantibus. Segmentorum abdominis 
2-7 alba, pellucida; caetera supra furfuroso-fusca vel 
fusco-castanea, subtus fusca. Forceps et setas albee. 

? . Capitis vertex strigis duabus piceo-rufescentibus. 
Tergum thoracis atrum. Pedes virescenti-grisei, tarsis 
fuscis. Abdomen supra fusco-furfurosum, juncturis, et 

on the EphemeridcB. 119 

sfepe linea longitudinali in medio, strigisque curvatis 
duabus ad bases segmeutoruni singulorum intermedio- 
rurn, ochraceis ; subtus serie notularum L-forraatarum 
hepaticoloratarum utrinque. Setae vix cervinae. Oculi 

Long. Corp. S $5-7; al. ^ 4-6, ? 6-8; set. c? H- 
13, subim. 10; set. ? 7"5-10, subira. 10 mm. 

Hah. — Wales, England, Belgium, Germany, Austria, 
Switzerland and Corsica. It frequents rivers, from May 
to October. 

Baetis niger. 
(Forceps et ala postica, PL V. fig. 26, 26a.) 

EpJiemnra nigra, Lin. 1761. Cloe diptcra, Eonalds, 
1856. B, niger, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Ake atrescentes. Pedes S pallide 

fumati ; ? femoi-ibus prasinis, strigis singulis brevibus 

obscuris ab apicibus anticorum, tibiis funiatis, et tarsis 

cervinis ultimis articulorum fumatis. Setee $ griseie, 

? ciuereee. 

Imago, V. V. s. $ . Oculi turbinati fuliginosi. Ter- 
gum thoracis aterrimum, politum. Alae vitrin«. Pedes 
vel fumati, vel saturate virescenti - albi, vel prasini; 
posterioribus crurum fumatis, anticis cinereis cum apici- 
Idus tibiarum obscuris. Segmentorum abdominis 2-7 
fumata ; c^etera supra vel rubigineo-fusca, vel piceo-fusca, 
subtus virescenti-grisea. Setie albse vel canas, saepe 
juucturis vix obscuris. 

? , Oculi fusco-fuliginosi. Pedes virescenti-testacei, 
juucturis tarsorum nigricantibus. Abdomen supra cas- 
taneo-piceum, juucturis et saspe strigis brevibus tribus 
ad bases paucorum intermediorum ochraceis ; subtus 
fuliginosum vel hepaticoloratum, pallidum, saepe notulis 
lateralibus L-formatis obscuris. Setas fumatae, vel canas, 
vel canae juucturis rufescentibus. 

Long. Corp. $ ? 6-7-5; al. S ? 6-7 ; set. S 10-11, 
subim. 9 ; set. ? 6-8*5, subim. 7 mm. 

Hah. — England, and perhaps Sweden. May and June, 
and also September. 

I have seen an undescribed Australian species, which 
is allied to some of the foregoing European species. 

120 Eev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Baetis (?) fuscus. 
Cloefusca, Schn. 1845. 

Iraag-o, ?. "Tergvim thoracis fuscum ; alse vitrinfe, 
nervis fuscis, antica area costali apicem versus fulvescente, 
at nervis transversalibus pluribus. Pedes saturate testa- 
cei. Abdomen supra rufescens, apicibus segraentorum 
brunneis; subtus testaceum, Setee saturate testaceas, 
fusco annulatse." 

Long, Corp. ? 2-75/" set. 6-25."' 

Eab. — Messina. April. (Schn.)* 

Baetis posticatus. 
Cloeon posticata, Say, 1823; Cloe posticata, Hag. 1861. 

Imago, V. s. <S . " Oculi turbinati saturate rufo-fusci. 
Tergum thoracis aterrimum, Alse vitrinee. Pedes albi ; 
antici vix obscuriores bases (femorum ?) versus. Seg- 
mentorum abdominis 2-7 pallide caerulescenti-hyalina, 
caetera saturate fusca. Setas albee." (Say.) 

Long. corp. 8, set. 19 mm. 

Hah. — " Shippingsport. End of May.' 


Baetis unicolor. 

Cloe unicolor, Hag. 1861 {nee Curt., Burm.). 

Imago, s. s. cJ . " Corpus saturate piceum. Alas 
vitrinae, interdum nervis longitudinalibus obscuris; pos- 

* The following European species are of uncertain position, and harcUy 

1. Baetis cuUciformis. 

Ephemera cuUciformis, Lin. 1758. E. albipennis, Walck. 1802. Cloe 
cuUciformis, Pict. 1843-5. 

Imago. "Eph. cauda biseta, alis albis, cori^ore fusco." (Lin. 1758.) 
" Cidice paulo major. Thorax nigricans. Abdomen fuscum. Setaa 

caudales longitudine corporis. Tubercula duo supra oculos, crassa, magna, 

livida." (Lin. 1761.) 
Hah. — Sweden. 

2. Baetis speciosus. 
Ephemera speciosa, Pod. 1761. 

Imago. " E. speciosa, pedibus anticis longissimis cyaneis, alis albis, 
corpore fusco." (Pod.) 
Long. corp. 3 lin. 
Hab. — Incog. 

on the Ephemeridce. 121 

tica? inter nervos duos sub-opacte. Pedes pallide flaves- 
centes, apicibus tarsorum obscuris. Setae pallidas^ apices 
versus obscurge. 

$ . "Vertex capitis strig-is longitudinalibus latis 
duabus. Abdomen acute rubiginosura, juncturis et macu- 
lis lateralibus pallidis.^' (AValsh.) 

$ . s. s, " ^neo-fuscescens, alis vitreis, pedibus pal- 
lide flavescentibus, et setis albis." (Hag.) 

Long. Corp. r? 2-5, ? 4-5; set. c? 5, ? 6-10; exp. 
al. (? 9, ? 10-13 mm. 

. Hah. — Washington, and (?) Porto Rico (Hag.) ; Rock 
Island, Illinois (Walsh) . 

Baetis propinquus. 

Cloe vicina, Walsh, 1862 {nee Hag. 1861). C. piroptn- 
qua, Walsh, 1863. 

Subimago. " Alfe fumatae, nervis longitudinalibus 

Imago. $ . " Piceus. Alte vitrinae ; posticaB inter 
nervos duos opacae. Pedes pallidi, femoribus anticis 
pallide rubiginosis et apicibus tarsorum obscuris. Seg- 
mentorum abdominis 2-7 alba, pellucida, punctis lateralibus 
(ad spiracula ?) obscuris ; ctetera supra picea, subtus opace 
albican tia. Setae albicantes, interdum annulatae." 

9 . *^ Corpus supra vel rubiginoso-piceum, vel rubigi- 
nosum. Abdomen subtus rubido-album. Femora antica 
fere nunquam maculata.^^ (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. $ 3-5, ? 3"5-4*5 ; set. $ 7*5-10, subim. 
5; set. $ 5-9, subim. 4 ; exp. al. $ 9-11, ? 8*5-14 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois. (Walsh.) 

Mr. Walsh considers it to be very closely related to 
5. posticatus.'^ 

* The same author supposes that the following may be a Baetis. 
Baetis verticis. 
B. verticis, Say, 1839. 

" Corpus ochroleucum vel cretaceum. Thorax strigis rubiginosis dua- 
bus, antice confluentibus et postice obsolescentibus ; plurimi nervorum 
alarum atri ; pedes albi, autici apicibus femorum rubiginosis, et apicibus 
tibiarum juncturisque tarsorum fuscis." 

Long. Corp. et set. supra 6 mm. 

Hah. — Indiana (Say). 

122 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Baetis pygmccus. 

Cloe pygmoea, Hag. 1861. 

Imago, s. s. ? . " Corpus fusco-griseum, alls vitreis, 
pedibus setisque albis." (Hag.) 
Long. Corp. 3_, exp. al. 6 mm. 
Hah. — The St. Lawrence. (Hag.) 

Baetis fluctuans. 

Cloe (B) fluctuans, Walsh, 1862. 

Imago, ? . " Corpus brunneo-album. Thorax supra 
strigis longitudinalibus brunneis duabus, postice conilu- 
entibus. Alee vitrinee, nervis longitudinalilsus plerumque 
brunneis, interdum quoque brunneo marginatis bases 
versus : area marginalis anterioris maculis parvis brun- 
neis quindecim vel sedecim, paucis confluentibus ; striga 
pallida brunnea pone subcostam, cujus margo posticus 
variabilis et irregularis, interdum sex- vel septem-den- 
tatus, maculas rotundas pellucidas (circa xiv.), paucis 
confluentibus, inclaudit. Abdomen plerumque brunneo- 
album, interdum brunneo varium, interdum etiam pallide 
brunneum, sexto segmentorum brunneo. Tarsorum apices 
juncturgeque fusci.^' (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. ? 6-7, set. 10*5-12, exp. al. 13*5-17 mm. 

Eah. — Rock Island, Illinois. 

Baetis pidus, nov. sp. 
(Ala postica, PL V. fig. 27.) 

Subimago, v. s. s. ^ ? . Alee nigricantes, nervis 
transversalibus marginibus anguste obscuris. Pedes 
pallidi, juncturis tarsorum obscuris. Corpus subpiceum. 

Imago, V. s. s. <$ . Thorax supra fusco-piceus. Alae 
vitringe, invariae, nervis pellucidis. Pedes veluti in $ . 
Abdomen olivaceo-fuscum, in medio paulo pallidius ; 
subtus saturate rubido-album, rubido crebrissime punc- 
tatum. Setae alb^e, juncturis obscuris. 

9 . Tergum thoracis saturate lutescens. Alae vitrinee, 
nervis longitudinalibus piceis, et transversalibus opace 

on the Ephemeridce. 123 

albis : area raarginalis anticae fusco variegata ; area sub- 
marginalis plus aut minus fusca, interdum maculis rotun- 
dis pellucidis inclausis, apice fusco nebuloso ; margo 
terrainalis peranguste fuscus et albo invicem marginatus : 
ala postica saipe apud basin et usque ad costse medium 
fuscescens. Pedes testacei, vel cervino-albicantes, femo- 
ribus punctis rotundis fuligineis irroratis, paucis con- 
fluentibus, atque tarsis albican tibus juncturis et ultimis 
articulorum fuliginosis. (Abdomen decoloratum.) Setse 
albte, juncturis atris. 

Long. Corp. c? 5-6-5 ; al. <? 6-5-7, ? 7 ; set. c? 
circa 14, $ circa 15 mm. 

Hab. — Texas. 

Baetis {?)ii7idatus. 
Cloe undata, Pict. 1843-5 ; Cloeon imdata, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, ? . s. s. " Pallide flavescens. Alse vitrinae ; 
antica apud marginera costalem fusca, maculis rotundis 
pellucidis variata, fascia transversali in medio nebulosa, 
et nebula magna super marginem terminalem, fuscescen- 
tibus, Setfe albidjB, juncturis in (^ atris, in $ fuscis '* 
(Pict.) . " Pedes flavescentes ; tarsorum apices obscuri ^' 

Long. Corp. ? 7, set. 10, exp. al. 15-19 mm. 

Hah. — Red River, and New York (Hag.); Mexico 
(Pict.) . 

Baetis fasciatus. 
Cloe fasciata, Vict. 1843-5 ; Cloeon fasciata, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, $ . s. s. "Tergum thoracis pallide fuscum. 
Alae vitreee : antica margine costali, fasciis transversali- 
bus obliquis duabus, strigis transversali obliqua prope 
marginem terminalem alteraque brevi super marginem 
terminalem ita conjunctis ut maculas pellucidas claudunt, 
et macula trigonali e costa inter strigam et ultimam fascia- 
rum fasciae ipsi conjuncta, et denique macula conspicua 
in medio inter basin et primam fasciarum, fuscis. Abdo- 
men saturate fuscum, setis lutescentibus fusco annulatis.^* 

Long. Corp. ? 7, set. 8, exp. al. 19 mm. 

iZa6.— Brazil. (Pict.) 

124 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Some undescribed Australian species, which have the 
anterior wings more or less coloured along the costa, 
have been submitted to my inspection. I have seen, 
besides these, a Californian undescribed species, with the 
wings very distinctly marked with fuscous blotches along 
the costa, and with an unusual number of cross-veinlets 
in the wing. Their wings are figured in PI. V. fig. 28, 
29; PL in. fig. 1. 

Baetis ferrugineus. 
Cloe (A) ferruginea, Walsh, 1862. 

Subimago. '^ Alse fumatge; posteriores et anticarura 
postcostae pallidiores. Ala antica crassioribus nervorum 
et paucis aliis, bases versus, fuscis, atque nervis trans- 
versalibus cum horum marginibus albido-pellucidis." 

Imago, s. s. c? . Corpus ferrugineura (rubiginosum) . 
Ala) vitrinse ; anticte apud costas vix flavescentes, tribus 
prioribus nervorum longitudinalium flavescentibus, sed 
paucis aliis fuscescentibus. Pedes pallide flavescentes, 
apicibus tibiarum et tarsorum, juncturis tarsorum, et 
proximo articulorum tarsi antici, fuscis. Abdomen supra 
rufescenti-bruuneo irroratum, interdum paene piceum ; 
subtus pallide rubido-album. Setas forcepsque albicantes ; 
illarum intermedia brevissima." (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. $ 6-5-9*5; set. 15-17; al. exp. 15-18 mm. 

Hah.— Uock Island, Illinois (Walsh) .* 

* Mr. Walsh thinks that the following species may be allied to B. fer- 

Baetis alhus. 
B. alba, Say, 1824; Palingenia alha, Hag. 1861. 

5 . Album ; vertice fusco. Thorax vix flavescenti-brunneo tinctus ; 
"prothorax quadratus, cretaceus " (Hag.). Alte albid^e, nervvdis apud cos- 
tas obscuris. Pedes albi ; autici breves, obscuri. 

Long. Corp. 11, exp. al. 22 mm. (Hag.) 

Hah. — The North Eed River (Hag.); Winnipeg Eiver (Say). 

Ephoron leukon, Wilhamson, 1802. 

" Oculi nigri. Thorax fuscus. Alae, abdomen, et pedes albi. Alee 
patentes, reticulata^ ; setae duae." 

Long. Corp. 12 mm. 

Hah. — The Eiver Passaick, in the immediate vicinity of Belville ; from 
the end of July to the middle of August. They begin to rise about forty 
minutes after sunset, moult about half a minute afterwards, and fly nearly 
as fast as dragon-flies. (Wilhamson.) 

I have reasons for supposing that Tipulce are called dragon-flies in some 
parts of England ; and if the Eplioron leukon flies as fast as these, its 
habits conform, thus far, to those of British species of Heptagenia. 

on the Ephemeridce. 125 

Genus Siphlurus. 
(Ala antica, Pi. III. fig. 2.) 

Baetis, p., Say, 1823 ; Ephemera, p., Zet. 18 10 ; Pa- 
lingenia, p., Walk. 1853; Siphlonurus (err.), Etn. 18G8. 

Nymplia agilis, lamiuis branchialibus utrinque septem: 
laminarum dute priores duplices, caeter^e simplices, omnes 
integree. Palpi tri-articulati, superiores proximo articu- 
lorura ceeteris subasquali, et ultimo penultimo breviori ; 
inferiores proximo articulorum quoque casteris subaequali 
et valde depresso, secundo fere obconico ajDice obliquo, 
et vix tertio longiori. 

Super pedes omnes, alis erectis, setisque divergentibus 
subimago stat. 

Imago. Oculi ^J integri ; setas duae longae (resi- 
duum intermedia3 interdum articulatum) ; alee quatuor; 
tarsi quinque-articulati, proximo articulorum interdum 
tibiae adnato. Forcipis pedes quadri-articulati (nisi arti- 
culus quintus basalis lamina ventrali penultimi segmen- 
torum obtegatur) ; articulorum primus largus, secundus 
longissimus. Femina caret ovivalvula ; neque laminam 
ventralem penultimi segmentorum habet. 

The species inhabit lakes and rivers, in the Palgearctic 
and Nearctic Regions. 

From ha-vnng omitted to note down the tarsal char- 
acters of all the species examined by me, I am, unfor- 
tunately, unable to adopt Mr. Walsh's convenient sec- 
tions of the genus ; which are founded upon the structure 
of the tarsus. 

Siphlurus flavidus. 

(Apex abdominis supra, PI. V. fig. 30.) 

Baetis flavida, Ed. Pict. 1865. 

Imago, V. s. s. S - " Oculi caeruleo-atri. Corpus fur- 
furosum vel lutescens. Alje vix opacae, nervis fuscis ; 
anticae juxta bases, et in areis marginali et submargi- 
nali apices versus, pallide flavicantes. Pedes fulvi, 
juncturis fuscis. Abdomen juncturis, et maculis longi- 
tudinalibus apicem versus, fuscis ; " subtus macula U- 
formata in segmento singulo : '' processum depressura 

12d Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

acutum, penultimum segmentorum utrinque liabet. Setaa 
flavescentes, juncturis vix obscuris." 

" ? pallidior." (E. Pict.) 

Long. Corp. ,$ ? 12, exp. al. $ 27, ? 31 mm. 

Hah. — San Ildefonso. July. 

8iphlurus armatus. 

(Forceps, PI. VI. fig. 1, la.) 

S. armatus, Etn. 1870. 

Imago, V. s. s. (^ . Tergum thoracis luteo-piceum. 
Alee virescenti-griseo suffusse, nervis piceis. Pedum 
antici picei ; posteriores lutei vel furfurosi. Abdomen 
supra fuscum, juncturis latera versus pallidis; subtus 
lutescens vel ochraceum, strigis U-formatis in posteriori- 
bus segmentorum. Setse cervino-albidse, vel subfulvaD, 
juncturis fuscis, pubescentes. Forceps piceus. 

Long. Corp. cJ 14-15, al. 16, set. 24-25 mm. 

i?a6. —Killarney (M'Lach.), and Bishop's Wood, Mid- 
dlesex (Wormald) . In July. 

Mr. McLachlan has an undescribed foreign species 
closely allied to 8. armatus, probably from Germany. 

8ipMurus lacustris. 

(Forceps maris, PI. VI. fig. 2.) 

8. lacustris, Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. c?. Alas cinerete vel nigricantes. 

Imago, V. V. s. cJ . Oculi supra saturate fuliginosi, 
subtus saturate virescenti-grisei. Tergum thoracis ater- 
rimum, politum. Alfe vitrinte, nervis piceis, fulgore 
hyacmthino; apex arose marginalis et areae submargi- 
nalis anticee pallide virescenti-albus. Pedum antici atro- 
virentes, cruribus saturate corvinis ; posteriores saturate 
virescenti-grisei, tarsis infra spinulosis.* Abdomen supra 
piceo-fuscum, juncturis ochraceis ; subtus saturate vires- 
centi-griseum, tribus segmentorum apicalium fulvescen- 
tibus, singulis strigis U-formatis obscuris ; sub prioribus 
segmentorum strigse duae, antice convergentes, obscurae. 
Setse virescenti-griseae, bases versus fuliginosi, juncturis 
vix obscuris. 

Long. corp. <J 15, al. 14, set. 20, subim. 11 mm. 

Hah. — Llyn Llydaw, Snowdon. August. 
* Several other species likewise have the tarsi spimilose beneath. 

on the Eplutneridte. 127 

Anglers in Wales, mistaking this for Ephemera clanica, 
are greatly astonished at seeing the subiraago rise out of 
the cold tranquil " llj'ns." One of my specimens remained 
a subimago during the greater part of two days. 

There are some specimens of a small undescribed 
(probably German) species in Mr. M'Lachlan's possession, 
which is very similar to S. lacustris. 

Siplihirus Linna'.anus, nov. sp. 

(Forceps maris, PL VI. fig. 3. Notulas ventrales, fig. 3a.) 

Imago, V. s. s. c? . Tergum thoracis fusco-rubiginosum. 
Ala3 vitrinas, vix fusco suft'usae, nervis longitudinalibus 
piceis, bases versus testaceis. Pedes ochracei, femoribus 
singulis cingulis mediis obscuris. Dorsum abdominis 
fuscum, apicibus segmentorura saturatioribus, et triangulis 
pallidis ad latera segmentorum intermediorum : subtus 
2-8 segmentorum pallide ochracea, singula signis obscuris 
bicornutis punctisque atris duobus eleganter notata; 
csetera subtus saturate rubiginosa. Seise ochro-leucae, 
juncturis fuscis. 

Long. corp. S lo, set. 26, al. exp. 26 mm. 

Hab. — Incog. There is a specimen in the Linnaean 
cabinet, and the abdomen of a male in Mr. Dale's collec- 

Siphlurus annulatus. 

(Forceps maris, PL VI. fig. 4a. ]S"otulEe ventrales, fig. 4.) 

Baetis annulata, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. <?. Tergum thoracis brunneo-luteum. 
Alae vitrinse, vix lactescentes, nei'vis piceis : apex area9 
marginalis anticae nebula pallidissima fusca. Pedes 
ochracei, juncturis et femorum cingulis mediis piceis. 
Dorsum abdominis pallide fuscum, latera versus ochra- 
ceum : venter ochraceus, segmento singulo intermedio 
strigis longitudinalibus duabus punctisque tribus fuscis. 
Setae ochraceae, juncturis piceis. 

Long. Corp. ^ 13, al. 15, set. 18 mm. 

Eah. — Trenton Falls, New York. 

128 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Siphluriis hicolor. 
Palingenia hicolor, Walk. 1853. 

Subimago, ? . v. s. s. Alge fuscse, nervis transversa- 
libus marginibus saturatioribus^ iis in apice areae margi- 
nalis anticfe subrectis. Tergura thoracis luteum. Pedum 
antici luteo-fusci, tarsis pallidioribus ; posteriores ochra- 
cei. Setge luteas. 

Long. Corp. $ 11, al. 14 mm. 

Hah. — St. Martin's Falls, River Albany, Hudson's Bay 
(Barnston) . 

Siphlurus femoratus . 

Baetis femorata, Say, 1823 ; B. femorata, (?) "Walsh ; 
vel (?) Baetis (A) interlineata, Walsh, 1863. 

Subiraago. *'Alae $ niveae, nervis cum marginibus 
suis fuscis ; ? alee albicantes, nervis fuscis fusco margi- 
natis." (Say.) 

Imago, V. s. cJ . " Piceus. Oculi supra margaritacei, 
singuli macula mobili atra ; subtus pallide fusci. Alaa 
vitrinae : anticge tribus prioribus nervorum longitudina- 
lium et paucis sequentium, atque nervis transversalibus 
areae submarginalis cum paucis aliis bases alarum ver- 
sus, fuscis ; macula brunnea in disco, lineaque atra in 
costae medio, interdum quoque areis marginalibus apices 
versus, obscuratis : posticae seriebus singulis brevibus 
nervorum trans versalium fuscorum ad bases costarum 
brunneo nebulosis. Pedum antici pallide brunnei, inter- 
dum proximis dimidiorum saturatioribus ; posteriores 
pallidiores ; omnes femoribus brunneo bi-cinctis, tibiis ad 
bases et apices tarsisque ad juncturas brunneis. Seg- 
mentorum abdominis 4-5 alba, pellucida, singula fasciis 
apicalibus angustis piceis, raaculis dorsalibus in mediis 
utrinque obscuris, maculisque lateralibus pallidis ; venter 
albicans, pellucidus. Seta3 albae, annulatae." 

? . *' Segmentorum abdominis 1-5 supra piceo-brun- 
nea, bases versus pallidiora. Alae posticae in toto vitrinae." 

Long. Corp. S 12-13-5, ? 12-5-14; set. S 20-24, ? 
13-16 ; exp. al. S 25-28, ? 28-29 mm. 

Hah. — Cincinnati (Say) ; Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh). 

on the Epliemerldoi. 129 

Siphlurus alternatus. 
Baetis alternata, Say, 1824 ; in sect. A, Walsh. 

Subimago. ^'Alae fumatae, apicibus posticarum pal- 
lide virescentibus.^^ 

Imago, s. s. (^ . " Piceo-brunneus. Alge vitrinae, nervis 
fuscis. Pedum antici pallide bruunei, coxa, cingulo prse- 
apicali femoi'is, juncturisque tarsorum, brunneis : poste- 
riores pallidiores. Segmentorum abdominis 2-9 vel 4-9 
singula maculis trigonalibus lateralibus flavescentibus 
duabus supra juxta bases, plus aut minus confluentibus ; 
subtus pallida, singula maculis pai'vis basalibus in mediis, 
punctis transversalibus in mediis duobus, lineisque 
utrinque obliquis sub-abbreviatis, brunneis. Setas albi- 
cantes,juncturis brunneis." 

? . " Caput carinis divergentibus inter ocellos duabus, 
marginibus antico et laterali verticis (vel etiam interdum 
carina in medio hujus), strigisque brevibus utrinque 
duabus, flavescentibus." (Walsh.) 

Long. corp. c? 10-5-12-5, ? 10-12; set. ^ 19-31, 
subim. 13; set. ? 18-19, subim. 14-15; exp. al. $ 23- 
30, ? 26-32 mm. 

Hab. — Rock Island, Illinois, and the River Des Plaines 
near Chicago (Walsh) ; Washington (Hag.); St. Peter's 
River (Say) . 

Siphlurus aridus. 
Baetis arida, Say, 1839; in sect. B, Walsh. 

Subimago. "Alse nigricante suffusas, praecipue apices 
versus, et nervis transversalibus fusco marginatis." 

Imago. (^ . "Caput pallidum, macula magna intra 
posteriores ocellorum orbitas utrinque atra. Thorax 
piceus. Alee vitrinae, nervis pallidissime hyalinis, inter- 
dum bases costarum versus fuscescentibus. Pedum antici 
vel apicibus tarsorum, tibiis, et femoribus usque ad media, 
obscure viresceuti-fuscis ; vel pallide virescentibus, vix 
ad apices versus obfuscatis ; vel in toto fuscis vel piceis : 
posteriores virescenti-albi, apicibus tarsorum vix obscuris. 
Segmentorum abdominis 1-8 supra picea, singula maculis 


130 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

lateralibus trigonalibus vel semi - orbiciilaribus pallide 
rubiginosis ad bases ; ultimum pallide rvibiginosum. Set£e 

$ . " Nervi alarum pallide fusci. Segmentorum ab- 
dominis 1-8 supra saturate rvibiginosa et maculata veluti 
in S-" (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. S 8-12, ? 9-13 ; set. S 18-23, subim. 
12-14; set. ? 17-26, subim. 10-14; exp. al. S 20-25-5, 
? 23-5-32 mm. 

Hob. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsli); Indiana, about 
the middle of June (Say). 

Siphlurus SICCUS. 

Baetis (B) siccus, Walsh, 1862. 

Imago, $. '^ Aprtecedente discrepat in orbitis ocel- 
lorum posticorum intus haud plane obscuris ; in nervis 
alarum fuscis ; in pedibus anticis piceis, apicibus tibia- 
rum atris, et proximis articulorum tarsalium pallidis 
(juncturis suis exceptis); in dorso abdominis piceo, im- 
maculate ; et in setis virescenti-albis, juncturis anguste 

? . ^'Tarsus anticus fuscus, proximo articulorum 
pallido. Dorsum abdominis saturate rubiginosum, imma- 
culatum." (Walsh.) 

Long. corp. S 8*5-10, ? 8-5-11-5; set. $ 19, ? 15; 
exp. al. c? 19-22, ? 23-27 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) . 

Siphhirus dehilis. 
Baetis (C) fZek7{s, Walsh, 1862; (wee Walk. 1853). 

Subimago. " Alse fumatae, nervis fuscis." 

Imago, V. s. c? . " Oculi supra brunnei, subtus fusci. 
Thorax piceus. Alse vitrinte, nervis pallide hyalinis, 
tribus prioribus nervorum longitudinalium, bases (et in- 
terdum quoque apices) versus, fuscis. Pedes pallide 
virescentes, genubus cingulisque femorum fuscis; antici 
apicibus tibiarum, juncturis, et ultimis articulorum tar- 
salium, fuscis ; posteriores apicibus articulorum tarsalium 
fuscis. Abdomen rubiginosum, apicibus segmentorum 
piceis. SetaB albicantes." 

on the Ephemeridce. 131 

? . " Pallidior. Thorace flavescens. Nervi alarum 
costas et apices versus nigricantes.'' (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. c? 4-5-5, ? 5-7; set. ^ 13-14, subim. 
circa 5 ; set. ? 8-12 ; exp. al. cT 13-15, ? 15-16 mm. 

Eab. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) . 

At this point is resumed the series of genera which 
have a short ventral lamina, produced from the tip of 
the penultimate segment of the female; which series 
comprises Leptophlehia, Epliemerella, Bcetisca, IsonycMa, 
Colohurus and Heptagema.^ 

* Species generis incerti. 

The following Cingalese species have been classed in Cloe by Dr. Hagen ; 
but most likely a new genus will have to be erected for them. I have seen 
only cue female subimago of what I suppose to be C. tristis, Hag. ; and 
therefore I am not in a position to describe the genus. This female has 
hind-wings unconformable to those of Baetis, and a ventral plate produced 
from the apex of the penultimate segment ; but no egg-valve. According 
to Dr. Hagen, the male has three long setre. The name Cloe cannot be 
retained for them. Some of them may belong to Le^jtophlehia. 

Sectio I. Alffi quatuor. 

No. 1. tristis. 

Cloe tridis, Hag. 1858. 

Subimago $ , s. s. " Nigi-a, pedibus luteis, femoribus anticis uigris ; 
setis griseis, iucisuris nigris; aHs nigris, opacis." 

Long. set. ? subim. 15, exp. al. 13 mm. 

Hah. — Eainbodde. (Hag.) 

No. 2, consueta. 

Cloe consueta, Hag. 1858. 

Subimago. " Alis paulo griseis opacis." 

Imago. " Capite nigro, thorace bruuneo, pedibus pallidis, abdomine'pal- 
lido, apicibus segmentorum anguste brunneo marginatis, setis pallidis 
incisuris basalibus nigris ; alis vitreis (hyalinis), venis pallidis ; $ (?) tho- 
race medio luteo, abdomine brunneo." 

Long. set. ? 10, exp. al. 12 mm. 

Hah. — Rainbodde. (Hag.) 

No. 3. solida. 

Cloe soUda, Hag. 1858. 

Subimago (?). "Alis griseis opacis, thorace abdomineque luteis." 
Imago $ . " Fusco-ffinea, abdomine subtus pallido, i^edibus luteis, setis 
griseis incisuris nigi-is, aUs vitrinis." 

Long. set. 7, exp. al. 10 mm. 
Hab. — Rainbodde. (Hag.) 

K 2 

132 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 


(Ala antica, PI. III. fig. 3.) 

Palingenia, p., et Baetis p.^ Walk. 1853 ; Coloburus, 
Etn. 1868. 

Imago. Oculi c? sub-partiti; alse quatuor; setamm 
media brevissima^ articulata. Tarsi postici quinque-arti- 
culati : articulorum primus tibi« adnatus, vix discretus, 
secundo longior ; secundus in ? tertio tequalis ; secun- 
duSj tertius et quartus in S prime graduatim minores. 
Femina caret ovivalvula ; processus ventralis tamen brevis 
laminaris e penultimi segmentorum apice producitur. 
Pedes forcipis quadri-articulati ; articulorum proximus 
largusj secundo brevier; secundus reliquis longitudine 

Colohurus Jiumeralis. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 6, 6a; feminae, 6b.) 

Palingenia humeralis & Baetis remota, Walk. 1853 ; Co- 
lohurus Jiumeralis, Etn. 1868. 

Subimago, v. s. s. ? . Alae anticse canag, justa bases 
ochracese, apices versus fuscescentes, nervis transversa- 
libus murine marginatis, prtecipue costas versus. Set^e 
rubiginosse, juncturis obscuris. 

Imago, V. s. s. c? . Thorax supra fuscns, politus. Alse 
cano tinctge, pellucidae, nervis atris^juxta bases ochraceae; 
antica area submarginali et areae marginalis apice sub- 
fuscis, atque pluribus nervorum trans versalium inter 

No. 4. signata. 

Cloe signata, Hag. 1858. 

Imago. "Capite nigro, thorace fusco-a?ueo, abdomiDe fuseo, siibtus 
basibus segmentorum pallidas ; pedibus albidis, femoribus in rnediis, cum 
genu, nigro annulatis ; setis albidis, iucismis nigris." 

Long. set. 8, exp. al. 12 mm. 

Eab. — Kainbodde. (Hag.) 

Sectio II. Alffi dujE. 

No. 5. marginalis. 

Cloe marginalis, Hag. 1858. 

Siibimago. " Luteo-fusca, abdomine fusco, pedibus luteis, setis griseis ; 
alls griseis, margine costali fusco." 

Imago, ? . " Nigra, pedibus anticis nigris, posticis luteis ; setis albis, 
nigro artieulatis ; alis vitriniSj margine costali vix obscuriori." 

Long. set. !^ 16, subim. 7 ; exp. al. 10-14 mm. 

Hab. — Eainbodde, (Hag.) 

071 the Ephemeridce. 133 

costam duosque nervorum sequentium fusco marginatis. 
Pedum antici fusci ; posteriores fulvo-lutei, apicibus 
tibiarum et articulorum tarsalium fuscis. Abdomen supra 

? . Ala3 eis maris siraillimge, sed juxta bases luteae. 
Pedum antici brunneo-lutei ; posteriores lutei, apicibus 
tibiarum ultimisque articulorum tarsalium subfuscis. 

Long. Corp. ^ 10, ? 7-10; al. S 15, ? 13-17; set. 
S 20 & 2, ? 15 & 1, subim. 12-13 & 1 mm. 

Hah. — Otago, New Zealand. 

Coloburus haleuticus, nov. sp. 
(Forceps maris, PI. VI. fig. 7, 7a.) 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thorax supra furfurosus. Alee 
vitrinee, lacteo tinctae, juxta bases subfuscse, nervis atro- 
piceis ; apices arose marginalis et are^e submarginalis 
virescenti-grisei. Pedum antici rufo-picei; posteriores 
brunneo-lutescentes. Abdomen supra rufo-fuscum,j unc- 
turis paulo obscuris, lineis spiracularibus testaceis, ven- 
tre rufo-lutescenti. Sette fuscse^ pubescentes: forceps 
testaceus, apices versus piceo tinctus. 

Long, corp, c? H, al. 15, set. 20 & 5 mm. 

i?"a&.— Melbourne (?) [M'Coy]. 

Genus Cronicus, nov. gen.* 
Baetis, p., Pict. 1854. 

Imago. Heptagenice affinis. Forcipis maris pedes 
quadri-articulati; articulorum penultimus longus, secundo 
vix brevier, primus et ultimus brevissimi. Setarum 
media brevissima. 

Cronicus anomalus. 

(Forceps, PI. VI. fig. 8.) 

Baetis anomala, Pict. 1854. 

Long. Corp. <? 10, exp. al. 20 mm. 
Species in electro. 

* Derivation. — Kpov'iKos, old-fasliioned, out of date. 

134 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Whether the Baetis gigantea, grossa, and longipes 
of MM. Pictet and Hagen (1856) belong to this genus 
or not, I am unable to say, because they are not figured^ 
and I have not seen the types. 

Genus Isonychia, nov. gen. 

(Ala antica, PL III. fig. 4.) 

Baetis, p.. Walk. 1853. 

Imago, $ . Alfe quatuor: setarum media sgepissime 
rejicitur, interdum tamen rudimentum brevissimum re- 
tinetur. Tarsi quinque-articulati ; articulorum posterio- 
rum primus secundo sub^equalis, et tertius etiam quarto 
subsequalis, sed secundus tertio paulo longior : ungues 
uncinati, conformes. Ovivalvula caret ; sed processus 
laminaris ventralis e penultimi segmentorum apice pro- 
ducitur. Oculi S integri. 

Forsan ad Isonychiam species Sij^hluri in Baetis 
serie B (Walsh), et Ephemera pudica (Hag.), pertinere 

IsonycMa manca, nov. sp. 
(Genitalia, PI. VI. fig. 5, 5a.) 

Subimago, S' ? . v. s. s. Alas nigricantes, venis sa- 
turate et anguste marginatis; post-costas versus palli- 

Imago, V. s. s. (J . Thoracis tergum luteo-furfurosum. 
Alas vix lurido tinctae, nervis vix luridis. Pedum antici 
femoribus olivaceo-piceis, apicibus saturate piceis, tibiis 
ati'o-piceis, tarsis testaceis juncturis atris; posteriores 
stramineo-gambosi, unguibus vix obscuris. Abdomen 
decoloratum. Sette pallidissime ochraceae, proximis 
juncturarum obscuris. 

9 . Thoracis tergum et caput furfurosa, apud latera 
interdum fusco-picea. Alse vitrinee, vix lacteo vel lurido 
tinctae ; nervorum longitudinales picei, transversales atri. 
Pedum antici apicibus femorum piceis, tibiis atris, duobus 
proximis articulorum tarsalium albicantibus, caeteris 
nigricantibus ; posteriores ochracei, unguibus obscuris. 
Abdomen rufo-piceum, setis cretaceis, breviter pubescen- 
tibus. Interdum pedes antici sunt picei, tarsis murinis. 

Long. Corp. S 10, ? 7-12, al. cJ 10, ? 11'5-13, set. 
cJ 18, ? 20-22 mm. 

Eab.— Texas (M'Lach.). 

o)i the EphemeridcB. 135 

Isonychia ignota. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 29.) 

Baetis ignota, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. S- Thoracis tergum brunneo-piceura. 
Ala3 vitriiia3, nervia testaceis. Pedum antici fusco-picei, 
juncturis pallidis ; posterioi'es lurido-straminei. Abdomen 
supra piceum, apicibus segmentorum obscuris : " venter 
rubiginosus" (Walk.). Seta3 bases versus sub-fuiigi- 

Long. Corp. S 10*5, al. 12 mm. 

Hah. — Incog. ( ? United States.) 

Genus Heptagenia. 

(Ala antica, PL III. fig. 5.) 

Ephemera, p., Pod. 1761; Baetis (A), Curt. 1834 {nee 
Leach, 1815) ; Heptagenia, Walsh, 1863 ; Ecdyurus, Etn, 

Nympha agile reptans, laminis branchialibus utrinque 
septem ; laminge simplices iutegrfe, fasciculis e radicibus 
singulis filamentorum branchialium. Femora late com- 
pressa, ciliata. Caput late depressum : labrum induplica- 
tum, transversum, obtuse triangulare, apice emarginato. 
Palpi maxillares bi-articulati : maxillarum superioreslami- 
nares, intus ciliatte, antice {i. e., apud apices) pectinatte, 
palpis tenuibus ; inferiores palpis robustis ultimis arti- 
culorum bifidis, dimidiis imbricatis. Labium ovale mi- 
nutum, palpis inarticulatis, brevissimis, ob-ovatis. 

Subimago in habitu Siphluro admodum similis est. 

Imago. AlfB quatuor: setarum media caret: oculi 
maris simplices. Tarsorum posteriores quinque-articulati; 
articulorum secundus, tertius, et quartus graduatim de- 
crescentes : ungues dissimiles. Forcipis maris artus tri- 
articulati, proximis articulorum longissimis, ex apice pro- 
cessus Ventralis procedentes. Ovivalvulam et processum 
ventralem penultimi segmentorum femina habet. 

The species frequent streams and rivers in the Palas- 
arctic and Nearctic regions, the Andes, and the Malay 

136 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Heptagenia semicolorata. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 9.) 

Ephemera stigma (?), Gmel, 1790-3. E . fuscula {?) , 
Schr. 1798 (subim.) . Baetis semicolorata, Curt. 1834. 
B. semitincta (?), Pict. 1843-5.* 

Subimago, v. v, s. Alse anticee griseae ; posticse pal- 
lide cervinse vel fumatse. Pedes virescenti-grisei, femor- 
ibus in mediis obscure punctatis, tarsisque corvinis vel 
atro-virescentibus. Setas nigricantes. Oculi maris satu- 
rate olivacei, cingulis atris in mediis. 

Imago, V. V. s. ^ . Oculi supra saturate picei, cingulis 
subtus atris marginibus cserulescenti-griseis. Tergum 
thoracis fusco-luteum. Alse vitrinte, nervis et basibus 
rubiginosis. Pedes virescenti - grisei, strigis abbreviatis 
longitudinalibus in mediis femorum, cruribus anticis 
nigricantibus, sed posterioribus tarsorum vel ochraceo- 
fumosis, vel stramineis plus aut minus corvino tinctis, 
vel fulvis unguibus obscuris. Abdomen supra fuscum, 
apicibus segmentorum obscuris et juncturis pallidis; 
subtus saturate murinum. Setge fuliginosEe, vel nigri- 

? . Alfe vitrinae, crassioribus nervorum longitudinalium 
testaceis, tenuioribus atro-fuscis, et transversalibus atris ; 
vel omnibus testaceis. Oculi atro-olivacei. Abdomen 
supra ochraceo-furfurosum, juncturis pallidissimis ; subtus 
testaceum. Processus ventralis penultimi segmentorum 

Long. Corp. S 7-5-10, ? 7-5-9; al. S 10, ? 10-5; 
set. $ 23-25, subim. 8-9 ; set. $ 14, subim. 10 mm. 

Eah. — Great Britain, Switzerland, and Austria; in cold 
streams and the rapids of rivers. June to September. 

* The specimens labelled semitincta in M. Ed. Pictet's collection, are 
indistinguishable from a pale variety of semicolorata, which occui-s in the 
Lake District of England. It seems advisable, notwithstanding, to state 
M. Pictet's criteria of semitincta, in case the species should be really 
distinct from one another. 

Subimago. " Alaa pallida flavescenti-grisese. Corpus virescenti - fla- 

Imago. " Thorax striga dorsali pallida. Femora antica acute fulva." 

Hah. — A smaU stream at Versoix, on the Lake of Geneva, in the middle 
of June. (Pict.) 

One can hardly doubt that it is a epecies distinct from semicolorata. 

on the Epltemcridce. 137 

Heptagenia nivata, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 10.) 

Subimago, v. v. s. ^ ? . Alarum anticos saturate 
cinereas ; posteriores pallidiores. Pedes olivacei, tarsis 
nigricantibus ; autici obscuratiores. Setae nigras. 

Imago, V. V. s. c?. Oculi atro-fuliginei, infra paulo 
olivaceo tincti. Tergum thoracis aterrimum, politum. 
Alae viti'inas, invarige ; nervi virescenti-grisei, post-cubi- 
tales recti. Pedum antici atro-olivacei, tibiis et tarsis 
atris ; posteriores olivacei, tibiis saturate virescenti-albis 
vel cretaceis, atque tarsis olivaceo tinctis. Abdomen 
supra fuscum, juncturis paulo pallidioribus ; subtus oliva- 
ceum. Seta3 nigricantes, juncturis anguste obscuris. 

$v. Post-cubitales vix irregulares. Pedum antici tibiis 
tarsisque saturate nigricantibus ; posteriores tibiis creta- 
ceis, et tarsis nigricantibus unguibus pallidis. Abdomen 
subtus olivaceum, maculis ganglialibus paulo obscura- 
tioi^bus. Lamina ventralis penultimi segmentorum apice 
lente emarginato. 

Long. corp. ^ $ 11; al. c? 12, ? 17; set. S 27, 
subim. 8; set. $ 12-15 mm. 

Hah. — The stream at Barberine ; and Lac de Combal. 
July. It is named nivata from its haunts being chilled 
with snow. 

Heptagenia horealis, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 11.) 

Imago, V. s. s. S- Thoracis tergum piceum. Alse 
vitrinaj; nervorum longitudinales pallide fusci. Pedes 
pallide fusci. Abdomen ochraceum, pellucidum; supra 
apicibus et paucis segmentorum apicalium fuscis. Setee 
cervinaj, juncturis fuscis. 

Long. corp. & al. ^ 10 mm. 

Hah. — Finmark, between Kautokeino and Karaswando. 
(Walk. MS.) July or August.* 

* An account of Messrs. Walker and Christy's journey is given in the 
Entomological Magazine (1837) iv. 462-83. 

138 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Ileptagenia canadensis. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 12, 12a.) 

Baetis canadensis, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. c? . Thorax supra saturate luteus. 
Ala3 vitrinae, nervis fuscis ; arere marginalis et submar- 
ginalis vix fuscescentes, nebula apicali breviter apud 
marginem terminalem producta, et duobvis nervorum 
trans versalium prope punctum nodale nebulis singulis 
rotundatis obscuris, nebulis interdum tamen confluenti- 
bus. Pedes pallide testacei, juncturis tarsorum fuscis, 
apicibus tibiarum atris, et femoribus obscure bicingulatis. 
Abdomen supra sub-ochraceum, apicibus segmentorum 
strigisque lateralibus obliquis fuscis; subtus stramineum. 
Setse pallidae, juncturis fuscis. 

Long. Corp. S 9, al. 10, set. supra 18 mm. 

Hah . — Canada. 

Heptagenia fusca. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 13, ISa, b.) 

Baetis fusca, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. c? ? • Tergum thoracis castaneo- 
piceum. Alee vitrinse, nervis pallide fuscis, et apice areas 
marofinalis antics vix fuscescente. Pedum antici fusci : 
posteriores saturate testacei : femora strigis singulis bre- 
vibus in mediis longitudinalibus atris. Abdomen fuscum, 
apicibus segmentorum saturatioribus. 

Long. corp. c? ? 6-7, al. 9-10 mm. 

Bah. — St. Martin's Falls, Albany R., Hudson's Bay. 

Heptagenia cupulata, nov. sp. 
(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 14, 14a.) 

Subimago, v. s. s, Alse testacete, nervis fuscis. 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thoracis tergum luteum. Alse 
vitrin* : anticae areis marginalibus et submarginalibus 
apices versus fuscescentibus, longitudinalibus nervorum 
piceis et transversalibus atris, (basi subcostas et nervo 
transversali crassojuxta basin areee marginalis aurantiacis 

071 the Epheineridae. 139 

exceptis) ; posticfe nervis bases versus testaceis, et apud 
marg'ines terminales anguste corvino tinctas. Pedes 
saturatissime lutei. Abdomen supra furfurosum, striga 
longitudinali media, apicibus segmentorum, strigisque 
lateralibus obliquis, fuliginosis. Seta3 saturate liepati- 

? ovivalvula acuta, processuque ventrali penultimi 
segmentorum integro, sinu longitudinali. 

Long. Corp. S 18, ? 16, set. S 48, ? 54 mm. 

Hah. — Northern China. 

The neuration of the fore-wing is peculiar. 

Heptagenia basalis. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 15, 15a.) 

Baetis hasalis, Walk. 1853; nee Steph. MS. 

Imago, V. s. s. (S . Tergum thoracis piceum. AIeg 
vitreee, nervis piceis : anticfB vix fusco tincta? marginem 
interiorem versus, nervis transversalibus in areis margi- 
nalibus et submarginalibus plus aut minus obscure mar- 
ginatis, marginibus nonnunqaam confluentibus, itaque 
maculam formantibus ad punctum nodale alteramque inter 
hoc et alas apicem ; posteri ores bases versus vix fusco-piceo 
tinctae. (Exemplar pedibus caret) . Abdomen piceum, 
juncturis pallidis. Seta3 cervin?e, juncturis fuscis. 

Long. Corp. $ 15, al. 13, set. 21 mm. 

Hah. — Lake Winnipeg. 

Heptagenia macuUpennis. 

H. macuUpennis, Walsh, 1868. 

Subimago. " Ala) griseo tinctjB, nervis transversalibus 
obscure marginatis.^' 

Imago, c?. " Pallid e flavicans. Capitis vertex rubi- 
ginosus ; orbitte ocellorum griseae. Tergum thoracis ru- 
biginosum. A\se vitrinje, nervis longitudinalibus tenui- 
bus obscuris, et pluribus transversalium atris : horum ii 
super interiorem submarginem alae anticjB, atque omnes 
altB posticffi, vitrei sunt. Nervi transversales anthracini 
in area marginali alas anticae adeo collocantur ut quasi 
maculas forment ; viz., nervi circa quatuor prope basin, 

140 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

quorum primus aream submarginalem quoque transit, 
marginibus late anthracinis; deinde spatium ; postea tres 
ad punctum nodale, paucis sequentibus ; deinde circa 
medium spatii sequentis alii quatuor vel quinque ; denique 
nervi ad spatia solita positi usque ad apicem. Pedes 
albicantes, femoribus flavescentibus, ssepissime stingis 
tenuibus singulis brevibus subtus apices; ungues apices 
que tibiarum anticarum fusci. Dorsum abdominis apicem 
versus piceum ; sette forcepsque albidse." 

? . " Pallidior. Abdominis segmenta apicalia supra 
albicantia, plus aut minus rubiginoso tincta. In pos- 
terioribus tarsorum primus articulorum tarsalium se- 
cundo tequalis : tibia antica apice fere nunquam fusco. 
Maculae costales alee anticae eis maris paulo pallidiores " 
(Walsh) . Penultimi segmentorum processus ventralis 
integer esse mihi videtur. 

Long. corp. cJ 4-5-6, ? 5-6; set. ^ 12-15, subim. 7-5; 
set. ? 9-12, subim. 8; exp. al. S 14-17, ? 15-17 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh); New York 
(M'Lach. Mus.). 

Heptagenia cruentata. 
H. cruentata, Walsh, 1863. 

Subimago. " Ala3 opace flavescentes. Setae nigricantes 
(vel griseae ?), juncturis vix fuscis.'' 

Imago, V. s. c?. Flavescens. Oculi caerulescenti- 
grisei, lineis singulis atris intersectis. Tergum thoracis 
sanguineum. Alas vitrinae, nervis fuscis, bases versus 
vitreis, costisque in majore parte flavescentibus ; sub- 
costa apud punctum nodale incrassata atque obfuscata. 
Femorum dimidia apicalia annulis confluentibus pallide 
sanguineis bicincta ; tibia3 quoque bases et apices versus 
pallide sanguineas ; tarsorum juncturee atque ungues ob- 
scuri. Abdomen supra sanguineum, juncturis satura- 
tioribus. Forceps pallidus, apicibus fuscis. Setee albidae, 
juncturis in vices anguste lateque obscuris." 

$ . " Plerumque mari pallidior. Venter interdum 
sanguineus." (Walsh.) 

Long. corp. $ 7-8, ? 8-9 ; set. c? 25-27, subim. 12- 
15; set. ? 17-20; exp. al. ^ 19-20, ? 22-23-5 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) . 

on the E]jJieiue7'idcc. l-il 

Heptagenia simplex. 
H. simplex, Walsh, 1863. 

Subimago. "Ate flavescentes; costa feinina3 unius 

Imago, V. s. S • " A.t) acute flavo ad albidum varians. 
Oculi virescenti-sulphurei ; orbitee ocelloi'um nigi'icantes. 
Tergum thoracis carneum. Ala) vitriufe, nervis apicali- 
bus, et interdum quoque eis iii areis marginalibus, fuscis. 
Pedes albi, femoribus flavis vel cretaceis, apicibusque 
tarsorum fuscis : antici apicibus tibiarum atque inter- 
dum juncturis tarsorum fuscis. Abdomen vitreum, seg- 
meutis apicalibus (2-3) flavescentibus vel albidis. Sette 
albge, nigricantes apices versus. Forceps albus." 

? . " Abdomen flavum, nisi vacuum sit, setis albis. 
Pedes apicibus tarsorum solum fuscescentibus. Nervi 
alarum anticarum vitrei, costis subcostisque flavescenti- 
bus, paucisque nervorum transversalium inter horum 
apices obscuris, exceptis." (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. S 6-8, ? 6-5-9 ; set. S 14-18-5, subim. 
10-5; set. ? 14-16, subim. 10-15; exp. al. J 16-20-5, 
? 19-25-5 mm. 
Sab. — Eock Island, Illinois (Walsh) . 

Heptagenia pulchella. 

Palingenia (C) pulchella, Walsh, 1862. (?) Pal. (C) 
terminata, Walsh, 1862.* 

Subimago. " Alae sub-opacge, fusco nebulosfie, nervis 
transversalibus fuscis, obscure marginatis. Seta3 vix 
pilos£e, nisi juxta bases.^^ 

Imago, V. s. S " Oculi margaritacei, vel atrescentes. 
Thoracis tergum rubigineo-piceum, meso- et meta-tho- 
racis scutellis albidis. Ahe vitrefB : anticaB areis margi- 
nalibus apices versus pallide brunneo nebulosis, et nervis 
transversalibus fuscis, eis prope basin areas marginalis 
lutescentibus exceptis ; posticse pluribus nervorum pel- 
lucidis. Pedum antici pallide flavescentes, femoribus 
fusco bicinctis, apicibus tibiarum tarsorum que cum junc- 

* Utrum H. terminata, sit varietas H". puJcliellce, au species vera, Domi- 
nus Walsh dubitat. In H. torminata sex priora segmeutorum abdominis 
immaculata, pediimque posteriores pallide flavescentes sunt. Forsan 
quoque oculi maris flavescentes fueriut. 

142 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

turis horum fuscis ; posteriores albidi, similiterque sig- 
nati. Segmentorum abdominis 1-6 albida, punctis sin- 
gulis lateralibus prope apices magnis fuscis ; cgetera 
rubiginoso-picea : venter albicans. Setae fuscse^ pallidi- 
ores apices versus." 

? . " Vertex capitis et tergum thoracis albicantes : 
ille luteoj hoc vel luteo vel rubiginoso variat. Abdomen 
flavum, maculis veluti in mari." (Walsh.) 

Long. corp. ^ 5-8, ? 5"5-8 ; set. c? 17-21, subim. 
10-13; set. ? 15-16, subim. 8-13 ; exp. al. S 15-21, ? 
17-23 mm. 

Hab. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) . 

Heptagenia interpunctata. 

Baetis interpunctata, Say, 1839 ; Palingenia (C) inter- 
punctata, Walsh, 1862. 

Subimago. " Also primo flavescenti tinctse ; denique 
fuscee, opacae." 

Imago, V. s. c?. "Flavescens. Oculi pallide vires- 
centi-sulphurei ; macula atra inter oculos, alteraque infra 
antennas ; orbitse ocelloram fuscas. Tergum thoracis 
piceum, triangula basali lineisque singulis lateralibus 
prothoracis atris. Alse vitrinse ; anticee prope costas, 
praecipue apices versus, lutescenti-brunneo nebulosae; in 
medio alae, inter tertium atque quartum nervorum longi- 
tudinalium, striga brevis crassa atra jacet; nervi fusci, 
costa in major e parte flavescenti excepta: posticre apud 
apices brunnese. Pedum antici pallide virescenti-flavi 
(sulphurei ?), femoribus fusco bicinctis, apicibus junc- 
turisque tibiarum et tarsorum quoque fuscis ; posteriores 
pallidiores. Abdomen pallide opace viridescens, striga 
dorsali et dimidiis apicalibus segmentorum piceis ; subtus 
apicibus segmentorum obscui'is. Set^e pallidee, vires- 
centes, juncturis fuscis.'^ 

5 . " Tergum thoracis luteum, plerumque puncto 
tantum super prothoracem nigro. Abdomen supra 
flavum, notis angustioribus, et subtus notis (^ pallidiori- 
bus. Seta? albida3. Alas anticaa apud costas flavescentes, 
nervis transversalibus e postcosta (sicut nervi alarum 
posticarum) pellucidis et flavescentibus " (Walsh) . 

on the Ephemeridce. 143 

Long. Corp. S 7-10, ? 5-10; sot. S 20-25, subim. 
9-15; set. ? 14-24, subim. 7-14; exp. al. S 17-25, ? 
18*5-30 mm. 

Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) ; Indiana (Say) . 

Ecptagenia flavescens. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 16.) 

Palingenia (C) flavescens, Walsh, 1862. 

Subimago. S- ''Alas vel subfuscescentes, colore ner- 
vorum indistinctiori quam in imagine ; vel subflaves- 
centes, sub-opac«, nervis flavescentibus, transversalibus 
in mediis apicesque versus exceptis. Segmentorum ab- 
dominis sex priora flava, strigis carentia. Setee invarite." 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thoracis tergum luteum, vel 
" rubiginosum vel piceum.^' Alee vitrina?, fulgore lacteo ; 
nervi picei, costis et subcostis majore parte flavescenti- 
bus exceptis ; punctum nodale indistinctum ; areas mar- 
ginalis apex virescenti-griseo vel " pallide rubiginoso ^' 
nebulosus. Pedum antici sub-gambosi, vel " pallide 
rubiginosi," femoribus bicinctis, apicibus juncturisque 
tibiarum et tarsorum fuscis; posteriores testacei, '^apici- 
bus femorum" juncturisque tarsorum obscuris. Abdo- 
men supra rufo-fuscum vel "rubiginosum," juncturis 
obscuris ; sex priora segmentorum strigis pallidis duabus 
sub-distinctis, castera lutescentia : subtus testaceum, 
apicem versus lutescens. Setee albicantes, juncturis 
fuscis. "Tenter in v. s. pallide virescens, apice excepto." 

$ . " Pallidior, abdomine supra pallide fusco vel rubi- 
ginoso, carens vittis. Plurimi nervorum transversalium 
areas marginalis pellucidi." (Walsh.) 

Long. Corp. c? 9-13, ? 10-13; set. c? ? 27-38, subim. 
c? 17, ? 13; exp. al. S 24-29, ? 27-34 mm. 
Hah. — Rock Island, Illinois (Walsh) .* 

* Heptagenia vitrea. 
Palingenia vitrea, Walk. 1853. 

Subimago, v. s. s. ? . " Testacea ; femora fusco sub-notata ; alffi al- 
bidie, sub-opacse, nervis testaceis" (Walker). 

LoDg. Corp. 6, exp. al. 12 mm. 

Hah. — St. Martin's Falls, Albany Eiver, Hudson's Bay. 

This species can be recognized in no other way, than by comparing 
specimens with the original type in the British Museum. 

144 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Heptagenia 7iigrimana. 
Ephemera nigrimana, Duf. 1841. 

Imago, V. s. S. " Subtestacea, oculis fusco-aeneis 
flavo circumdatis ; alis diaphanis, costa subflavescenti, 
venis obscuris : abdomine testaceo, segmentis utrinque 
lineola obscura obliqua ; pedibus pallidisj anticis nigris ; 
setis nigris/' (Duf.) 

Long. Corp. 5 lin. Gallic. 

Hob. — Incog. ; probably France. 

Sep tagenia flavipennis . 

(Genitalia ^, PL VI. fig. 17, 17a; ? 17b, c.) 

Ephemera flavipennis, Duf. 1841. Baetis cerea, Pict. 
1843-5. JB. longicauda, Hag. 1863; {nee Steph. 1835-6). 

Subimago, v. v. s. c?. Oculi graminei. Alae acute 
virescenti-flavse, marginibus terminalibus viridi - nigri- 
canti anguste limbatis, atque strigis transversalibus dua- 
bus interdum abruptis anticarum apices versus ejusdem 
coloris ; puncta nodalia costae subcostseque, atque nervi 
transversales in areas marginalis apice, atri. Pedes fur- 
furosi, femoribus obscure carneo bicinctis, et tarsis 
apicibusque tibiarum anticarum corvinis. Setas furfu- 
rosge, juncturis vix obscuris. 

$ . Caput macula trigonali utrinque apud oculos supra 
et infra obscura. 

Imago, V. V. s. c?. Oculi flavo-prasini, vel viridi- 
olivacei. Thoracis tergum furfurosum. Al^ vitrinas, 
flavo-virenti suffusae, preecipue costas versus ; nervorum 
longitudinales saturate virentes, transversales punctaque 
nodalia atri. Pedes veluti in subimagine; tarsi antici 
tamen brunneo-fuliginosi, apicibus articulorum obscuris. 
Abdomen supra vel virescenti-griseum, vel flavo-virens, 
vel sulphureum, apicibus segmentorum anguste corvinis, 
atque tribus segmentorum apicalium furfurosis; subtus 
immaculatum. Setae luteee, juncturis obscuris. 

$ . Pallidior. Al« anticae vitrinee, fulgore pruinoso, 
areis marginalibus et submargiualibus virescenti-griseo 
tinctis. Abdomen supra pallidissime virescenti-flavum, 
apicibus segmentorum anguste corvinis. Ovivalvula 
processusque ventralis penultimi segmentorum integri. 

on the Ephemeridce. 145 

Lon^. Corp. S 12-13, ? 14; al. c? 14-15, ? 17; set. 
c? 20-33, subim. 24, ? 21 mra. 

iZa&. — The Kennet and Holybrook, near Reading; and 
the Lake of Geneva (Pict.) . June and July. The sub- 
imasro rises mostly in the eveninof after sunset. 

Heptagenia elegans. 

(Genitalia c?,^PL VI. %. 18 ; ? 18a, b.) 

(?) Ephemera sulphnrea, Mill. 1776 = E. helvola, Sulz. 
1776 = £'.?)iooM/oia, Rom. 1789 (wee Lin.). {?)E.ferru- 
ginea, Gmel. 1790-3. E. hioculata, var. (?), Pz. 1804 [nee 
Lin.). Baetis elegans, costalis & straminea, Curt. 1834. 
E. lutea, Ste. 1835-6 {nee Lin.) . (?) B. marginalis, Burm. 
1839. B. cyanops & (?) sidphurea, Pict. 1843-5. B. lu- 
tea, Hag. 1863. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Oculi saturate olivacei, vel gra- 
minei ; caput macula parva utrinque infra oculos atra, at- 
que alia rhombica supra juxta oculos lutea. Lineola pone 
coxas anticas, et punctum ante poneque coxas interme- 
dias utrinque, atra. AlsB primo unicolores, sulphurese ; 
turn striga transversalis vix distiucta uascitur apud an- 
gulum interno-terminalem alfe antica3, alteraque inter 
hanc et alee apicem, atque limbus griseus mediocris super 
marginem terminalem; denique nervi transversales atri 
fiunt. Pedes pallidissime ochracei, tarsis pallide nigri- 
cantibus. Setae nigricantes. 

Imago, V. V. s. S • Oculi supra saturate virescenti- 
CECsii, et subtus subgraminei, maculis singulis rotundis 
mobilibus lineolis curvatis concentricis circumjectis ; vel 
atri. Caput maculatum veluti in subimagine. Thoracis 
tergum furfurosum. Alifi viti'inae, fulgore pruinoso, 
nervis plerumque corvinis vel atris ; anticfe areis margi- 
nalibus et submarginalibus flavicantibus, apicibus vires- 
centi-griseo tinctis. Pedes parum gambosi, vel flavo- 
virescentes; antici furfuroso tincti, tarsis fumatis, et 
juncturis tarsorum apicibusque femorum atris; posteri- 
ores apicibus tibiarum et tarsis fumatis, juncturis atris. 
Segmentorum abdominis sex priora supra pallide fusces- 
centia, vel virescenti-olivacea, juncturis atro-piceis, scepo 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART I. (mARCH.) L 

146 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

vasi dorsali, lineisque curvatis ex basi cujusque duabus, 
indistincte pallidioribus, atque lateribus ventreque palli- 
dissime olivaceis ; csetera supra furfurosa, subtus ochracea. 
Setas albo-fumateej juncturis fuscis. 

? . Oculi prasini, vol glauci, vel etiam atri. Al« 
vitrinas^ parum sulphureo vel gamboso tinctse apud areas 
marginales et submarginales^ nisi in toto vix sulpliurese ; 
nervis atris, crassioribus longitudinalium gambosis ex- 
ceptis. Pedes gambosi, tarsis fumatis, juncturis atris. 
Dorsum abdominis flavo-virens vel flavo-ochraceum, junc- 
turis obscurisj et tribus segmentorum apicalium flavis vel 
ochraceis ; venter immaculatus. Sette alb«, vel fumato- 
albfe, juncturis obscuris. Ovivalvula obtusa; processus 
ventralis penultimi segmentorum paulo retusus. 

Long. corp. $ 9-10, ? 9-11; al. c? 10-12, ? 11-13; 
set. S 19-23, ? 14-19, subim. ^ & ? 13-15 mm. 

Hab. — Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, 
and Norway (Hammerfest) . May to September; in 
streams and rivers. 

Hepfagenia fluminum. 

Ephemera hiocidafa, Pz. 1804 {nee Lin.) . Baetis flu- 
minum, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago (e figura Pict.) . $ . " Alae cervine ; an- 
terior striga transversali abbreviata ex angulo interno- 
terminali, alteraque paulo postea e costa, deinde lineis 
transversalibus e costa tribus apicem versus, atque nebula 
transversali inter strigas et basin, atrescentibus.''^ 

? . " Alee virescenti-grisese, invari^e." 

Imago, $ . " Oculi cyanei (Pict.) vel graminei (Lab. 
& Imli.) . Thoracis tergum lutescens vel saturate furfu- 
rosum. Alte vitrinae, nervis tenuibus atris, et areis 
marginalibus anticarum flavescenti tinctis. Pedes lutes- 
centes, tarsis fuscescentibus. Abdomen lutescens, apici- 
bus segmentorum et maculis trigonalibus latero-apicalibus 
fuscis. Setse lutescentes vel furfurosse, juncturis pallide 

? . " Simillima mari ; abdominis segmenta singula 
lineolis dorsalibus abbreviatis atris in mediis longitudi- 

on the Ephemeridoe. 147 

Long. Corp. S 12-13, ? 12; set. S 30, subim. 13, 
? 20, subim. 13 ; exp. al. S 25-27, ? 30 mm. 

Hah. — Grermany (Panzer) ; the Rhone about Geneva, 
to the further extremity of the Lake. (Pict.) 

Septagenia sylvicola. 
Baetis sylvicola, Ed. Pict. 1865. 

Imago, V. s. s. ^ . " Tergum thoracis luteum, meta- 
thorace flavescenti. Ala3 vitrinee, nervis lutescentibus ; 
apex arefe marginalis flavescens. Pedes lutei ; antici 
nigricantes. Abdomen luteum, juncturis nigricantibus, 
ultimoque segmentorum flavo. Setas fulvee, juncturis nigri- 
cantibus. Forceps nigricans.^^ (Ed. Pict.) Venter serie 
macularum trigonalium, quarum apices ante diriguntur. 

?. '' Simillima mari. Processus ventralis penultimi 
segmentorum abdominis integer." (Ed. Pict. & e fig.) 

Long. corp. S 12, ? 13; exp. al. S 31, ? 33 mm. 

Hah. — San Ildefonso, in July (Ed. Pict.). 

Heptagenia voUtans. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 20.) 

H. voVdans, Etn. 1870. 

Imago, V. V. s. ,5 . Oculi supra fusco-picei, subtus 
testacei. Thoracis tergum atro-fuscum. Alae vitrin«, 
nervis atris, tribus prioribus longitudinalium nigricanti- 
bus exceptis ; apex areae marginalis vix virescenti-griseo 
tinctus. Pedum antici tibiis tai'sisque fuscis, et femoribus 
obscure bicinctis ; posteriores fumato-luridi, femoribus 
saturate carneo bicinctis, tarsis fuscis, et interdum tibiis 
testaceis. Abdomen supra fuscum, apicibus segmentorum 
fuliginoso-fuscis, maculisque trigonalibus lateralibus satu- 
rate virescenti-griseis : subtus saturate virescenti-griseum, 
immaculatum, vel perraro locis plexorum nervorum stri- 
gisque sequentibus duabus vix obscure indicatis ; inter- 
dum quoque infra penultimum segmentorum notee L-for- 
matfe dua3 fuscas sunt. Set» pallide virescenti-griseee, 
juncturis atris vel atro-fuscis. 

Long. Corp. $ 12-15; al. 13-14; set. 25-28 mm. 

JIah. — The Thames above Pangbourne, and the Holy- 
brook near Reading ; in May. The name has reference 
to a habit ot the Heptagenia of hovering steadily when 
there is a gentle breeze. 


148 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Heptagenia alpicola, nov. sp. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 19.) 

Imago, V. V. s. ^ . Oculi fuliginosi. Thoracis tergnm 
fusco-luteum. Alee vitrina?, nervis piceis, interdum areas 
marginalis apice nigricante. Pedes rufo-picei : antici 
tarsis corvinis, vel tibiis et tarsis atris ; posteriores tarsis 
paulo obscuratis, vel saturate piceis. Abdomen supra 
luteum vel saturate griseum, marginibus latis segment- 
crum apicalibus, strigaque in medio longitudinali, sub- 
fuscis vel fuscis. Venter pallidus, striga longitudinal! 
angulatim in medio segmenti singuli dilatata subfusca j 
segmentorum penultimum luteum. Setae fuliginosa^. 
Forceps fumatus, proximis articulorum fuliginosis. 

Long. Corp. ^ 13-14; al. 15-16; set. 41-44 mm. 

Hah. — Near Contamines, Val Montjoie ; Carinthia. 

Sep tagenia iridana . 

(?) Baetis auraniiaca, Burm. 1839.* B. iridana, Kolen. 

Imago. " Corpora rufo-brunneo, segmentis abdominis 
dorsalibus postice late brunneo marginatis ; alis iridinis, 
tribus nervorum anteriorum flavis, reliquis brunneis, 
pterostigmate \i. c, apice areas marginalis] infumato vel 
flavescenti. Venter luteo-brunneus, setis obscurior.'* 

Long. corp. 3*5 ; al. 5 ; set. 12.'" 

Hah. — Altwater, in August and September, at an alti- 
tude of 4000 feet. The type is in the Royal Polytechnic, 

Heptagenia annulifera. 

Palingenia annulifera, Walk. 1860. 

Imago, V. s. s. ? . Thorax furfurosus, lateribus pro- 
et meta- thoracis dorsi pallidioribus. Alee vitrinae, nervis 

* Burmeister's diagnosia of B. aurantiaea is as follows : — 
Imago. "Eufo-testacea, segmentis abdominalibus utrinqne linea obli- 
qua nigra ; alis gracilibus liyalims." 
Long. Corp. 3-5 lin. 
flab.— HaUe. 

on the Ephemeridce, 149 

piceis, et horum transversalibus fusco marginatis. " Pedes 
albidi, [femoribus] nigro-fasciatis/^ Abdomen testaceum, 
strigis singulis trigonalibus obliquis utrinque segment- 
orum, punctisque dorsalibus atris. Setse cervinae, junc- 
turis atris. Pi'ocessus ventralis penultimi segmentorum 

Long. Corp. $ 6 ; al. 8 ; set. supra 10 mm. 

Hab. — Hindostan. 

Eeptagenia luridipennis. 
(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 21, 21a.) 

(?) Ephemera novehoracana, Licht. 1796. Baetis luridi- 
pennis, Burm. 1839. (?) B. novehoracana, Hag. 1861. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alie pallide fusco tinctas, nervis 

Imago, V. s. s. cJ . Thoracis tergum brunneo-luteum ; 
abdomen paulo obscurius. Aloe vitrin^e, crassioribus 
nervorum longitudinalium brunneis vel testaceis, et 
transversalibus piceis ; apices areas marginalis et areas 
submarginalis paulo infuscati. Pedum antici sub-testacei 
vel gambosi, femoribus obscure bicinctis, apicibus tibia- 
rum fuscis, et tarsis pallidis ; posteriores pallidiores. 
Abdomen supra brunneo-luteum, vel fuscuni, apicibus 
segmentorum strigisque lateralibus obliquis obscuris. 
Setae pallidissirae cervina?, juncturis obscuris. 

? . Simillima mari. Venter immaculatus. Processus 
ventralis penultimi segmentorum emarginatus esse 

Long. Corp. c? H, ? 10; al. cJ 13, $ 15; set. J 
circa 25, ? subim. circa 15 mm. 

Hah. — St. Martinis Falls, Albany River, Hudson's 
Bay (Barnston) ; the St. Lawrence, Canada (De Selys) . 

Heptagenia Jiaveola. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 22, 22a.) 

Baetis jiaveola, Pict. 1843-5. 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alte cervino-albae ; nervorum longi- 
tudinales testacei, transversales in mari nigricantes, in 
femina atri. 

150 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Imago, V. s. s. (^ . Thoracis tergum rufo-luteura. 
Alfe vitrinse ; anticte nervis atris, tribus prioribus longi- 
tudinalium testaceis esceptis ; posticte nervis pellucidis. 
Pedes lividi vel straminei, femoribus fusco bicinctis, 
juncturisque obscuris ; tarsi antici albicantes, juncturis 
obscuris. Abdoraen tribus segmentorum apicalium rufo- 
luteis, et cgeteris ochroleucis juncturis fuscis ; venter 
immaculatus. Setae albo-cervina3, juncturis vix obscuris. 

? . Corpus ochraceum, juncturis abdominalibus an- 
guste nigricantibus. Processus ventralis penultimi seg- 
mentorum vix emarginatus. Alae fulgore fere talcoso. 

Long. corp. ^ 9, ^ 8-10 3 al. $ 10, ? 11-13; set. 
<J 20, ? subim. 16 mm. 

Hah. — St. Martin's Falls (Barnston); Tennessee (Poep- 
pig) ; West Farms, New York (Angus, MS.) . 

Heptagenia vlearia. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 23, 23a.) 

Baetis vicaria, Walk. 1853 (imago) . (?) B. tessellata, 
Walk. 1853 (subimago, ? ) .* 

Subimago ? [tessellata, Walk.), v. s. s. Alae pallidis- 
sime fusco suffusaj, nervis testaceo-brunneis, et horum 
transversalibus fuliginoso marginatis. 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thoracis tergum brunneo-luteum. 
Alte vitrinae, nervis fuscescentibus; apex areas marginalis 
anticae pallidissime fuscescente vel virescenti - griseo 
tinctus. Abdomen supra pallide fuscum : dorsum ven- 
terque utrinque serie signorum 6-formatorum fulvorum. 

* From one or two particulars in the description, I am inclined to think 
that Baetis tessellata, Hag., may be a Le^^toplilebia. It may be L. colom- 
biw. Walk., on the point of casting the subimaginal pellicle. 

Baetis tessellata, Hag. 1861 ; {nee. Walk. 1853). 

Subimago. $ . " Alte grisese, nervis luritlis, et maculis quadratis pellu- 
cidis numerosis; posticae minimge. Thorax luteus ; mesothorax linea 
fusca utrinque. Pedes lutei, apicibus tarsorum fuscis. Abdominis seg- 
menta lutea, maculis trigoualibus latero-dorsalibus utrinque fuscis dua- 
bus." (Hag.) 

Long. Corp. $ 16, exp. al. 26 mm. 

Hob. — Puget Sound, Washington Territory (Hag.). 

As the type is in alcohol (in the Berlin Museum) its affinities can be 
easily determined. 

on the Ephemeridce. 151 

efc apud basin segment! singuli supra lineolae pallidas 
longitudinales dute sunt. Sette fuscre, juncturis obscuris. 
Pedes satui-ate rubiginosi, femoribus bicinctis. 

? . Processus ventralis penultimi segmentorum in- 

Long. Corp. ^ 12; al. c? 13, ? 14-5; set. ^ 35 mm. 

Hab. — The St. Lawrence; Chicago; Washington (Ha- 
gen) ; Savannah (Osten Sacken) . 

Heptagenia venosa. 
(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 24.) 

(?) Ephemera maculata, Pod. 176 L E. venosa, Fab. 
1775. (?) E. herolinensis, Miil. 1776. E. fusco-grtsea, 
Eetz. 1783. E. nervosa,^ Vill. 1789. Baetis dispar, Curt. 
1834. B. venosa, Ste. 1835-6. E. rufa, Eamb. 1842. 
(?) B, purpurascens &/orajjwZa, Pict. 1843-5. B. longi- 
cauda, Ron. 1856 {nee Ste.) . Ecdyurus venosus, Etn. 1868, 

Subimago, v. v. s. Al« pallidissime cervinse, nervis 
trans versali bus fuscis nigricanti marginatis, ftxsciis trans- 
versalibus pallidis indistinctis duabus trajectis ; area 
submarginalis areaeque marginalis apex flavescenti tincti, 
fasciis obscuris interrupt!. Pedes cinereo-olivacei, tarsis 
cinereis. Setae fuscge. 

Imago, V. V, s. c^ . Oculi supra atro-picei, vel picei ; 
subtus apud orbitas ochracei, linea griseainterposita. Tho- 
racis tergum fuscum. Alae vitrinse, nervis corvinis ; apex 
areae marginalis nigricanti tinctus. Pedum antici fusco- 
corvini, tarsis corvinis ; posteriores saturate virescenti- 
grisei, genubus tarsisque corvinis. Abdomen supra 
fuscum, vel fuliginoso-hepaticoloratum, latera versus pal- 
lide testaceum, strigis lateralibus fuscis obliquis ; subtua 
saturate brunneo-hepaticoloratum. Set^ fuscae. 

$ . Mari simillima. Processus ventralis penultimi 
segmentorum integer. 

Long. corp. S 12-14, ? 12-18 ; al. S 13, ? 15-17 ; 
set. S 30-48, ? 15, subim. 17 mm. 

Hah. — Scandinavia (Zet.); England; Belgium (De 
Selys) ; France ; Switzerland ; Dalmatia (Pict.) ; Corsica 
(Hag.) . In streams. June. 

* JI. Pictet (1843-5) unfortunately cited this synonyme as one origi- 
nated by Fabricius. 

152 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Var. (?) forcipula. 
{Baetis forcipula, Pict. 1843-5.) 
Eah. — Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Bavaria, and Pied- 
mont (Pict.). Undescribed. 

Specimens probably exist in tlie Vienna Museum. 

Heptagenia longicauda. 

(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 25.) 

Baetis longicauda & siihfusca, Ste. 1835-6. 

Subimago, v. v. s. ? . Alee pallide fumato-nigricantes, 
nervis sub-furfurosis, transversalibus anguste cinereo mar- 
ginatis. Pedum antici picei, tibiis nigricanti tinctis, et 
tarsis antliracinis ; posteriores femoribus olivaceis, tibiis 
nigricantibus, et tarsis corviais. 

Imago, V. V. s. ^ . Oculi atro-fuliginosi. Thoracis 
tergum aterrimum, vel atro-fuscum, politum. Alae vel 
vitrinae, vel vix virescenti-griseo tinctse, nervis atro- 
piceis : apex areas marginalis anticas vix virescenti- 
griseus. Pedum antici atro-picei, femoribus apud bases 
pallidioribus ; posteriores femoribus fuscis, vel fusco- 
luteis, tibiis testaceis, et tarsis vel corvinis vel saturate 
hepaticoloratis. Abdomen supra umbrinum vel rubido- 
fuscum, juncturis pallidis, et apicibus segmentorum fuscis ; 
latera dorsi bases segmentorum versus flavescentia, stri- 
gis singulis saturate fuscis obliquis ex horum apicibus ; 
venter fuliginoso-hepaticoloratus. Setae et forceps atro- 

$ . Simillima mari sed pallidior. Alse vitrinao, nervis 
fusco-piceis : arese marginalis et submarginalis anticas 
tantum apices versus vix virescenti-griseo tinct». Pro-' 
cessus ventralis penultimi segmentorum integer. 

Long. corp. c? 11-12, ? 9; al. S H, ? 11-15; set. 
S 27, ? 15, subim. 12 mm. 

Eah. — Great Britain. July to September. In cold 
streams and rivers. 

Heptagenia angustipennis. 

Ephemera angustipennis , Ramb. 1842 ; Baetis angusti- 
pennis, Ed. Pict. 1865. 

Subimago, v. s. s. ? . Alfe cervinae ; nervorum longi- 
tudinales testacei, transversales nigricantes, anguste mar- 

on the Ephemeridce. 153 

ginati. Pedes lutescentes, femoribus obscure annulatis, 
anticis tibiarum luteis, posterioribus testaceis, et tarsia 
fuscis. Setae fuliginosaj. 

Imago, (?) {Ephemera madritensis, Ramb. MS.) v. s. s. 
$ . Thoracis tergum luteum. Alse vitrinas; nervorum 
longitudinales testacei, transversales picei. Pedes postici 
femoribus luteis, singulis cingulis nigris, tibiis testaceis, 
et tarsis luteis. Processus ventralis penultimi segment- 
orum vix retusus. 

Long. al. im. 14, subim. 11 mm. 

Hab. — Madrid (Ramb.). 

Heptagenia Picteti. 
Baetis Picteti, Meyer-Diir, 1864. 

Subimago, s. s. ^'Alae albicantes, nervis longitudina- 
libus atro-fuliginosis, et cfeteris atris ; antica parte tertia 
basali, fasciisque transversalibus quatuor (quarum prima 
atque tertia abbreviatae sunt) , et vestigio quoque quintae 
apud apicem, griseis. Tergum thoracis fuscum, politum. 
Pedes fuscescentes, cruribus pallidioribus. Abdomen 
fuscum, juncturis pallidis. Setas albicantes, annulis 

Long. Corp. 5*5, al. 7, set. 5-6 lin. 

Hah. — Tessin and Ober Engadine (Meyer-Diir). 

Heptagenia insignis. 

(Genitalia maris, PL VI. fig. 26, 26a; notee ventrales 
abdominis, fig. 26b.) 

Baetis tnontana, Hag. 1863 ; {nee Pict.) . H. insignis, 
Etn. 1870. 

Subimago, v. v. s. Alae pallide cervinae, apud bases 
et costas vix sulphureo tinctae, nervis ipsis sulphureis vel 
olivaceis ; antica apud marginem terminalem cinerea, 
marginibus nervorum trans versalium atris. 

Imago, V. V. s. (J & $ . Oculi sub-olivacei, strigis 
singulis fuscis intersectis. Thoracis tergum fuscum vel 
sub-olivaceum [piceum in s. s.] . Alae vitrinae, nervis 
piceis, costis et subcostis plus aut minus fuscis : areee 
anterioris marginalis et submarginalis vix virescenti- 
griseo bases versus tinctae, apicibus nigricantibus. Pedum 
antici atro-picei vel corvini, juncturis apicalibus tarsorum 

154 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

pallidioribus ; posteriores sub - olivacei, vel virescenti- 
olivaceij tarsis atrescentibus. Abdoraen sub-olivaceum, 
vel pallide virescenti-griseum, apice lutescenti ; segmen- 
torum apices, striggeque laterales ex his oblique productte, 
atri ; saepe quoque series centralis est feminse strigarum 
brevium nigricantium : venter maculatus similiter ac in 
Tab. VI., fig. 26b, effingitur. Setge atree, picese apices 
versus. Forceps corvinus. Processus ventralis penul- 
timi segmentorum integer. 

Long. Corp. S 11-12, ? 12-14; exp. al. c? 13-17, 
? 13-15; set. S 22-23, subim. 14-20, ? 20, subim. 
15 mm. 

Hah. — England. May, June, and July or August. In 

Eeptageyiia montana. 

Baetis montana, Pict. 1843-5. 

Imago, V. s. ^ . " Caput nigrum, oculis cyaneis. 
Prothorax supra rufescens, macula in medio nigra : meso- 
et meta-thoraces supra atri. Alee vitrinse, nervis tenuibus 
nigris ; apex areas marginalis anticas fuscescens. Pedum 
antici nigri : posteriores fulvi. Abdomen supra griseo- 
fuscum (in figura ocbraceo-olivaceum, juncturis et strigis 
lateralibus obliquis obscuris) , setis fuscis " (Pict.) . 

Long. corp. S 13, set. 30, exp. al. 28 mm. 
Sah. — Near a small stream from Prevent, above Cha- 
mounix (Pict.) ; and on the Austrian mountains (Brauer) . 

Heptagenia Bellieri. 
Baetis Bellieri, Hag. 1860. 

Imago, V. s. s. ? . Alee vitrinee, lacteo tinctee, nervis 
piceis ; apex arege marginalis paulo infuscatvis. Pedum 
antici picei ; posteriores testacei, tarsis fuscis. Seta? 
piceae. Processus ventralis penultimi segmentorum in- 

Long. al. 14 mm. 

Kah. — Sicily (Hag.) . According to Dr. Hagen, this 
species somewhat resembles the preceding one in colour. 

on the Ephetneridce. 155 

Heptagenia zehrata. 
(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 28.) 

Baetis zehrata ( c? subim., $ iva..) , fallax ( c? subim.), 
Jluminum [uec Pict.] {S im.), Hag. 1864. 

Subimago, v. s. s. c? . Alae cervinse ; nervorum longi- 
tudinales testacei, transversales per-anguste nigro mar- 

Imago, V. s. s. c?. Thoracis tergum fuscum. Alae vi- 
trinse, nervis piceis. Pedum antici femoribus fuscescen- 
tibus, cingulis et apicibus atro-piceis, tibiis atro-piceis, et 
tarsis fuliginosis ; posteriores femoribus fusco-testaceis, 
cingulis in mediis et apicibus sub-piceis, cruribusque 
fuliginosis. Abdomen supra pallide olivaceo-fuscum, 
latera versus flavescens, apicibus segmentorum anguste 
piceis. SetEe fuliginosae. 

? . Thoracis tergum furfurosum. Alfe vitrinae, cras- 
sioribus nervorum longitudinalium testaceis, et trans- 
versalibus atris. Pedes lutescenti-electrini, cingulis et 
apicibus femorum nigris. Abdomen supra fuscum, api- 
cibus segmentorum obscuris ; strigge laterales obliqua3 e 
basibus segmentorum utrinque atree; subtus segmentum 
singulum maculis trigonalibus basalibus duabus atris, 
SetiB albicantes, juncturis nigris. Processus ventralis 
penultimi segmentorum integer. 

Long. al. c? 9-10, ? 12; set. c? 20, subim. 12, ? 
15 mm. 

Hah. — Corsica (Hag.). 

Heptagenia lateralis. 
(Genitalia maris, PI. VI. fig. 27.) 

(?) Ephemera stigma, Gmel. 1790-3. Baetis lateralis, 
Curt. 1834. Cloe hrunnea, Ramb. 1842. B. ohscura, 
Hag. 1863; (?) Pict. 1843-5; [nee Ste.). 

Subimago, v. s. s. Alte saturate cervinae, invarife ; 
interdum tamen tribus prioribus nervorum longitudina- 
lium ochraceis. 

Imago, V. V. s. S- Oculi atro-fuliginosi. Pedum 
antici atro-fusci, ci'uribus atro-piceis; posteriores sub- 

156 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

fusci, tarsis piceis. Nervi alarum fusci. Yenter vires- 
centi-fuliginosus ; forceps ater; setsB saturate fuliginosse. 
Reliqua veluti in femina. 

? . Oculi atro-fuliginosi. Thoracis tergum aterrimum, 
politum. Alge vitrinas, nervis piceis. Pedum antici atro- 
picei, tarsis atris ; posteriores saturate picei, femoribus 
vix annulatis, et tarsis atris. Abdomen supra hepatico- 
fuscum, apicibus segraentorum vix obscuris, nisi ma- 
culis trigonalibus apud latera obscuris : venter fuscus^ 
juncturis virescenti-griseis, et interdum plexu nervorum 
ventralium penultimi segmentorum vix hepaticolorato. 
Setee corvinas. Processus ventralis penultimi segmento- 
rum integsr. 

Long. corp. (^ 5-9, ? 7; exp. al. c? ? 6-9; set. c? 
19, subim. 10, $ 8 mm. 

Hah. — England and Wales ; Carinthia ; Switzerland 
(Pict.); the South of Spain (Ramb.) . July and August. 
In mountain torrents, and cold streams. 

M. Pictet's description of B. obscura was probably- 
drawn up from a dried specimen. 

Heptagenia guttata. 

Baetis guttata, Pict. 1843-5; Ephemera [Bactis) guttata, 
Blanch. 1851. 

Imago, s. s. ? . Caput et thorax fusci, flavo varie- 
gati (" punctati," Pict.) . Alse vitrese, nervis atris ; area 
marginalis pallidissime fuscescens. Pedes flavescentes ; 
femora apicibus maculisque singulis in mediis, tibiseque 
apicibus, nigris. Abdomen flavum (in figura fuscum), 
apicibus segmentorum strigisque lateralibus ex his obli- 
que productis, atque seriebus strigarum longitudinalium 
supra subtusque duabus, atris. Setge flavescentes, junc- 
turis in vices late et anguste nigro annulatis.''' (Pict. & 

Long. corp. ? 12, set. 18, exp. al. 29 mm. 

Ha6.— Valdivia, Chili (Blanch.) . 

The following is probably an indeterminable species of Heptagenia. 
Ephemera gemmata, Scop. 1763. 

Imago, s. s. ? . " E. gemmata. Tubercula tria frontalia, diaphana, 
crystallina, nigra, pimctulata [ocelli] . Corpus rufum. Incisurae abdomi- 
nis margiuibus flavicantibus. Sets caudales uuciales." 

Long. 7-5/" 

Hab. — Circa aquasductum Fodinarum Idrensium (Scop.). 

on the Ephemeridce. 157 

Heptagenia torrida. 

Baetis torrida, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. ? . Thoracis tergum castaneo-piceum. 
Alte vix fusco suffusse: antica areis marginal! submargi- 
nalique saturatioribus. Pedum antici rufo-picei ; pos- 
teriores saturate furfurosi, apicibus feraorum rufo-piceis. 
Abdomen (decoloratum) apicibus segmentorum obscuris ; 
setis carens. Processus ventralis penultimi segmentorum 

Long. corp. ? 8, exp. al. circa 20 mm. 

Hah. — The Philippine Islands. 

Heptagenia determinata. 

Baetis determinata, Walk. 1853. 

Imago, V. s. s. S . (reliqui^ typi) . Picea. Thorax 
striga dorsali longitudinal! fulva. Alae vitrinae : antica 
costfi apud basin saturate ochracea, nervis fuscis, atque 
areis marginal! submarginalique quasi incrassatis et 
fuscis. Pedes furfurosi, tarsis et apicibus femorum fuscis. 
" Abdomen striga lata flavescenti, notis paucis piceis 
inclausis.^^ (Walk.) 

Long. Corp. $ 11, al. 24 mm. 

Hah. — Java. 

In this genus the cross-veinlets in the apex of the 
marginal area of the anterior wing vary in character in 
the same species, so much so, that they may be simple 
and free, or divided and conjoined, in either sex of a 
species, indifferently. Sometimes, however, they are of 
slight service. H. elegans and some other yellowish 
species have two evanescent dark triangular dorsal 
dashes between the wings of the subimago, which I have 
purposely omitted to mention in the descriptions. 

158 Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 


Signum asterisci * iis figuris appositum est quas ex aliis operibus 
recepimus ; omnes reliqnaj icones sunt originales, a nobis secundum 
naturam operose camera lucida delineatas, et magnitudine auctae. 

Tab. I. Venffi alarum anticarum. 
Fig. *1. LachlanioB ahnormis. 

2. Oligoneurice rhenanoB. 

3. Asthenopi (sp. nondescript.); in Mus. M'Lach. ; de Texas. 

4. Cam]psuri latijpennis (in parte). 

5. Polijmitareyos virginis. 

6. Pentagenim vittigerw. 

7. HexagenicB limhatm (in parte). 

8. Euthyplocice Hecuhce (in parte); 8a, apex alee. 

9. Epheynerw vulgatx (in parte). 

10. Fragmentum fossile Oolithicum, speciei generis incerti Ephe- 
mercB affinis, de Solenhofen. Ex exemplari in Musffio Brit- 
tannico; magnitud. auct. (7x7). 

Tab. II. Venae alarum anticarum. 

Fig. 1. Potamanthi lidei (in parte). 
2. Le]pto2}Mehice australasicai. 
2a. LeptojMehiw marginatce (in parte). 
2b. Leptophlehice cupidce (in parte). 
2c. LeptophIebi(B fuscw. 
*3. Tricorythi varicaudce, $ , * 3a J . 

4. Coenis dimidiatcB. 

5. EphemerellcB ignitce (in parte). 

6. BcbUscob ohesce (in parte). 

7. Cloeonis similis (in parte). 

8. Centroptili luteoli (in parte). 

9. Baetis binoculati. 

* Note : — 

Tab. I. fig. 1 is from Packard's Guide to the Study of Insects. 

Fig. 578. 
Tab. II. fig. 3, 3a „ Savigny's Description de I'Egypte (1817), 

Tab. II. fig. 6, 7. 
Tab. III. fig. 7a-8c „ Dr.Hagen.inStet. Ent.Zeit. (1855), Tab. I. 

Tab. III. fig. 17a „ C. Cornelius (1848). 

Tab. V. fig. 30 ,, Ed. Pictet, in S,^Tiopsis des Nevropteres 

d'Espague, Tab. III. fig. 1. 
Tab. VI. fig. 8 „ Hagen, in Berendt's Organische Eeste im 

Bernstein (1856) Bd. II. Tab. VI. fig. 1. 

on the Ephemeridce. 159 

Figs. 1-5. Venae alarum anticarum. 

Fig. 1. Baetis (sp. nondescript.) in parte ; de California. 

2. SiiMuri lacustris. 

3. CoJohuri humeralis. 

4. IsonychicB mancce. 

5. Heptageniw elegantis. 

6. Mensura gallica (centimetres and millimetres). 


„ ! 

mglicana (inches and lines). 


Oligoneuriw rhenance, $ im. genitalia infra. 

* 7a. 


„ „ caput oblique. 

* 8. 


ipallidx, „ „ 

* 8a. 


,, „ penis. 

* 8b. 


„ „ pes forcipis. 

* 8e. 


,, 9 ii^- processus ventralis penultimi seg- 



Trimenianm, „ processus ventralis penult, segm, 



„ „ processus ventralis penult, segm. 



; latipennis, ^ im. genitalia infra. 



t> i> i> 



albifili, ,, „ 



ciispidati, „ ,, 



quadridentati, ,, „ 



■ curti, „ ,, 


b. „ 

„ ,, partes apicales penis. 


Polymitarcyos virginis, „ pes forcipis. 



„ subim. ,, 



„ im. penis. 



Bavignii, ,, pes forcipis. 



„ ,, penis. 


Palingenix longicauda;, „ pes forcipis. 



„ penis. 



lata, „ pes forcipis; subim. & im. 



„ ,, penis infra. 

Fig. 1. Pentagenim vittigeroe, ^ im. genitalia infra. 

2. HexagenicB alhivittatcc, ,, ,, 

2a. ,, ,, „ pedis forcipis articuli apicales. 

3. ,, limho.tce, „ pes forcipis. 

3a. „ „ „ pedis forcipis articuli apicales. 


Rev. A. E. Eaton's Monograph 

Tab. IV. — contin. 

Fig. 4. 

HexagenicB liUneatoe, <J 


pes forcipis. 


EphemercB vulgatce. 

genitalia infra. 








maciilje dorsales abdominis. 




genitalia infra. 




pedis forcipis articiili apicales. 




maculae dorsales abdominis. 




genitalia infra. 




pedis forcipis articuli apicales. 




notffi dorsales abdominis. 




genitalia infra. 




maculffi dorsales abdominis. 




pes forcipis. 












penis oblique. 




genitalia infra. 




pes forcipis. 


Potamantlii lutei, 





penis infra. 


Lei^topMebicB australis, 

pes forcipis. 








apex arefe marginalis al. ant. 




pes forcipis. 




pedis forcipis articuli apicales. 




penis infra. 




pes forcipis. 




apex areffi marginalis. 




penis infra. 




pes forcipis. 




apex arefe marginalis. 




penis infra. 




pes forcijiis. 




pedis forcipis articuli apicales. 




penis infra. 





. apex processus ventralis penult, 




apex are£e marginalis. 




latus processus ventralis penult, 



nodularis, $ 


, pes forcipis. 




ala postica. 




penis oblique. 




penis infra (haudappendiculatus), 

on the Ephemeridoe. 



IV.— ( 


Fig. 21. 

Leptophlehice scitce, 


. pes forcipis. 





penis infra. 




1 1) 

pes forcipis. 





penis oblique. 





pes forcipis. 





pedis forcipis apex. 





penis infra. 





pes forcipis. 





penis infra. 





ala postica. 

■ 25. 




pes forcipis. 





pedis forcipis apex. 





penis infra appendiculatus. 





pes forcipis. 





penis supra. 





penis oblique. 





pedis forcipis apex. 





ala postica. 





genitalia infra. 





pedis forcipis apex. 





forceps infra. 





latus penis infra. 





pes forcipis. 





penis infra. 




? im. 

processus ventralis penult, 

TAB. V. 

Fig. 1. Leptophlehioe nebulosce, $ im. pes forcipis infra. 













CcBiiis macmrcB, 
,, dimidiatoB, 
,, luctuosoR, 

latis penis infra, 
pes forcipis. 
penis infra, 
ala postica. 
pes forcipis infra, 
penis infra, 
penis oblique, 
genitalia infra, 
genitalia infra. 

forceps et membrana infra geni- 


162 Rev. A. E. Eaton^s Monograph 

Tab. V. — contin. 

Kg. 7. 

E^yhemerelloB ignitce, $ im. genitalia infra. 



,, „ ala postica. 



invarice, ,, pes forcipis. 



„ J, penis infra. 


BcetiscoB ohesce, ,, genitalia infra. 



.s dipteri, „ pes forcipis. 



similis, ,, pes forcipis. 



russuli, ,, pes forcipis. 

[13-26, pedes forcipium ; 13a-26a, alae posticae :] — 

13, 13a. 

Centroptili luteoli, $ im. 

14, 14a. 


penniolati, ,, 

15, 15a. 


stenopterygis, $ im. 

16, 16a. 


binoculati, $ im. 

17, 17a. 


scamhi, „ 

18, 18a. 


finitimi, „ 

19, 19a. 


atrehatini, „ 

20, 20a. 


Rhodani, ,, 

21, 21a. 


pliceopis, ,, 

22, 22a. 


tenacis, „ 

23, 23a. 


hucerati, „ 

24, 24a. 


amnici, ,, 

25, 25a. 


pumili, ,, 

26, 26a. 


nigri, ,, 



piicti, „ 



sp. nondescript, de California, ala postica. (Pro ala 
antica vide Tab. III. fig. 1.) 



sp. nondescript, ex Australia, ala postica. 


Si'pliluri flavidi, $ im. apex abdominis supra. 


Fig. 1. 


arniati, $ 


pes forcii^is infra. 





latus penis infra. 





pes forcipis infra. 





pes forcipis infra. 





notte ventrales abdominis. 





uotas ventrales abdominis. 





pes forcipis infra. 





pes forcipis infra. 





processus ventralis penult, seg 


on the EpJiemeridce. 
Tab. TI. — contin. 


Fig. 6. 





. pes forcipis oblique. 





penis infra. « 






processus ventralis penult, seg- 






pes forcipis oblique. 





penis apex infra. 


Cronici anomali, 


forceps infra. 



icE semicoloratce, 

1 » 

genitalia infra. 





genitalia infra. 





genitalia infra. 






genitalia infra. 





latus penis supra. 





penis supra. 





penis infra. 





pedis forcipis apex. 





genitalia infra. 





latus penis supra. 





pes forcipis infra. 





penis supra. 






genitalia infra. 






genitalia infra. 



>, 6 


. penis infra. 






processus ventralis apex. 





ovivalvulae apex. 






genitalia infra. 






processus ventralis apex. 





ovivalvula apex. 






genitalia infra. 





genitalia infra. 










penis infra. 





pes forcipis. 





penis infra. 



vicar icB, 


penis infra. 





latus penis supra. 





genitalia infra. 






genitalia infra. 





genitalia infra. 










notifi ventrales abdominis. 

M 2 

1G4 Rev. A. E. Eaton on the Ephemeridce. 

Tab. VI. — contin. 

Fig. 27. Heptageniix lateralis, $ im. genitalia infra. 

28. „ aebratce, „ genitalia infra. 

29. IsonychioB ignotm, „ apex penis infra. 


Page 47. To Centroptilum luteolum, add Hudson's Bay Territory. 

To Centroptilum phceops, add Nonvay (Hammerfest and Alten). 

Page 68, note* Add — Ephemerum, Tournefort (1694-1700) ^TrcwZescan- 
tia, Lin., is the typical genus of EpJiemerce, Batsch (1802) 
= Com7nelynacece, an Order of Endogens. Ephemeruni, 
Dodon (Brsch & Grviber) or Eeichenbach (Lindley) = 
Lysimachia, Lin., a genus of Primulacew. 

Page 134. In Isonychia, the termination -miycliia is adopted on account 
of -onyx being used as a generic termination in the names 
of some Chelonii. Ephemera pudica, Hag., is almost cer- 
tain to be identical with I. manca; this species often has a 
close reticulation contiguous to the veins of the inner mar- 
gin of the fore-wing, somewhat like that in the wing of 

( 165 ) 

II. Neiv Species o/* Diurnal Lepidoptera/>'07)i Soiith and 
Central America. By W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. 

[Read 2nd January, 1871.] 

Heterochroa Mahheda. 

Male. Upporside : dark brown. Both wings crossed 
obliquely by a broad band from the costal margin of the 
anterior wing to the abdominal fold of the posterior wing ; 
orange on the anterior wing^ and divided by the nervures 
into eight parts, the fourth part projecting beyond the 
rest towards the apex ; white on the posterior wing, with 
its outer border broadly orange. Anterior wing with some 
black lines and an orange band in and below the cell, 
and a subapical bifid orange spot; crossed by two sub- 
marginal rufous bands. Posterior wing crossed by three 
similar bands ; an orange spot at the anal angle, marked 
by two black spots. 

Underside : as above, except that it is rufous-brown, 
that the bands and spots are all white or lilac-white ; that 
the anterior wing has the central band broken into spots 
by a rufous line, a third subapical spot, and a triangular 
bifid white spot at the base, and that the posterior wing 
has two white bands across the base, and covering the 
abdominal fold, and a short linear band between them 
and the central band. 

Exp. 2y\;- inches. 

Hah. — Para. In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Easily known from aU the other species by having the 
central band of the posterior wing divided longitudinally 
into white and red. On the underside it scarcely differs 
from U. Erot'ia. 

Heterochroa Zalniona. 

Male. Upperside : dark brown. Anterior wing with 
indistinct bands of paler colour in and below the cell ; 
crossed transversely near the middle from the costal 
margin to near the anal angle, by a slightly indented 
band of orange, divided into seven parts by the nervures ; 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. PART II. (mAY.) N 

66 Mr. W. C. Hewitson on 

five indistinct subapical spots. Posterior wing crossed 
obliquely by four bands of paler colour, converging to- 
wards the anal angle, the fourth band submarginal. 

Underside: rufous, clouded with brown towards the 
outer margins of both wings. Anterior wing with a bifid 
spot at the base, an oblong spot bordered with black in 
the middle of the cell, and four small spots below these, 
all silvery-white ; the band of the upperside and five 
subapical spots white. Posterior wing crossed before the 
middle by two parallel bands of silvery- white, the band 
nearest the base broken in the middle ; crossed at the 
middle by a band of black, and beyond the middle by a 
submarginal band of seven silvery- white spots. 

Exp. 2Jq- inches. 

Hah. — -New Granada. In the collection of W. W. 
Saunders and W. C. Hewitson. 

Nearly allied to II. Epione, which, instead of having the 
transverse white bands of equal breadth, parallel to each 
other, and slightly curved towards the base as in this 
species, has the second band very broad, and with its 
outer border curved towards the outer margin of the 

Eurygona argcntea. 

Male. Upperside: dark brown. Anterior wing rufous 
below the median nervure, from the base towards the 
middle of the wing, where it ends in a more distinct 
round spot. Posterior wing with a longitudinal rufous 
band from the base to the outer margin. 

Underside : silvery-white. Anterior wing with four 
transverse bands, and the outer margin, dark brown. 
Posterior wing crossed by six brown bands, all tendiug 
towards the anal angle : two from the base, a third from 
the costal margin united to the fourth, which runs near 
the inner margin, the other two submarginal, the outer 
one marked by a small black spot ; the outer margin 
black, marked by a large orange spot. 

Exp. 1 in. 

Hab. — Nicaragua (Chontales) . In the collection of 
Thomas Belt. 

Unlike any other species, and one of the most beautiful. 

Diurnal Lepidoptera. 167 

Pyrrhopyga Crida. 

Upper and underside : blue-black. The head and anus 
scarlet ; the antennfB black. Anterior wing crossed ti'ans- 
versely at the middle, from the sub-costal nervure to near 
the anal angle, by a narrow, trifid, transparent, glossy 
white band. 

Exp. 2 inches. 

Hah. — Nicaragua (Chontales) . In the collection of 
Thomas Belt. 

Pyrrhopyga eximia. 

Upperside. Anterior wing dark green-brown, with a 
spot in the cell, and an oblique, continuous, very trans- 
parent, and highly polished white band, beyond the mid- 
dle, nearly parallel to the outer margin, extending from 
the costal margin to the submedian nervure, and divided 
into seven parts by the nervures. Posterior wing pale 
yellow, tinted with orange towards the base ; the base, a 
centx'al transverse band, the nervures, and the inner and 
outer margins dark brown. 

Underside : as above, except that there is a subcostal 
ochreous band on the anterior wing, and that the brown 
on the outer margin of the posterior wing is much nar- 

Exp. 2 inches. 

Hah. — Venezuela {Ooring). In the collection of W. 
C. Hewitson. 

N 'i 

( 169 ) 

III. Descriptions of a neiv genus and six neio species of 
Pierinae. By A. G. Butlee, F.L.S., &c. 

[Bead 6th February, 1871.] 

The new genus and new species described in this paper 
are as under: — • 

ladas venatus 
Kricogonia Fantasia 
Callidryas fornax 
„ Jaresia 
Euchloii limonea 

White Nile. 





Larinopoda (n. g.) lyccenoides West Africa. 

Genus Ixias, Hiibner. 
Ixias venatus, n. sp. .(PL VII. fig. 7.) 

Wings above, creamy-white ; front-wings with base 
broadly dusky ; a dark brown disco-cellular spot, the 
apex, outer margin, extremities of nervures, a round spot 
between second and third median branches, and an 
arched streak connecting it with apical patch, dark- 
brown ; hind-wings with a brown disco-cellular point ; 
the outer half of nervures dusky; seven triangular mar- 
ginal dark brown spots at extremities of nervures : body 
blackish : wings below, pale ochreous ; front- wings with 
interno-discal area white ; base sulphm'-yellow ; disco- 
cellular spot as above ; costa, outer half of nervures, a 
streak across subcostals, and a spot between median 
branches as above, dark brown ; hind -wings with basal 
costa orange, nervures blackish, spots as above ; an 
arched lunulate streak, parallel to outer margin from 
costa to below first median branch : body white. 

Expanse of wings, 1 inch, 11 lines. 

Ba&.— White Nile. {Pethericlc.) Coll. B. M. 

Most nearly allied to I. Eulimene, but very distinct 
from any described species. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (mAY.) 

170 Mr. A. G. Butler on 

Genus Kricogonia, Reakirt. 
Kricogonia Fantasia, n. sp. (PI. VII. fig. 6.) 

? . Wings above, greenish- white ; front- wings with 
the basal costa dusky sulphur-yellow ; a pale brown mar- 
ginal band beginning broad on costa^ and tapering to 
near the anal angle ; hind-wings tinted with pale sul- 
phur ; front-wingSj below, with the greater part of the 
discoidal cell and basal half of the costal area bright sul- 
phur-yellow ; apical half of the costal area and apex 
tapering to near the anal angle, tinted with pale sulphur ; 
hind- wings as above, but brighter towards the base; 
body creamy-white ; anus brownish. 

Expanse of wings, 2 inches, 4 lines, to 1 inch, 8 lines. 

Eab. — Nicaragua. {De Latre.) Coll. B. M. 

Most nearly allied to K. Lyside {Gastalia Butl., nee 
Fabr.), but at once distinguishable by the marginal band 
and differently coloured bases of the wings. 

Genus Callidryas, Boisduval. 
Callidryds fornax, n. sp. 

? . Allied to G. Larra ; wings above, bright sulphur- 
yellow ; front- wings with apical and external areas 
densely irrorated with dvill crimson ; a black disco- 
cellular spot ; apex and terminations of nervures brown ; 
a biangulated discal series of blackish spots bounded 
externally on the disc by yellow spots, the largest nearest 
to the anal angle ; hind-wings with external area to cell 
dull crimson, enclosing one or two yellowish spots to- 
wards the costa; apices of nervures blackish; cilia 
yellow ; abdominal area pale yellow ; body yellow, thorax 
clothed with silky grayish hairs ; wings below golden 
yellow ; the apical half orange-tinted ; the whole surface 
irregularly patched with red ; all the markings (which 
are ai-ranged as in G. Philea, $ ) are broad and dull red ; 
two silver spots at the end of the cell in both wings ; but 
those of the front-wings badly defined : body golden- 

Expanse of wings, 2 inches, 10 lines. 

jffa6.— Chili. Coll. Kaden in Coll. Druce. 

Intermediate between G. Avellaneda and G. Larra, and 
one of the most beautiful species in th.e genus. 

New species of Vierince. 17 

Callidryas J ares la, n. sp. 

? . Wings above, orange-yellow ; margin and disco- 
cellular spot black, as in G. Statira. ; abdominal area pale 
ochreous ; body grayish ; wings below, satiny ocbraceous, 
becoming pearly towards external margin ; markings a& 
in G. Statira, but more sharply defined and rosy ; the 
marginal band of front -wings not confounded with 
the discal series of spots, and the disco-cellular spots 
better defined ; a rosy point at the base of the front- 
wings ; body ochreous. 

Expanse of wings, 2 inches, 9 lines. 

Hah. — Pard. Colls. Hewitson, Wallace, and Druce. 

I think it just possible that this may be the female of 
G. Wallacei, Felder, which, however, I have only seen 
from Peru and Bolivia ; perhaps it is more likely to be 
an extreme form of G. Statira, it, however, difiers con- 
stantly in its more robust form, and in the other charac- 
ters mentioned above. 

Genus Belenois, Hiibner. 
Belenois Cynis, var., Hewitson. (PI. VII. fig. 1.) 

^ . Differs from the typical form in the absence of 
the marginal spots of hind-wings, and the restricted 
gray area at the base of the wings on the under-surface. 

Expanse of wings, 2 inches, 1| lines. 

Hah. — Ayerpanas, Malacca. (Eoherts.) Coll. Roberts 
and B. M. 

My figure of this variety was taken from an example 
lent to me some years ago by Lieutenant Roberts : a 
similar example has since been presented by him to the 
National Collection ; before we received this specimen, 
I supposed two examples of P. Hlana, Felder (a local 
form of P. Polisma, Hewitson) , to be the true F. Gynis, 
the insect being so labelled by Mr. White when I first 
arranged the collection ; I consequently took P. Hlana 
under the name of P. Gynis, as the type of my new 
genus Phrissiira, an unfortunate error, considering that 
P. Gynis does not possess the anal tuft peculiar to the 
species of Phrissura, and, moreover, agrees in venation, 
and in every other character, with the species of the genus 

172 Mr. A. G. Butler on 

Genus Euchloe, Hiibner. 

Euchloe Limonea, n. sp. 

<^ . Allied to E. Scolymtts and Genutia ; front- wings 
strongly falcate, above yellowish-white, apex sulphur- 
yellow ; a squamose olivaceous marginal band from the 
termination of the first subcostal to the termination of 
the third median branch, bounded within by an oblique 
elongate- ovate orange band 3 a pyriform disco-cellular 
spot; base blackish; hind-wings sulphur-yellow; base 
blackish; ground-colour of wings below as above ; front- 
wings, apex sparsely irrorated with olivaceous and brown 
scales ; subapical orange band visible through the wing ; 
nervures black-tipped ; hiild- wings marbled, almost as in 
E. Genutia, with, squamose olivaceous spots; body whitish, 
abdomen sulphur-yellow. 

Expanse of wings, 2 inches. 

Eab. — Mexico. Coll. W. W. Saunders. 

This very distinct species of the section Midea, is in- 
termediate in character between E. Qcolymus and E. 

Laeinopoda, n. gen. 

Allied to Euchloe, but with the aspect of Nychitona 
{Pontia of recent authors) . 

Wings pyriform ; front- wings with five subcostal 
branches, the first emitted at a short distance before the 
end of the cell, the second immediately before the end, 
the third half-way between the cell and apex ; the fourth 
and fifth at two-thirds of the distance from the cell to the 
apex : upper disco- cellular short, slanting obliquely in- 
wards ; lower, three times the length of upper, angulated, 
slanting obliquely outwards; median branches emitted 
near together; hind- wings with subcostals emitted close 
together, so as to reduce the upper disco- cellular to a 
point ; lower disco-cellular very oblique, about eight times 
the length of the upper ; second and third median branches 
emitted at about half the distance from each other that 
exists between the second and first ; body short, robust ; 
abdomen swollen beneath ; legs thick ; antennae short, 
slender, feebly clubbed; palpi long, slender, not hairy. 

New species of Piermce. 173 

Larinopoda lyccenoides, n. sp. (PL VII. figs. 2-5.) 

? . Wings above, white (like rice-paper) , basal costa 
and apex of the front- wings brownish ; thorax brownish, 
abdomen white, palpi orange. 

Wings below, white; front- wings with a rounded 
blackish costal spot above the termination of the cell, 
and two or three at the apex ; basal costa speckled with 
black atoms ; hind- wings with a brown subapical spot, 
and an indistinct point placed obliquely below it ; a black 
spot just below the origin of the first median branch ; 
body white, legs and palpi orange-yellow. 

Expanse of wings, 1 inch, 9 lines. 

Hah.—We^t Africa. Coll.'W. W. Saunders. 

The above genus, though evidently belonging to the 
Pierince, seems, in some respects, intermediate between 
the Eronia group of that subfamily and the genus Delo- 
neura of Trimen [Lyccenince) , and bears out the view 
maintained by those Lepidopterists who place these two 
subfamilies in juxtaposition ; its natural position in the 
Pierince is between Nepheronia and Euchloe. 

( 175 ) 

IV. On the dispersal of non-migratory Insects hy atmos- 
pheric agencies. By Albert Muller, F.R.G.S., &c. 

[Bead 20tli February, 1871.] 

If any of my friends^ who may do me the honour of 
perusing this paper, should feel tempted to say that it 
appears " like a wild flower, where it was least expected," 
I would tell them, that the subject of Insect difl'usion has 
long had a share of my limited leisure, but that I would 
not yet have ventured upon publishing my reflections, 
had I not been reminded by the annual address (1870) of 
our late president Mr. H. W. Bates, that it is probable 
the amount of migration and dissemination by winds, 
currents, and other means, is much underrated by some 

It is not within the scope of my theme to consider the 
great number of instances which literature records of 
migratory insects.* They are mostly prompted to un- 
dertake their wanderings by instinct, climatic or meteoro- 
logical influences, scarcity of food, and probably other 
causes at present unknown to us ; and we are all more or 
less familiar with the accounts given of the travelling 
Lepidoptera, viz. : the larvse of several Pieridce, of Gastro- 
pacha processionea and pinivora, and of Leucanidce (army- 
worms), the imagines of V. cardui, urticce, of several 
Papilionidce, Pieridce, TJranidce, Sphingidce, the 'Bugong' 
moths, &c. ; among Coleoptera, several Hydradephaga, 
Melolonthidce, Lucanidce, Coccinellidce, Apion vernale, &c. ; 
amongst Hymenoptera, Formicidce, and Apidce; in the 
Neuroptera (in the Linnaean sense) , Libellulidce, Termi- 
tidce; in Orthoptera, Blattidce, Locustidcp, Acridiidce, &c. ; 
in the Diptera, the larvae of several Sciaridce (' Heerwurm'); 
the imagines of a Bihio, and sundry Syrphidce ; whilst 
the hosts of Aphidce, and a few species belonging to 
Notonecta and Aphrophora may be taken as representing 
the erratic Hemiptera. 

All these Insects are, so to say, travellers by choice or 
profession, and very little surprise need greet their ap- 
pearance, isolated or en masse, in any part of the globe. 
But it is very different with the normally more or less 

* A general survey of the subject has been given by C. Cornelius, in his 
work "Zug und Wanderthiere aUer Thierklassen," Berlin, 18G5. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (MAY.) 

176 Mr. Albert Miiller 07i the dispersal 

stationary or else local insect tribes, which, by habit, food, 
or bodily organization, are confined to their native haunts. 
Their appearance in out of the way localities deserves to 
be fully investigated, and in following their tracks, we 
may join Thomas Moore, in saying: 

•' Poor wanderers of a stormy day, 
From wave to wave we are driven, 
And fancy's flash and reason's ray, 
Serve but to light the troubled way." 

Various authors have lit up parts of the troubled way 
of these insect-waifs, by throwing reason^s ray on the 
means of their accidental transportation. Sir Charles 
Lyell, Messrs. Earby, Darwin, Wallace, Wollaston, Bates, 
and other naturalists, have shown what human agency, 
for instance, trade and navigation,* the carrying by larger 
animals and birds, by the ocean and rivers, by floating 
trunks of trees, and matted floating islands, pumice stone,t 
icebergs, and other drifting objects, and what atmos- 
pheric convej'ance can, in some cases, accomplish. 

But I agree with Mr. Bates, that the amount of dis- 
semination by atmospheric means is still much underrated, 
and it has therefore appeared desirable to me, to bring 
together into a small compass, some of the leading facts 
which have forced on my mind the conclusion, that aerial 
involuntary locomotion is a most active agency in regu- 
lating the distribution of sedentary terrestrial Entoma. 

It is well known that Monads, Infusoria, winged and 
other seeds, the ashes of volcanic eruptions, the sands of 
the deserts of Africa and America, and other substances, 
are carried over land and sea by heavy gales. Fishes and 
newts have been known to be taken up by waterspouts 
or whirlwinds, and deposited far from their original 
localities, when the forces which had raised them, were 
spent. A. von Humboldt has recorded that small 

* Consult Von Frauenfeld's paper in Verhandl. zool.-bot. G. in Wien, 
XVII. pp. 425-464, 1867. 

f I have often foimd such floating and porous pumice stones on the 
Rhine, along the Hue of rejectamenta left by the spring floods, and I used 
to find these stones resorted to by various small Carabidce, such as Bern - 
hidium, Anchomenus, Loricera, Chlcenius, Omophron, and others. I can 
therefore confirm Mr. Bates' supposition (' Naturahst on the Eiver Ama- 
zons,' 2nd ed. 1864, p. 299), that they often serve as vehicles for insects 
and seeds to distant shores. I have also seen such stones left high and dry 
by a freshet, the pores filled with river mud, and seeds germinating in it. 
A. M. 

of non-migratory Insects. 177 

songsters and butterjQies were met by him several times 
in the South Sea^ during- gales blowing away from 
the land, and that, just as involuntarily, insects are often 
carried to the height of 15,000 to 1 8,000 feet above the 
plains. This illustrious savant says that the warmed 
surface of the earth causes a vertical current of air, by 
which light bodies are driven upwards, in confirmation 
of which explanation he gives the observation of M. 
Boussingault, who, together with his companion, Don 
Mariano de Rivero, saw rise from the valley of Caracas, 
whitish illuminated bodies mounting up to the height of 
5,400 feet to the summit of the Silla, and then sink to- 
wards the adjoining coast. This was at midday, and 
lasted an hour without interruption. Taken at first for 
a swarm of small birds, these bodies were afterwards 
recognized as small balls of accumulated blades of the 
grass ViJfa tenacissima. * The same author observes 
that Captain Fremont met with bees on the peak in the 
Rocky Mountains, bearing Fremont's name, and that, 
perhaps, like the butterflies met with by himself in much 
higher regions of the Andes, also within the line of per- 
petual snow, they were involuntarily carried up by 
ascending currents of air. f Mr. WoUaston says : " Un- 
willing victims, are ever and anon hurried to 

comparatively distant lands by the very winds that blow ; 
and not only to distant lands, but over altitudes in which 
the severity of the cold would quickly annihilate them, 
were they (as, perhaps, usually happens) to be deposited 
there on their headlong and compulsory course.'' | Sir 
Charles Lyell observes that, '' as almost all insects are 
winged, they can readily spread themselves wherever 
their progress is not opposed by uncongenial climates, 
or by seas, mountains, and other physical impediments ; 
and these barriers they can sometimes surmount, by 
abandoning themselves to violent gales, which may, in a 
few hours, carry them to very considerable distances." § 
Our president, Mr. A. R. Wallace, has lately reminded us 
that violent gales of wind, for example, will carry bodies 
of greater specific gravity than beetles for many miles 

* A. von Humboldt, ' Ansichten der Natur,' 1860, vol. II. p. 30. 

+ Ibid. Vol. I. p. 42. 

X ' On the variation of species,' p. 148, 1856. 

§ ' Principles of Geology,' 9tli edit., p. 656. 

178 . Mr. Albert Miiller on the dispersal 

through the air ; and storms and hurricanes are of such 
frequent occurrence, that they must have played a large 
part in stocking all uninhabited lands. (Address, &c., 
to the Ent. Soc. Lend. 23rd January, 1871.) A small 
longicorn beetle was observed to fly on board a vessel 
500 miles off the west coast of Africa. * A moth be- 
longing to the genus Andea was captured at sea, more 
than 200 miles from the west coast of Africa, and a but- 
terfly and several grasshoppers were noticed on board the 
ship, all of which are said to have been borne over the 
sea by the trade wind, f A Golymbetes once flew on 
board the " Beagle," when forty-five miles distant from 
the nearest land : how much further it might have flown 
with a favouring gale no one can tell. | The beetles in 
Madeira, as observed by Mr. Wollaston, lie much con- 
cealed until the wind lulls and the sun shines; § a fact 
which I have found to hold good with all orders almost 
everywhere. I have collected in mountains, but more 
particularly in the bleak range of the Swiss Jura, near 
the Creux du Vent, where I have noticed that a breeze 
has the immediate effect of sending every flying creature 
either to the nearest rock, or into the very short herbage 
for shelter. This universal habit of mountain insects 
seems to denote their appreciation of the dangers which 
may arise to them from atmospheric disturbances. 

Taking all these facts (selected at random) into con- 
sideration, and bearing in mind the towering and soaring, || 
often out of sight, of many butterflies and moths, the cloud- 
like swarms of Formicidce, Tipulidm, and other Diptera, 
dancing round church towers,^ and over the tops of 

* ' Zoologist,' 1864, p. 8920. 

f B. T. Lowne, in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol. 2, proc. p. 39. 

X Darwin, ' Origin of Species,' 3rd ed. 1861, p. 417. 

§ Thid. p. 153. " 

11 Soaring of a moth, Anisoneura hypociiana; read Charles Home's note, 
' Zoologist,' 1869, pp. 176-7. 

% VideBond, in Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. ser. 3, vol 2, proc. p. 114: — "Mil- 
lions of swarming reddish ants round the tower of St. Manrice at Coburg, 
mistaken for curls of smoke. ...Firemen called out, &c. ; " and Wormald, ihid, 
stating that he "had seen something very similar at St. Albans, on the 
26th of August, when a swarm of small black ants presented the appear- 
ance of smoke issuing from the Abbey." 

of non-migratory Insects. 179 

trees,* or on cliffs exposed to all the vehemence of sudden 
gusts of wind ; the circling flight of Anoxia australis over 
the highest ashy cone of Vesuvius, observed by Dr. C. A. 
Dohrn in 1856 ;t the occurrence of Cldorops lineata en- 
closed in a hailstone, as recorded by Mr. F. Walker,^ 
coupled with Mr. Pascoe's remark, that though insect 
swarms were not common on or very near to the surface 
of the earth, there must be great abundance of insect life 
in the upper atmosphere, and that the destruction of 
insects at a considerable elevation by swifts, must of itself 
be enormous, § I think I have proved that the very 
habits of many insects are favourable to their forced 
removal by aerial disturbances. 

But there is some other more direct kind of evidence 
to be related. On the 2nd January, 1868, a storm raged 
over Tenerifie, which felled the celebrated Dragon tree 
of Orotavo, and uprooted the Cochineal plantations of 
the island, carrying many plants clear away. Numerous 
living larvEe of all sizes belonging to jEgosoma scahri- 
corne, were scattered far and wide from the broken bole 
of an old lime tree at Basle, blown down during a violent 
hailstorm on the 8th March, 1868. |1 In an article on 
Argentine Goleoptera by Ed. Steinheil, printed in the 
"Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze naturali, 1869," 
it is stated of Calosoma honariense, Dej., that this, and 
other Carahidce, could be collected in numbers in the 

* Haliday records of Culex detritus, that it is seen in Ireland " in the 
evening, in columns about the tops of trees, appearing like smoke at the 
distance of a furlong." (Entom. Mag. vol. I. p. 151, 1833.) 

Fairmaire says: — "qu'il a vu 4 Stockholm, autour de peuphers, au 
milieu de la ville, d'immenses quantites d'insectes, iDrobablement des 
Dipteres et Nevropteres, qui formaient des veritables nu^es ressemblant 
h de la fumee, a I'extremite des branches. Au dire de MM. Boheman et 
Sundevall, ce fait se reproduit chaque 6t6 et avec un developpement plus 
grand." Bullet, de la Soc. Ent. de France, 1856, p. hi. 

On the 12th and 13th August, 1865, the high tops of most pear trees in 
the commune of Eoggwj'l, cant. Thurgovie, Switzerland, were observed to 
be crowned with g;yTating small blacldsh clouds of winged ants, presenting 
the appearance of curls of smoke. A west wind arose, and suddenly swept 
the swarms away. 

t ' Stett. Ent. Zeit.' 1870, p. 423. 

+ ' Ent. Weekly Intelligencer,' Vol. 7, p. 76, 1859. 

§ Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1869, proc, p. xxvi. 

II Ibid. 1870, proc, p. xxxviii. 

180 Mr. Albert Miiller on the dispersal 

middle of November 1865, and at about the same period 
in 1866, in the streets and houses of Buenos Ayres, and 
that they were wafted there by the Pampero, the stormy 
west wind, which brings bright weather from the neigh- 
bouring Pampa, after the rain. It is stated, that this 
was a "true rain" of insects, and that the houses, 
cellars, terraces, rooms, &c., were swarming with the 
creatures. Dr. C. A. Dohrn says, in allusion to this fact, 
which was observed by Strobel, that, if the latter were 
right in his supposition that the said insect rain in 
November is a periodical event. Professor Burmeister 
would certainly be in a position either to confirm, or 
negatively to answer it. * In connection with this record, 
it seems desirable to mention that Professor Lacordaire 
says, in his "Introduction a I'Entomologie, p. 494, that 
for two consecutive years, while he was at Buenos Ayres, 
this town was, every spring, for eight days, visited by 
millions of Harpalus cupripennis, which arrived daily in 
the dawn of the morning, and had to be swept away 
every morning from the outside of the houses, where 
they were piled up several feet in height." f Professor 
Westwood has recorded swarms of Harpalus near Dover, 
on the 12th August, 1839. % 

Monsieur Rouzet states, that on the 21st May 1856, 
the exterior Boulevard of the Barriere du Pere Lachaise 
at Paris, was covered with multitudes of Bhizopkagus 
parallelicollis , Gyll., to a height of from five to six milli- 
metres, and along the walls they lay a centimetre high, 
for a distance of more than a kilometre. A storm came 
on in the evening and swept them all away, so that 
none were left the next day. — Bidletin de la 8oc. Ent. de 
France, 1856, p. lii. 

Captain Fitzroy tells us in his " Narrative of the Sur- 
veying Voyages of H.M. ships 'Adventure^ and 'Beagle,' 
that, " between the La Plata and the Rio Negro, myriads 
of white butterflies surrounded the ships in such quanti- 
ties that the seamen said, ' it snows butterflies ! ' " They 
were brought by a gale from the north-west, which in- 
creased for a time. 

* Stettin. Ent. Z., 1870, p. 428. 

f Quoted by Cornelius, ' Wanderthiere,' p. 230. 

X Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. ser. 1. vol. V., proc, p. 24. 

of non-viigratory Insects. 181 

Caldcleugh relates in liis " Travels in South America," 
that he experienced in 22° north latitude, a violent gale 
accompanied by thunder, lightning', and a waterspout, 
and that afterwards, on the deck, and in the tackle, a 
number of butterflies were found. 

Cornelius, in referring to the two preceding facts, 
points out, that here we meet with swarms of butterflies 
in casual connection with grand natural phenomena, such 
as strong gusts of wind and violent tempests, and that it 
seems to him very well admissible, that during great 
storms, but especially in the course of waterspouts and 
tornados, a large number of such insects are swept to- 
gether, and carried over land and sea.* The same author 
observes, that, in preference, he would assert this for 
mixed swarms, consisting of several kinds of insects. 
An instance of such an assemblage is related by Van 
Bemmelen, | who met with unspeakable numbers of white 
butterflies, principally Fieris hrassicce, one or two species 
of Sphcx, and Diptera agreeing with Musca vomitoria, 
Linn., arriving from the sea in the Downs near Nordwyk 
aan Zee, at eleven o'clock, a.m., on the 13th July, 1855. 
On reaching the Downs, they lessened the rapidity of 
their flight; some settled, others kept on their course. 
The flying past was observed for an hour ; the direction 
was W.N.W. to E.S.E., the wind was W.N.W., and 

The above are by no means all the observations re- 
ferring to the occasional transportation of non-migratory 
insects which have been made, but I opine that enough 
has been said to prove that, whenever atmospheric dis- 
turbances occur suddenly, considerable numbers of more 
or loss stationary insects are likely to be, or are in reality, 
removed to distant quarters. Who has not seen the 
clouds fly overhead with astounding rapidity, and what 
insect could resist the direction of the current of air thus 
indicated, even for hundreds of feet away from the moving 
mass?. In mountainous districts particularly, the clouds 
as they closely encircle a peak for a time, must often 
bring or carry ofl* such castaways. 

A local phenomenon connected with the forced dis- 
persal of living beings, occurs constantly on the Alps ; I 

* ' Waudertbiere,' ]}. 255. 

t Haudelingeu uederl. Entom. Vercen, 1857, p. 91. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. PART 11. (iSIAY.) O 

182 Mr. Albert Miiller on the dispersal 

allude to the avalanche. Wherever strong inclines an- 
nually receive and discharge large masses of snow, there 
the dreaded spectacle may occur. Many thousands of 
feet overhead, the fleet step of the chamois, the rising 
of a bird, or a stone detached by the action of the frost, 
may loosen a small lump of snow, which rolls down and 
detaches others, their weight and rapidity of fall increase, 
whole fields of snow loosened by the wind called " Fohn'^ 
follow, and down the mass rushes, mile after mile, carry- 
ing everything before and with it, snow and ice, rock, 
forest, chalet, meadow, man and brute ! The body of air 
quickly displaced by this moving mass, rushes in front 
with the rapidity of lightning : woe betide the living 
creature within its reach ; hurled along with thousands of 
fellow sufferers, it finds itself in a few minutes deposited 
miles away from its home; eggs, larvae, pupas, all — the 
very bush on which they were surprised — the very sod 
which had harboured them, have joined the flight, and 
for miles down the valley the windows rattle, and the 
doors slam with the impetus they have received from the 
sudden shock of air. 

I mention this Alpine scene, to show the power of the 
atmosphere in dealing with organized nature. I feel 
certain that a great many so-called faunistic novelties, are 
the mere wrecks of hosts of insects distributed by cur- 
rents of air; the results of their carrying powers are 
often before us, but as it is the wholesome habit of man 
with '' the bare back,^^ to seek shelter when the storm 
rages, no doubt they are mostly overlooked. However, 
just as the floating belts of Aphidce, 8yrpliidcB, and Cocci- 
nellidce around our coasts, as the rows of dead locusts on 
the banks of southern waters, as the white " Uferaas," 
the remains of Ephemeridce lining continental rivers, in- 
dicate the destructive power of the watery element, so 
the atmosphere, too, has its great wreck chart spread 
out for those who will read it. It has this in common 
with the new charts of the mariner, that, excepting 
general outlines, it presents to the eye a white surface, 
which becomes gradually dotted over with little blotches, 
denoting the spots where living freights have suffered 
shipwreck. Wherever a certain altitude presents the 
needful conditions, or when winter clothes the land with 
snow, our map is spread ; and I will now endeavour to 
point out some of the wrecks, which human observation 
has marked upon it. 

of non-migratory Insects. 183 

1672. Nov. 20. S. F. Frenzel records a fall of insects, with snow, in 
Hungary. — Dissertatio de Tnsectis, 1673. 

1672. D. M. Moller writes a "Meiiitatio de insectis qnibiisdam Hun- 
garicis prodigiosis anno proxime prreterito ex aere una cum nive in agroa 
delapsis. — (No doubt the same fall as the one above) 1673. 

1722. An account is given in this year of " snowed " worms. — Breslau, 
Naturg. u. Kunstgesch. Vers. 19, p. 166. 

1749. De Geer records the occurrence in Sweden, of the larva of Tele- 
phorus fuscus on the snow in winter. — Vetensk. Acad. Handl.Yol. 10, p. 76. 

1749. T. Hesselius records finding living insect larvfe on the snow, in 
Sweden. — Vetensk. Acad. Handl. Vol. 10, p. 75. (Refers perhaps to the 
preceding instance.) 

1753. M. C. Hanow records a fall of snow-worms in Germany. — Titius, 
Seltenheiten, Vol. 1, p. 456. 

1758. Another instance occurs of larvfe found on the snow, in Germany. 
— Stuttgart. Pliys. (Econ. Anz. Vol. 1, p. 157. 

1806. Schramm publishes a note on the snowing of larvffi in Silesia. 
— Verhandl. 0. s. B. d. Naturkunde Schlesien's, p. 217. 

1811. J. S. Capieux makes some remarks on the appearance of many 
larvas which had been seen in sundry places in Saxony on the snow. — 
Leipzig Intelligenz Bl., No. 12, p. 97. 

1828. G. Fischer von Waldheim reports on larva of Telepliorus fuscus 
found aUve on the snow. — Bullet, du Nord., jj. 45. 

1847. January 30. Snow, together with larva, fell in the Eifel. — 
Allgem. deut. Naturliist. Zeit. Vol II. p. 176. 

1849. January 24. Count C. Tyzenhaus records a fall of Telephorus 
fuscus in Lithuania. — Revue et Magas. Zool. Vol. I. p. 72. 

1856. Professor Oswald Heer records the occurrence of larvae, to the 
number of 300,000, of Telepliorus fuscus, on snow in Switzerland. — Vier- 
teljahrsschrift d. naturf. 0. in Ziirich, Vol. I. p. 85.* 

Most of these records refer to Tel ephorus fuscus, which 
passes its metamorphosis underground in the roots of 
treeSj in large numbers. Such trees being uprooted by 
storms, the larvse become exposed, and liable to be carried 
away. But it is needless to inquire, in this paper, into the 
real value of all these records of the fall of insects with, or 
on snow; some are hand fide occurrences, witnessed by 
careful observers; others must be taken cum grano sails ; 
and a few may be referred to early and wholesale eclo- 
sions from the pupa-state. In the latter category must 
be placed the often observed occurrence of Cynips aptera 
on the snow. 

I may insert here, that in 1765, a list was published of 
a quantity of insects found after rain,t and that pro- 
bably the reason why we do not possess more evidence 
of the fall of insects together with fluid water, is to be 

* The above chronological list is compiled from Dr. Hagen's 'Biblio- 
theca entomologica.' 

t Frank. Samml. Vol. VII. p. 362, 1765. 


184 Mr. Albert Miiller on the dispersal 

sought in the circumstance of their being thus far more 
likely to escape notice, than if they were deposited on 
the unsullied surface of freshly fallen snow. But that 
such falls must occur, is shown by the fact of the fly 
found in a hail-stone, which I have already alluded to. 

So far, I have only stated the evidence afibrded by 
insects deposited in the plains. 

Ascending now the mountains, we ought to expect to 
find similar wrecks of insect transports, if the theory 
that atmospheric involuntary locomotion is a powerful 
agency of dispersal, be worth holding. 

And so we do, here are the proofs tabulated : — 



Observed on the snowy dome of the glacier, at a height of about 11,000 
feet, great numbers of a Chrysopa, both flying and crawling on the snow. 

Glacier of the Vignemale, at a nearly equal height, obtained a fine series 
of Ichneumon antennatorius, Grav. They were picked xip at intervals of 
a few yards, alive but feeble, each one being at the bottom of a small pit 
or depression in the snow. With them, in equal abundance, a moth, pro- 
bably P. gamma. Also a few Lygwws equestris, noticed by Ramond in his 
attempt to scale the Touquerone glacier, leading up to Mont Perdu. 

(Rev. T. A. Marshall, Ent. Mo. Mag., Vol.5, p. 170; Dec. 1868.) 


Mont Blanc. 
14,800 feet (Parisian). 

"Last year, one of my friends, Dr. Ordinaire, made an ascent of Mont 
Blanc. On arriving at the summit, the first object that attracted his 
attention, was a Plusia gamma, kicking in the snow." (Bruand, Catal. des 
Lepidopt. du Dept. du Doubs, 1845, y. 83.) Ad. & Aug. Speyer say in 
reference to this observation, " so much is certain, that only an acci- 
dent, and ascending current of air of rare steadiness and intensity, could 
have brought the creature into that inhospitable region. (Die geograph. 
Verbreit. der SchmetterUnge Deutschlands und der Schweiz." 2nd part, 
1862, p. 29.) 

Monte Moro. 

" At an elevation of about 8000 feet, in small cylindrical holes in the 
snow, in each either a small lump that looked like peat, or more frequently 
an insect, invariably either Dipterous or Ichneumonideous.'' One insect 
found Ijdng on the snow was still living, viz., Cnjptus tarsoleucus. F. P. 
Pascoe, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. Vol. 3, April, 1865. Further particulars in 
my paper. Zoologist, 1866, p. 273; and discussion of the same in Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd ser., vol. v., proc, p. xix. ; and Dr. Imhoff's note ia 
the 'Zoologist', 1866, p. 390. 

of non-migratory Insects. 185 

St. Gothard. 

" I well remember, at the head of the pass during the month of May, to 
have been forcibly struck by the great accumulation of insect-life at the 
bottom of some rounded depressions in the snow, which had melted so as 
to expose the soil beneath it, thus, forming as it were, black oases amidst 
an ocean of unsullied white. They were chiefly Coleoptera.'^ (T. V. Wol- 
laston, Zoologist, 1866, p. 313. and compare this paper for arguments pro 
and C071. the alpine origin of the insects in question.) 


(Passeier Grund.) 
Ascending the heights towards the glacier, between 5900-8000, Apho- 
dius discus is met with, " and on my second journey when I intentionally 
searched the snow-field, I found it strewn over with them in great 
numbers, if not carried there by whirlwinds, as I am inclined to sup- 
pose by the many Noctuce, Diptera, and a Calopus serraticornis struggling 
with death, which were lying aboiit." P. V Gredler, ' Verhandl. etc., 
des siebenbiirg Vereins fur Naturwissensch.' 1856, No. 2. 

Cakinthian Alps. 

" F. Low published (Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. in Wien, xvii. pp. 751-752) a 
note on the species of Insects found on the snow in Carinthia (elevation 
2700-3100) by E. Kaiser, in the winters of 1858, 1861, and 1862. The 
number of sj^ecies is small, but included a new Homalota {H. glacia- 
lis, Mill.); two species of Nahis occurred, and i4c/i/0rities murorum ux great 
quantities." (' Zool. Eecord,' 1867, p. 204.) 

Without prejudicing the question, how many or how 
few of the observations mentioned in this table, refer to 
insects peculiar to the neighbourhood of the snow-fields 
and glaciers on which they were found, I think it will be 
allowed for each individual instance, that ascending cur- 
rents of air, or whirlwinds, such as often happen in 
mountain regions, were the main causes of their reach- 
ing their inhospitable and, probably, last resting-places. 
But the winds which deposited them there, might have 
carried them beyond the respective mountains, and 
might have allowed them to settle in more comfortable 
quarters; and if these premises are granted, then my 
object of proving the forced dispersal of non-migratory 
Articulata by atmosphei'ic agencies is reached. 

Most of the facts collected in this paper refer to the 
dissemination of living insects in continental Europe 
only, but it stands to reason, that if my conclusions are 
correct as regards continents, the modus operandi of 
Nature will be often a similar one as regards the popu- 
lating of islands. Only, of course, the chances of life for 
castaways are in this case much lessened ; not because 
their chances on arrival are worse, but because they pro- 
bably often find a watery grave before reaching land. 

186 Mr. Albert Miiller on non-migratory Insects. 

It also seems to me^ that the array of facts adduced 
here is a justification for the opinion, that instead of 
being an accidental and isolated event, the involuntary- 
dissemination of stationary insects will be eventually 
found to be mostly regulated by the periodical disturb- 
ances of the atmosphere, aided by their own locomotive 
powers in some instances, and in others by the habits of 
life which expose them to its constant influence. 

As the ploughshare breaks up the green sward of 
arable land, and disturbs the closely interwoven roots of 
the existing assemblages of plants, so do tornados, whirl- 
winds, and storms furrow the surface of our globe in all 
directions, unsettling and scattering prosperous commu- 
nities of living creatures, and rendering many of them 
for a time the helplessly drifting waifs of an ocean 

" Whose every wave breaks on a living shore." 

( 187 ) 

V. Notes OH some British species of Oxypoda, with de- 
scriptions of neiu species. By David Sharp, M.B. 

[Read 6th March, 1871.] 

In offering some descriptions of new species of Oxtjpoda 
to the Society, I feel that some words of apology are due ; 
the species of this genus being already in such a state 
of confusion, that it will certainly be correctly considered 
that an entire revision of the genus is required, rather 
than descriptions of isolated species. The difficulty, but 
at the same time, the absolute necessity, of inspecting 
the actual types of the authors of species in this genus, 
prevents me from undertaking the former task. And as 
all the efforts to identify the species here described, of 
myself and other British Entomologists, have failed, I feel 
myself entitled to describe, and so furnish them with 
names (perhaps temporary in some cases) . 

O. SPECTABiLis. This was founded by Mark el on a colour- 
variety of Aleochara rvficornis, Gyll.; as, however, there 
was a prior and different Aleochara nifcornis, Grav., Gyl- 
lenhaPs name cannot be adopted, and Markel's name 
had better be taken for that of the species. 

0. UMBRATA, Grav. Much confusion has existed as to 
this, the name having been applied by Erich son to a 
different species from that recognized by Gyllenhal as 
the 0. umhrata of Grav. Kraatz has already cleared this 
up, by giving another name {himiidula) to the Erichso- 
nian umhrata. But still another error remains, for 
Erichson described the true umhrata, under the name of 
cuniculina, and, moreover, under this name, it appears to 
me, that he confounded two species. I give herewith a 
description of the one I suppose to be new. 

0. PECTiTA, nov. sp. Elongata, sericeo-pubescens, opaca 
fusco-nigra, elytris paulo dilutioribus, antennarum basi, 
palpisque obscure testaceis, pedibus testaceis; dense 
subtilissimeque punctato, thorace obsolete canaliculato. 
Long. I5 lin. 

0. cuniculina, Er., ex iparte (forte). 
Allied to 0. umhrata, Grav. (Gyll., Th.), and about 
the same size, but as broad in the middle, with the 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (MAY.) 

188 Dr. Sharp on 

thorax narrower, and less transverse, and having an ob- 
solete, but always more or less distinct, central longitu- 
dinal channel, the hind-body less pointed at the extremity, 
and the thorax and elytra not quite so finely punctured. 
The antennae are pitchy in colour, with the basal joint 
yellowish, and the next pitchy-yellow ; they are thickened 
towards the apex, the third joint is distinctly shorter 
than the second, the fourth joint is smaller than the 
others, and about as long as broad, joints 6-10 are 
slightly transverse. The head is blackish, about half as 
broad as the elytra ; the thorax is about half as broad 
again as it is long; it is convex transversely, but not 
longitudinally, it has an indistinct central longitudinal 
channel, and is densely and finely punctured and pubes- 
cent (owing to the channel, this pubescence has the 
appearance of being combed or parted on each side)*. 
The elytra are rather lighter in colour than the head and 
thorax, are about one-third longer than the latter, and 
are densely and finely punctured. The hind -body, 
though distinctly narrowed to the apex, is not very 
pointed, it is throughout very finely and very densely 
punctured, the extremity, and sometimes the hind mar- 
gins, of the segments, being ferruginous. The legs are 
yellow. Distributed throughout England and Scotland, 
but rather rare. 

The next species is very difi'erent from any other I am 
acquainted with. 

O. EDiNENSis, nov. sp. Brovior, nigra, subnitida, 
antennarum basi, thorace, elytrisque obscure ferrugineis, 
pedibus testaceis ; abdomine apicem versus subangustato, 
dense subtiliter punctata, elytris thorace paulo longiori- 
bus. Long. 1^ lin. 

Ohs. Statura fere 0. lentulce, Er., sed magis nitida, et 
colore dilutiore, elytris brevioribus, capiteque angustiore 

The antennae are pitchy in colour, sometimes a little 
paler at the base, they are but slightly thickened to- 
wards the apex, third joint slightly shorter than the second, 
fourth a little smaller than the fifth, 6-10 slightly trans- 
verse, eleventh joint scarcely so long as the two preceding 
together. The head is pitchy, or pitchy-black, more than 
half as broad as the elytra, closely and finely punctured, 
rather shining; the palpi are yellowish. The thorax is as 

some New Species of Oxypoda. 189 

broad as the elytra, rounded at the sides, one-half broader 
than long, with a very indistinct central channel, finely 
and closely punctured, but rather shining. The elytra 
are scarcely longer than the thorax, of an obscure brown- 
ish colour, rather shining, closely and finely punctured. 
The hind-body is but little narrowed towards the apex, 
is extremely densely and finely punctured, but not alto- 
gether dull. The legs are yellowish. 

A series of this species was captured some years ago, 
near Edinburgh, by Dr. McNab, and myself. Mr. Crotch 
has sent it to some of the continental entomologists, but 
it has not been identified. 

O. VERECUNDA, nov. sp. Obscure testacea, abdomine 
medio nigricante, pedibus testaceis, dense subtilissime 
punctata, opaca sat elongata, abdomine apicem versus 
angustato. Long. Ij lin. 

A rather narrow dull species, of a dusky testaceous 
colour, with the middle of the hind-body darker, and the 
legs yellow. The antennae are moderately long, not 
stout, a little thickened towards the apex, of a dirty 
yellowish colour, yellow at the base, basal joints slender, 
second considerably longer than the third, 4th, 5th, and 
6th differing but little from one another, each a little 
broader than the preceding one, 7-10 transverse, eleventh 
joint large, about as long as the two preceding together. 
Head rather more than half the width of the thorax, 
closely and finely punctured, the palpi yellowish. Thorax 
rather narrowed to the front, about one-half broader 
than long, without channel, closely and very finely punc- 
tured, finely but distinctly pubescent, and rendered dull 
by this pubescence. Elytra a little longer than the thorax, 
very closely and finely punctured and pubescent. Hind- 
body narrowed towards the apex, but not extremely so, 
ferruginous at the base, blackish in the middle, yellowish 
at the extremity, extremely finely and densely punctured, 
near the extremity on the upper-side with well-marked 
black outstanding setee. Legs yellow, moderately long 
and slender. 

This insect possesses no particularly striking character, 
and seeing the confusion prevailing in the genus, I omit 
comparison with other species (as I should thus admit 
two elements of uncertainty in place of one into my 

190 Dr. Sharp on 

reader's cliance of identifying it), but will remark, that 
its nearest ally in this country is the 0. exoleta of our 

It is not common, but I have taken it near London, 
and in the Fens. 

0. NiGRiNA, Wat. It has been attempted by M. 
Fauvel to identify this species with the sericea of Heer, 
but, according to Kraatz, sericea, Heer, is probably the 
umhrata of Grav. At any rate, Mr. Waterhouse has 
supplied us with a good name for the species, which we 
need not abandon till it is satisfactorily identified with 
some prior species. 

O. EXiGUA. M. Fauvel has also stated, that a British 
specimen sent under this name is rather 0. investigatorum, 
of Kraatz ; but Mr. Rye subsequently sent the specimen 
so identified to Kraatz, who states that it is not his in- 
vestigatorum. It seems to me not improbable that it is 
the true 0. exigua of Er. At any rate, it had better 
stand under that name at present. 

0. EECONDiTA, Kr. The species, designated as 0. lucens, 
Muls., in Mr. Waterhouse's catalogue, has been identi- 
fied with 0. recondita, Kr., by Mr. Crotch. It agrees, 
at any rate, better with the latter description than with 
that of Mulsant. 

O. Waterhofsei, Rye, = 0. nigrofusea, Wat. This 
species also has not yet been reconciled with a continen- 
tal one. The name under which Mr. Waterhouse de- 
scribed it has been changed, because of a prior species 
of the name by Stephens. Stephens was so extremely 
careless, as to describe in his 'Illustrations' only a few 
pages from one another, two insects under the name of 
Aleockara nigro-fusca ; the first (Vol. V. p. 129) is quite 
worthless, and not an Oxijpoda (probably not, at least) ; 
the second (Vol. V. p. 150) might, possibly, be a de- 
scription of a small immature 0. longiusc^da j in Stephens' 
'Manual,' this latter A. nigrofusea has been referred to 
the genus Oxypoda, the description being abbreviated, 
and rendered worthless, 0. longiuscida, moreover, being 
described but a few lines further on. I cannot but regret 
that Mr. Waterhouse's name has been changed on account 
of such a confusion of rubbish. 

some Neiv S})ecies of Oxypoda. 191 

O. RiPAEiA, Fair. 1859 {nee Th. 1855). This name 
must be changed as above indicated, and I propose for it 
the name of 0. mutata, and subjoin a diagnosis of it. 

O. MUTATA. Elongata, rufo ferruginea, abdomine medio 
nigricante, antennis pedibusque testaceis, dense fortiter, 
subrugulose-punctata, abdomine apicem versus paulo 
augustato. Long. 1^ lin. 

This species is distinguished from all our other British 
species by its stronger and dense punctuation. Fair- 
maire describes the head as black, but I do not find it so 
in our British examples. 

O. BKACHYPTERA, Steph. Elongata, subparallela, haud 
nitida, rufo-ferruginea, abdomine medio late nigricante, 
dense, subtiliter punctata, elytris thorace paulo breviori- 
bus, fereque angustioribus. Long. 1 lin. 

Aleochara hracliyptera, Steph. 111. Brit, Ent. V. p. 128. 

Oxypoda forticornis, Fair. Ann. Fr. 1859, p. 37 (forte). 

Of an elongate, narrow, and rather parallel form, but 
with the extremity of the abdomen distinctly narrowed. 
The antennge and legs are yellowish; the head, thorax, 
and elytra of an obscure reddish colour; the hind-body 
reddish at the base, and at the extremity, black in the 
middle. The antennae are rather long and stout for the 
size of the insect, a little thickened towards the apex, the 
basal joints being stout; the second joint much longer 
than the third, the third triangular, being much narrowed 
at the base, fourth joint slightly transverse, 5-10 strongly 
so, eleventh joint long and stout, quite as long as the two 
preceding together. Head rather broad, much narrower 
than the thorax. Thorax nearly twice as broad as it is 
long, not much rounded at the sides, but a little rounded 
and narrowed towards the anterior angles, thickly and 
finely punctured with a short pubescence ; the elytra are 
rather shorter than the thorax, and even a little narrower 
than it, closely and finely punctured, but rather more 
coarsely than the thorax; hind-body densely and finely 
punctured with a close, not altogether fine pubescence; 
the setae of the extremity small and indistinct. 

This little species is clearly the Aleochara hraehyptcra 
of Stephens' description above referred to. It must be very 

192 Dr. Sharp on Oxypoda. 

close to 0. ferriiginea, Er., but even if it prove identical, 
Stephens' description and name have the priority. Fair- 
maire's description of 0. fortieornis , applies so accurately 
to it, that I think there is little doubt of its being the 
same species, though it is referred to a vastly different 
one in Harold's catalogue. 

O. TARDA, nov. sp, Opaca, subparallela, nigra, thorace 
elytrisque obscure ferrugineis, antennis, pedibus, abdo- 
minisque apice obscure testaceis, dense subtiliter punc- 
tata ; elytris thoracis longitudinis. Long. Ij lin. 

Closely allied to the preceding species, but larger, 
darker in colour, with the antennas scarcely so large, for 
the size of the insect ; the elytra a little longer, and the 
base of the hind-body not paler than the middle : in all 
other respects similar. The thorax is variable in colour, 
being sometimes obscurely ferruginous, sometimes nearly 

All the specimens I have seen of this species have 
been captured in the salt marshes near Dumfries. 

( 193 ) 

VI. Observations on Immature Sexuality and Alternate 
Generation in Insects. By B. T. Lowne, 
M.R.C.S. Eng. 

[Read 6th March, 1871.] 

Whilst in Palestine, in 1864, about the 23rd of January, 
I was encamped with the Rev. H. B. Tristram and party 
at Enjedi, where I found a large black and yellow species 
of Petasia {Orthoptera) , both in its larval and imaginal 
forms, in abundance, feeding upon the leaves of Calo- 
tropis procera. I cannot give the specific name of the 
insect, and I believe it has not hitherto been described. 

I was surprised to find the larvae of this insect copu- 
lating in considerable numbers. Until lately, I knew of 
no similar case, but my friend. Dr. J. A. Power, tells me 
that Ischnodemus sahuleti is frequently taken in the same 
condition, whilst in the so-called pupa-state. 

When in Australia, ten years ago, I remember observ- 
ing numerous individuals of a large wingless Blatta in 
the same condition, but this observation has evidently a 
totally distinct value, as the Blatta in question is not 
known to me ever to produce wings : hence this is only 
a similar phenomenon to that observed in the Cimex lec- 
tidarius, an apterous, or more strictly speaking, a larval 
form in a sexually mature condition. 

The following facts, also communicated to me by Dr. 
J. A. Power, seem to me to unite these phenomena by 
transitional forms. Several species of Hemiptera, as, for 
instance, Bryocoris pteridis, although sexually mature, 
have a very immature or undeveloped appearance ; others, 
as all the British species of Nabis, rarely attain their 
true imaginal characters in either sex; the female of 
Sphyraccphalus ambidans, which is, as a rule, apterous, has 
been known in one or two instances only, to be furnished 
with wings, so that this may considered as a parallel in- 
stance ; and, lastly, both sexes of Velia are almost always 
apterous, although they occasionally produce wings. 

I have not included in this list cases in which the 
females only are constantly apterous, because this condi- 
tion may arise from other causes ; but where either one 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PAKT II. (MAY.) 

194 Mr. B. T. Lowne on 

or both sexes occasionally produce wings, I think we see 
forms intermediate between apterous, and winged sexually 
mature ones. 

Two views may be taken of the significance of these 
facts. We may see a transitional condition between a 
larva like progenitor and an imaginal descendant, or we 
may see a transition from a winged to an apterous per- 
fect insect. 

My own belief is, that we see a transition from a 
winged to an apterous mature form, and this belief is 
based on the following facts. 

Firstly ; that larvae have been observed copulating, and 
that there is a decided tendency in many animals for the 
sexual organs to attain maturity before the animal attains 
all its adult characters. 

Secondly ; the rare appearance of wings in many Zfe- 
'mipterci, especially in the female of Spliyracephalus 
amhulans, appears more like reversion to a lost ancestral 
form than a tendency to develop a winged one. 

Thirdly; because the sexual organs of insects first 
appear at a very early period of life, and undergo, in 
some instances at least, gradual development, until the 
insect arrives at maturity, although all the other organs 
undergo a very remarkable metamorphosis. Indeed there 
is good reason to believe, that the remarkable larval re- 
production of GecicdomyidcB, depends on the premature 
development of the sexual organs in the larva. 

On the other hand, the principal objection to this view 
that has occurred to my mind is, that the larva of the 
Ametahola is usually believed to have existed in a mature 
condition before any winged insects had been developed. 
Fritz Midler says, " It seems to me, that valid reasons 
may be brought up in favour of the opinion, that the 
most ancient insects approached more nearly to the 
existing Orthoptera, and, perhaps, to the wingless Blat- 
tidce, than to any other existing order." And although 
Gerstdcker and others have shown, very conclusively to 
my mind, that the larval forms of the Metahola are not 
direct or inherited, but indirect or acquired, I am not 
aware that any one has advanced this hypothesis with 
regard to the metamorphosis of the Ametabola. 

immature sexuality in Insects. 195 

I shall now consider, at some length, the facts bearing 
upon the above reasons in favour of, and against the views 
I have advanced. 

First. With regard to the early sexual maturity of 
larval forms. 

I have already given instances, in the sexual condi- 
tion, of the larva of Fetasia and Ischnodemus, but one of 
the most striking facts of this kind is said to occur 
amongst the Echinodermata : last summer, Mr. Alex. 
Agassiz related the instance to which I refer, at a meet- 
ing of the Royal Society, at the conclusion of one of Dr. 
Carpenter's "Papers on Deep Sea Life," It was this 
remark of Mr. Agassiz that first led me to suspect that 
the wingless forms of Hemiptera and Ortlioptera might 
have arisen from early maturity of the sexual organs. 

Mr. Agassiz stated, that the young of a Mexican Echi- 
noderm become sexually mature on the coast of Norway, 
to which its larvaa are transported by the gulf stream. 
The two sexually mature forms are apparently very dis- 
tinct species, but to anyone who knows the young of the 
Mexican form, the Norwegian species is clearly only an 
immature condition of it, with fully developed sexual 

Second. I have cited the rare appearance of wings in 
certain Hemiptera, in support of my views. The whole 
subject, however, of the correlations of the development 
of the sexual and cutaneous organs in insects is remark- 
ably complex, but I will endeavour to put before you 
some of the more important facts bearing upon it. 

It must be admitted, that the development of the 
female generative organs, and ova, has a very decided 
influence in arresting the development of cutaneous 
organs, in comparison with the development of the cor- 
responding structures in the male. 

It is not a little remarkable that, whilst in Vertebrates 
the male seems to require a higher elaboration (if I may 
use the term with a kind of indefinite meaning) , for its 
development, so in insects, the female requires a larger 
supply of nourishment, and more favourable conditions. 

* See Mr. Darwin's ' Descent of Man,' vol. ii. p. 215, for numerous other 
instances of this nature. Also Mr. Cope, ' On the origin of genera,' in 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, Oct. 1868; who I tiud has already 
arrived at similar conclusions on the effect of retardation and acceleration 
of sexual development, though I cannot follow his deductions. 

196 Mr. B. T. Lowne on 

In support of these statements, I will briefly bring one 
or two facts before you. Certain monstrous conditions 
in Vertebrates, in which almost all the parts of the body 
are doubled, are nearly, if not always, female ; whilst in 
insects the male is sometimes developed agamically, as 
in the bee; and the males are usually smaller than the 

Dr. H. Landois* published some very remarkable facts, 
which appear to me to have received considerably less 
attention than they deserve, owing to the flood of con- 
troversy, which originated in certain mistakes made by 
the author, and which led him to disbelieve in Partho- 

Dr. Landois stated, that whole broods of some insects 
are often either entirely composed of males or females 
only. He afiirmed that ill-fed larva? always produced 
males, whilst well-fed ones usually produced females. In 
this there was clearly some error of observation, as it is 
a well-known fact, that the sex may be determined from 
an examination of the embryo long before it leaves the 

On the other hand, I am not inclined to look upon Dr. 
Landois' statement as altogether incorrect. The only 
insect I have ever bred in large numbers is the blow-fly, 
and I found that nearly all the insects bred from the 
large well-fed larvae bought at the fishing-tackle shops 
were female, whilst ill-fed small larvse have usually pro- 
duced males. There may be an error in this observation, 
and it has occurred to me that it is possible the breeders 
of the maggots may pick out the largest larvse, which 
are the females, for their best customers, the large shops : 
selling the smaller male larvae to the smaller tradesmen. 
Still I cannot find that this is actually the case. From 
the large number of pupte that always died, usually more 
than half, I am rather inclined to believe that a large 
supply of highly nutritive food may act injuriously on 
the male larva?, especially if they are stimulated to feed 
by a higher temperature than the normal one, by causing 
an abnormal development, of the fat bodies for instance, 
at the expense of the structures destined to form the 
pupa. It is easy to understand why too little food would 
produce males only, as the females would perish before 
arriving at maturity. 

* ' Zeitsckrift fiir wissenscli. Zool.,' Band 17, s. 375. 

immature sexuality in Insects. 107 

Dr. Landois, who has never, so far as I know, stated 
any clear and obvious facts incorrectly, although he 
has, unfortunately, drawn some very erroneous infer- 
ences, states very clearly that, when he half-starved his 
larva3, males only were produced, but that when well-fed, 
there were many more females than males. Whatever 
the explanation may be, I am strongly inclined to give 
credit to the fact. 

I mention these facts, because I believe that certain 
cutaneous appendages, as the gigantic mandibles and 
thoracic horns of many males, are complimental to the 
sexual organs. That, in point of fact, they are produced 
by the excess of nutriment in the male, which, in the 
female, would go to form the generative organs and ova. 
It may be urged that this is an improbable explanation, 
but it does not appear so to my mind, when we remem- 
ber the large amount of the generative product in the 
female, compared with that produced by the male. 

I think it may be noticed, that all those insects which 
exhibit the cutaneous horns and great mandibles in 
the male, feed on wood and other vegetable substances, 
or decapng animal matters that afford a very limited 
amount of nutriment, which necessitates the laying by of 
great stores of nutriment by the female for the after- 
nourishment of her ova. * The males usually exhibit 
two tolerably distinct forms, one with very large mandibles 
or horns, and another with these organs scarcely larger 
than those of the female in the case of the mandibles, 
and very small in the case of thoracic horns, or other 
structures absent in the other sex. 

It has occurred to me, that the males with the large 
cutaneous appendages may be those which are bred and 
nourished with the females, whilst those with the smaller 
horns may have been nourished by food not sufficiently 
nutritive to produce females. Hence the small horned 
males would have fewer offspring than the long-horned 
males ; and the horns would tend continually to increase 
in size, although under bad or poor feeding in the larval 
condition, they may frequently be considerably reduced. 
I very much doubt if the theory of ornament and sexual 
selection can be applied to beetles, owing to the very 

* These are chiefly developed from the great fat bodies of the female. 

198 Mr. B. T. Lowne on 

low development of their nervous system, although I 
should unhesitatingly apply it to the higher Hymenop- 
tora and Diptera. I see, however, that Mr. Darwin has 
in his last work * applied the principle to account for the 
production of these horns. f 

This long digression leads me to the wings of insects, 
which are really quite analogous to the cutaneous knobs 
and horns, so far as their relation to the nourishment 
of the body is concerned. The absence of wings in 
the female is well known to be excessively frequent, 
and there is no more remarkable instance, showing their 
relation to the female sexual organs, than the phenomena 
observed in Aphis. 

The agamic Aphides, which have excessively imperfect 
female sexual organs, without either sperm sacs or colla- 
teral | (shell-secreting?) glands, frequently have wings, 
whilst these never occur in those sexually perfect. 

From all the above facts, I think it probable, that the 
apterous condition of female insects is an acquired one, 
dependent on the amount of nourishment received by the 
larva. I also think it highly improbable that the wings 
could have been developed by natural selection in one sex 
alone, without having been inherited by the other sex, 
in some few insects. And I think it more probable, that 
altered conditions of larval life, have gradually led to 
suppression of the wings in one sex, and that the winged 
forms are reversions to an anterior type. 

Third. The early appearance of the sexual organs, 
their peculiar mode of development, and their occasional 
premature development, may now be considered. 

* ' Descent of Man.' 

f Closely related to this question, is the wider one of coloration in 
insects, and, as Mr. Darwin has suggested to me, the gi'eater variabihty of 
the males than of the females. I have already noticed elsewhere, that 
the oxidization of the fat bodies of the larva of the blow-fly, produces the 
pigment with which the integument is coloured. The fat bodies also 
produce the material from which the sexual elements, as well as most of 
the tissues are nourished, hence the male clement being much less than 
the female, more material remains for the development of colour and of 
the other organs. As the best fed forms are usiially more variable, and 
as the amount of pigment is closely correlated with the conditions of the 
fat bodies of the larva, I think it probable that both coloration and vari- 
ability may be directly influenced by sex, in the manner above indicated. 

X I beheve these glands in the fly, secrete the veiy hard, opaque egg- 
shell which surrounds the eggs when they are laid. 

immature sexuality in Insects. 199 

The facts I related at the commencement of this paper, 
referred exclusively to the Ametahola. I have not ob- 
served that the larvfe of the Metahola ever become truly 
sexually mature, but I think I shall be able to show that 
it is highly probable the phenomenon of viviparous ge- 
neration in the gall-gnats, arises from the early maturation 
of the ovaries. 

It has been already noticed that the sex of the Meta- 
hola may be discovered by an examination of the sexual 
organs of the embryo some time before birth. I have 
only observed the development of these organs in the 
blow- fly, and in this insect they are the only larval organs 
that are continuously developed, and which persist in the 
adult fly. 

There are only three structures in the larva, which do 
not undergo disintegration during the development of the 
pupa. These are the imaginal discs, the nervous system, 
and the sexual organs. The imaginal discs do not persist 
in the perfect fly ; they unite and form a pupa-skin, en- 
tirely homologous to the pupa-skin of a moth or butterfly ; 
the dried larval skin becoming converted into a kind of 
cocoon. The nervous system undergoes rapid redeve- 
lopment, new structures being formed to subserve new 
functions; the sexual organs, alone, undergo ordinary 

I think we see the efiect of the accelerated development 
of ovaries, in the viviparous agamic generation of Ceci- 
domyian larvaj. Dr. Leuckart^s f observations leave no 
doubt, in my mind, that the germ stocks of the Cecido- 
myian larva are actually modified ovaries, and that the 
development of the new larva, within the body of the 
mother, is the result of the non-development of the 
accessory sexual organs, the oviduct, vagina, &c. The 
agamic nature of the process is no objection to this 
theory, as we know that parthogenesis is by no means 
uncommon amongst perfect insects, even when they are 
ready to produce young in the ordinary way. 

I cannot refrain from quoting Leackart's own expres- 
sion on this subject : — " The asexual propagation of the 

* For further details, see my work on the 'Anatomy of the Fly.' 
t Ann. Nat. History, 1866. 


200 Mr. B. T. Lowne on 

Gecidomyidce unmistakeably approaches the phenomenon 
in Aphides ; the only difference is, that the germ cham- 
ber of the Cecidomyian larva becomes detached, and 
moves about in the cavity of the mother ; whilst in 
A'phides, the germ chambers remain permanently attached 
by an apparatus, which in form and arrangement, repro- 
duces the conditions of the ordinary female organs/^ 

In the agamic form of Aphides, we observe the same 
tendency to the non-development of the accessory sexual 
organs, in the absence of the spermathec^e and coUaterial 

Lastly. With regard to the objection that the winged 
forms of insects are probably derived from the apterous 
or larval forms, I am far from being sure that such is 
really the case. 

With respect to the Metahola, I think Gerstiicker, and 
others, have clearly shown that the larva is an acquired 
and not an original form. 

If further evidence be needed on this point, I think it 
is afforded by the relation borne by the larva of the 
Diptera to the embryo and perfect insect. As this rela- 
tion is highly remarkable, and as it is directly concerned 
in the conclusions I have arrived at on the relation of 
the larva of the Metahola and Ametahola, I will say a few 
words on the subject. 

The embryo of the blow-fly, twelve hours after impreg- 
nation, bears a closer resemblance to the pupa, than it 
does at any subsequent period of larval life. During the 
remaining twelve hours of embryonic life, a very remark- 
able change takes place ; all those parts of the embryo 
which correspond with the head of the perfect fly, be- 
come converted into the imaginal discs of Weismann ; 
and do not again make their appearance externally until 
the pupa-state is assumed. This is quite analogous to 
the so-called hyper-metamorphosis of some Coleoptera: 
and especially reminds one of the manner of development 
in some Crustacea, where the embryo is surrounded, 
during development, by a kind of larval skin. 

The embryos of Ligia and other Isopods, with their 
larva- like skin, afford, to my mind, a clue to the origin of 
the metamorphosis of the Insecta. Suppose the embryos 

immature sexuality in Insects. 201 

of these Crustacea to be born invested in their maggot- 
like integument, and to pass the first half of their exist- 
ence in this condition, and we should have a condition 
very like that observed in the metamorphosis of the 

With regard to the primitive ancestral forms of the 
Insecta we know nothing ; but I think there can be 
little doubt that they were nearly allied to the existing 
Orthoptera. Nevertheless, I think it quite probable, 
that the larva may have undergone even greater modifi- 
cations than the imaginal forms, owing to the greater 
variability of the conditions to which larvte are sub- 

I believe the great modification of the Insecta from 
their original type may, probably, have originated from 
modifications of the larva and imago re-acting on each 
other. The larva of one Ametabol form. Aphis, is known 
to reproduce agamically; a condition which I am not 
aware has ever been obseiwed in a direct larva, but which 
occurs in acquired larval forms. 

I have drawn up a table, which gives the views I have 
arrived at, concerning the relation of the various larval 
forms in the Annulosa and Annuloida. {Vide p. 202.) 

The five spaces, one under the other, are intended to 
represent consecutive conditions. The forms in the 
lower lines in each column are supposed to have been 
pi'oduced by successive modifications from those above 
them in the same column. Thus the original larval and 
perfect forms of insects and trematoids are supposed to 
be unknown, and the pupa form is supposed to have 
been acquired before the present larval form. 

In conclusion, I may say that I only look upon the 
hypothesis which has made the frame-work of my present 
paper, as highly probable. When it first occurred to me, 
I mentioned my ideas to Mr. Darwin ; his kind encourage- 
ment, and the wish he expressed that I should publish 
my views were the main causes of my elaborating it 
to a greater extent. I then found it led me deeply into 
a most difficult labyrinth, which I have done my best to 
trace. I do not even think, myself, that I have established 
my main hypothesis, but I trust I have brought together 
the seed which may, ultimately, produce good fruit. 

202 Mr. B. T. Lowne on immature sexuality in Insects. 

Note. — I would suggest, that some of the ideas I have thrown out con- 
cerning the horns of many LamelUcorns, might be easily worked out by 
some Entomologist hving in the coiratry, by rearing the insects, and 
watching the results with different kinds of food. In London, with much 
other work, I could not possibly imdertake the care of large numbers of 
living insects. 







or direct 

Perfect "> 
form, j 


Unknown ancestral forms, 
perhaps represented by embryonic 
states, and hyper-metamor- 

Never producing young 
larvfe Uke Cecidomyidce 
& Cercaria. Originally 
sexually mature like Nau- 
plius, Zoea, &c. 

Sexually mature. 


larval form. 


pupal form. 

larval form. 



pupal form 


larval form 

Sexually mature, some- 
times reproducing agam- 
ically, like Aj^jhis, and 
many other insects. 

Exhibiting a tendency 
to sexual maturity. The 
wingless condition of 
some moths may be look- 
ed upon as an acquired 
form approximating the 
pupa state. 

Sometimes reproducing 
larva3, which ultimately 
produce the adult form, 
passing through the pupa 
state, Hke Cercaria, Ceci- 

* Highly modified from forms parallel with the adult Crustacea. 

{ 203 ) 

VII. On Additions to the Atlantic Coleoptera. By T. 
Vernon Wollaston, M.A., F.L.S. 

In the following Paper I propose to notice such addi- 
tions to the ' Coleoptera Atlautidum ' as have been 
brought to light (since the publication of that volume 
in 1865) up to the present date^ i. e., to the close of 1870; 
and I would also take advantage of the opportunity thus 
afforded, to give such corrections in the general nomen- 
clature as may seem desirable, as well as to add occa- 
sional items of information (lately gleaned) when appear- 
ing of sufficient interest to be worth placing upon record. 
A few remarks, indeed, of that particular kind, together 
with the diagnosis of four actual novelties to the cata- 
logue, formed the subject-matter of a short Appendix to 
my 'Coleoptera Hesperidum' in 1867; and these, there- 
fore, I must, however briefly, recapitulate, in order that 
the present memoir may include every correction and 
addition which it is necessary to take account of (so far, 
at least, as I am aware) since the ' Coleoptera Altanti- 
dum' made its appearance. 

The number of additions to the combined fauna of the 
three archipelagos (namely, the Madeiras, Salvages, and 
Canaries,) which I am enabled to record in this Paper is 
exactly thirty-three ; but as two supposed species have 
been expunged from the Madeirian list, * the 1449 species 
which were cited in the ' Coleoptera Altantidum,^ will 
be increased to 1480. The thirty-three accessions to 
the general catalogue are as follows: — ■ 

Stenolophus exiguus, Dej. 
Trechus debilis, W. . 
Scutopterus imbricatus, W. 
Eunectes helvolus, Kl. 
Ochthehius ahjicola, W. 
Philhydnis maritimus, Th. 
Acrotrichis brevicoruis, Mots. 

ovatula, Mots. 

Tarjphius lutidentuSi W. 
Melirjethcs Byei, W. 
La;mo})lilaeus suffusus, W. . 





* The two species which have been suppressed in the Madeirian list 
are Treclms quadricollis and Tarpliius Wolffii. 

TKANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (MAY.) 


Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston 07i 

Cryptophagus pilosus, Oyll. 
Corticaria ciliata, Mots. 

• trausversalis, Oyll. 

Latriclius nodifer, Westw. 

• Watsoni, W. 

Hoplia Peronii, Blanch. 
Trichius fortunatarum, Blanch 
Anohium nitidulum, W. 
Caulotrupis pyricollis, W. 
Phytonomus variabilis, Hhst. 
Atlantis luripotens, W. 
Scymnus epistemoides, W. 
Cephennium mycetcsoides, W. 

australe, W. . 

Pselaphus minyops, W. 
Falagria longipes, W. 
Homalota Sharpiana, W. . 
Placusa infima, Erich. 
Aleochara clavicornis, Bedt. 
Oligota ruficornis, Sharp . 
Litbocharis ripicola, Kraatz 
Homaliiun concinnum, Mshm. 




The sixteen which are italicized I have treated as new 
to science, though at least 07ie of them (if not more) , 
namely the Latridius Watso7ii, is in all probability a mere 
accidental importation (through the medium of com- 
merce) from some other country. Two, however, out of 
the thirty-three, namely Phytonomus variabilis and At- 
lantis lauripotens, are simply reinstated, having originally 
been admitted by myself as distinct species, but after- 
wards suppressed. 

According to the most recent calculations (as now 
ascertained) , the 1480 species which have hitherto been 
brought to light in these particular Atlantic archipelagos, 
are distributed thus : — 

Madeiras 694") 

Salvages 27 Cf 

Canaries 1013 3 

As regards the ascertained faunas of the separate 
islands themselves, the following Table will show to what 

f The numbers formerly recorded, were — for the Madeiras, 664 ; the 

Salvages, 24; the Canaries, 1008. 

Atlantic Coleoptera, 


extent they have been increased since the ' Coleoptera 
Atlantidum ^ made its appearance (in 1865). 

Madeira proper 
Porto Sauto 

3 Desertas . 

2 Salvages . 
Lanzarote . 
Grand Canary 
Teneriffe . 

Old No. 


New No 


































Besides, however, the thirty- three actual additions to 
the general catalogue, recorded above, there are ten 
species which were well known in the Atlantic list, but 
which have recently been detected on islands different 
from tliose which were cited as their habitats in the 
' Coleoptera Atlantidum.^ These ten local accessions 
may (as regard their newly-ascertained islands only) be 
thus tabulated : — 

Ocbtbebiiis subpictus, W. .... 

Pbilbydrus politiis, Kilst 

Acrotricbis nigricornis, Mots. 

Attains rngosus, W. 

Pecteropus rostratus, W 

Dasytes illustris, W 

Pbytonomus mnriuus, F. .... 

Coccinella mutabilis, Scr 

7-punctata, L 

PhlcBopora reptans, Qrav 






















It only remains now to remark, as indeed will be ga- 
thered from the present paper, that (for the various rea- 

* Vide foot-note on p. 1. 


Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

sons given in situ) the titles of certain species have to be 
altered. And, as a help therefore to the eje, I may 
briefly add, that the changes in nomenclature which have 
become necessary are the following : — 

Calatlius advena, W. 

Bembidium concolor, Br. . 

Philhydrus melanocephalus, W. (necOlii'.) = 

Sacium jrasiUum, W. (nee Gyll.) . 

Arthrolips obscurus, W. (nee Sahib.) 

Acrotrichis Montandonii, W. (nee Allih.) = 

■ Guerinii, W. (nee Allih.) 

Ptenidium Iffivigatum, W. (nee Gillm. 

■ apicale, W. (nee Gillm.) 

Ptinella Proteus, Matth. . 
Meligethes tristis, W. (nee St.) 
Silvanus unidentatus, W. (nee OUv.) 
Corticaria tenella, W. 
Saprinus nitidulus, F. 
Oxyomus Heinekeui, W. 
■ breTicollis, W. 
Acmoeodera ornata, W. 
Anobium striatum, OUv. 
Hylastes trifolii, Mull. 
Bhyncolus erassirostris, W, 
Nanophyes lougulus, W. 
Hypera lunata, W. 
• irrorata, W. . 

» murina, F. 

Scoliocerus mader^e, W. 
curvipes, W. 
Bruchus subellipticus, W. 
Helops congener, W. 
Scydmjenus castaneus, W. 
Phloeopora corticina, W. 
Homolota obliquepunetata, W. 
Oligota iuflata, W. (nee Mann.) 
Heterotliops minutus, W. . 

) = 

Calathus canariensis. Bar. 

Bembidium fortunatiim, W. 

Philhydrus politus, KUst. 

Sacium maderte, Kr. 

Arthrolips piceus. Com. 

Acrotrichis nigricornis, Mots. 
obsca3na, W. 

Ptenidium Bruckii, Matth. 

atomaroides, Mots. 

Ptinella testacea, Heer. 

Meligethes seniculus, Er. 
: Silvanus bidentatus, F. 

Corticaria delicatula, W. 

Saprinus semistriatus, Herbsi. 

Atsenius stercorator, F. 

Ataenius brevicollis, W. 
; AcmcEodera elegans, Har. 
: Anobium domesticum, IWrc. 
: Hylastes obscurus, Mshm. 
: Ehyncolus pinipotens, W. 
; Nanophyes Chevrieri, Gyll. 

Phytonomus dauci, OUv. 

; irroratus, W. 

: murinus, F, 

■ Cathormiocerus madera, W. 

: curvipes, W. 

■■ Bruchus irresectus, Fhs. 

: Helops conformis, Gemm. 
Scydm^nus castanicolorjffar. 
Phlceopora rejDtans, Grav. 

■ Homalota pavens, Er. 
: Oligota parva, Kr. 

Heterothops dissimilis, Qrav. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 


Ocypus curtipennis, W. . 

punctatissimus, W. 

Philoutlius scybalarius, Nordm. 

• marcidus, W. 

— — — proximus, W. 

pimctipennis, W. 

Leptacinus linearis, Grav, . 
Scopffius trossulus, W. 

Lithocharis fuscula, W. (nee Mann.) 

• tricolor, Mshm. 

Sunius angustatus, PoajTc. 
Stenus fulvescens, W. 
Bledius januviauus, W. 
Trogophloeus exilis, W. 

=: Ocypus canariensis Har. 

= fortuuatamm, W. 

— Philontlius longicornis, 


= concrnnus, Grav. 

=: ventraUs, Grav. 

= turbidus, Er. 

= Leptaciaus pusUlus, Steph. 
=. Scopjeus sericans, Muls. et 


=. Lithocharis apicalis, Kr. 

= ruficollis, Kr. 

= Sunius graciUs, Payk. 
= Stenus WoUastoni, Ha/r. 
= Bledius vitulus, Er. 
=z Trogophloeus pusillus, Grav. 

Since tlie appearance of the ' Coleoptera Atlantidum/ 
a very important accession to our knowledge has been 
made, through the publication, by Mr. G. R. Crotch, of 
a list of the Coleoptera which were obtained by Mr. 
Godman at the Azores ; and this catalogue, although far 
from extensive, is at any rate sufficient for a rough esti- 
mate of the general character of the beetle population of 
that hitherto uninvestigated archipelago, — and sufficient, 
too, I think, to affiliate the latter with the more southern 
Groups. Indeed, the existence of such types as Tarphius, 
Laparocerus, and Hegeter, even apart from the many 
other points of conspicuous contact which it is next to 
impossible to account for on any theory of accidental 
dissemination, are topographically so significant, that 
scarcely any additional evidence could be necessary in 
order to stamp the fauna as unmistakably " Atlantic." 
Yet, although superfluous to allude to them, species like 
Calosoma azoricum (which, while absent from Madeira, 
re-appears on the Canaries and Cape Verdes), the PliJceo- 
phagus tenax (so characteristic of the laurel regions of 
Madeira) , the Opatrum his^idum (which permeates nearly 

208 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

every portion of the three more southern archipelagos), 
and the Homalium davicorne (which swarms in the rotten 
Euphorhia-atems of the Madeiran Group) are, in a geo- 
graphical point of view, hardly less important. The 
entire number of species obtained by Mr. Godman was 
212; and of these Mr. Crotch remarks that " 175 are 
common to Europe, 140 to Madeira, and 116 to the 
Canaries.'^ The " 140,^^ however, may be increased at 
any rate to 144; for during our late sojourn at Madeira 
we met with the following species which are recorded by 
Mr. Crotch, but which had not until then been observed 
in any of the islands which constitute the more southern 
clusters: — yiz., Stenolophus exiguus, Dej.; Latridius no- 
difer, Westw. ; Lithocharis ripicola, Kr. ; and L. apiealis, 

Although it is not ray intention in this memoir to 
discuss the qucestio vexata of geographical distribution, 
I nevertheless can scarcely omit a brief notice of two very 
remarkable papers on some of the complex problems 
which arise out of that particular subject — both of which 
have made their appearance within the last few months, 
and which alike enter largely into the supposed " origin " 
of the fauna of the Atlantic islands. The publications to 
which I allude are (1) by Mr. A. Murray, " On the Geo- 
graphical Eolations of the chief Coleopterous Fsiundd," 
which appeared in the Linnean Society^s Journal in 
October 1870 ; and (2) the extremely interesting Presi- 
dential Address of Mr. Wallace, read before the Entomo- 
logical Society of London in January last. Although 
with numerous and unmistakable points in common, 
the authors referred-to account for the colonization of 
these various sub- African archipelagos by methods which 
we cannot but regard as not merely dissimilar but even 
antagonistic, — Mr. Murray contending that a land-pas- 
sage (both inter se and with south-western Europe) is 
absolutely indispensable, and that accidental dispersion 
(as a general principle) between countries widely se- 
parated from each other by an oceanic barrier '' is in its 
very nature exceptional, and one which cannot he expected 
to make its impress on a whole fauna;" whilst Mr. 
Wallace, on the other hand, affirms his belief that ''The 
Azores, and in a less degree Madeira, appear to teach 
us this important lesson in the laws of distribution of 
birds and insects," namely, that the fauna has been de- 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 209 

termined ^' almost ivhoUy by such exceptional causes as 
storms and liun-icanes, wliicli still continue to bring 
immiOTants from the nearest lands." 

Without recapitulating the vai-ious arguments and evi- 
dence for these two opposite modes of colonization, I feel 
bound to add that my own views (as elsewhere, and 
oftentimes, expressed) are more in accordance with those 
propounded by Mr. Murray than with the theory of 
exceptional, atmospheric dissemination which is so ably 
advocated by Mr. Wallace, That storms and hurricanes 
may have played a decided part, at rare intervals, in the 
accidental transportation of living organisms into many 
a remote island I would not for an instant wish to dis- 
pute ; but, nevertheless, after much consideration in situ, 
and with no other desire (through many years) than to 
arrive simply at the truth, 1 cannot convince myself that 
any such abnormal methods of dispersion have done m-uch 
towards bringing about the phenomena in the Atlantic 
archipelagos which we now witness, and which appear 
to me to be dependant rather upon causes which geologi- 
cally perhaps might (whether correctly so or not) be de- 
fined as '' exceptional," and of which an '' overwhelming 
catastrophe," involving its legitimate results, whether 
from upheaval or depression, may be selected as an intel- 
ligible example. 

Judging simply from the Coleopterous statistics, from 
the exact phenomena which present themselves on the 
various portions of these scattered archipelagos, and from 
the unmistakable manner in which the most characteristic 
forms permeate the entire province (in nearly every in- 
stance increasing steadily, both as regards species and 
individual numbers, up to some central nucleus, and then 
gradually diminishing as we proceed towards the south), 
1 feel more and more convinced that nothing but a land 
of passage hcttueen at any rate the consecutive Groups, 
destined to be broken up at some later period by a gigan- 
tic convulsion, will satisfy the requirements of the Atlantic 
problem, and harmonize its otherwise discordant parts. 
Yet, although I can see (or, rather, think that I can see) 
a nearly equal necessity for a north-easterly extension of 
that quondam tract, I should imagine (from the much 
greater preponderance of significant European types in 

210 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

the more central archipelago) that it was the Canaries, 
and not Madeira, from which the Mediterranean branch 
took its rise. And if this be the case, it appears to me 
that a north-westerli/ prolongation^ or fork, from Teneriffe 
(via the Salvages) to Madeira, and thence continued to 
the Azores, would give all that we require (in conjunc- 
tion with its partial subsequent disruption) to render the 
phenomena, as now met with, intelligible. 

If we accept some such explanation as this, the acci- 
dental methods of conveyance across wide oceanic barriers 
(whether on the water or through the air) , whilst credited 
with an appreciable amount of possible results, would not 
be required ; for in that case the modes of progression, 
even amongst species which are by nature phlegmatic and 
stationary, become comparatively simple, being over a 
continuous land. Yet I cannot but think, where an un- 
broken tract has to be taken into account, that we can 
ill-afford to dispense with the agency of even the ordi- 
nary winds (which in this Atlantic region blow nearly 
uninterruptedly from the north-east) in promoting the 
gradual migration of the insect inhabitants ; for it must 
be remembered that a considerable number of the latter, 
however sedentary in their modes of life, and disinclined 
(like the Tarphii) to wander from a single spot, undergo 
their transformations within the pithy stems of plants, 
and these latter when accidentally broken off, or rent by 
storms, would be conveyed at all events slight distances 
even by the common breezes, and would thus transport 
their inmates, whilst in the larva state, to places near at 
hand which the imago would never have colonized. I 
lay unusual stress upon this fact, because if the winds are 
to have any acknowledged influence in conveying living 
organisms across a broad expanse of sea, it is clear that 
they must (as rightly contended by Mr. Wallace) be of 
an altogether exceptional kind, — indeed, emphatically, 
*' storms and hurricanes,^' phenomena which are not only 
somewhat rare in these particular latitudes, but which, 
when they arise, blow almost invariably from the south 
(thus implying a migration in an opposite direction from 
that which the 'facts, as now observed, most plainly indi- 
cate) ; and moreover the sluggish, apterous types, ivldch 
are the ones so largely represented in these Atlantic islands, 
possess (on the average) bodies which are comparatively 
unwieldy, and of all others the least suitable for atmos- 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 211 

pheric propulsion ; whereas over an unhrolcen region 
positive hurricanes would not be necessary for our pur- 
pose — the general tendency of the insect fauna (includ- 
ing the wingless tribes) being manifestly to follow the 
course of the most prevalent winds. * And that the 
winds in even remote times have blown from the same 
quarter as they do now is proved to a demonstration by 
the fact, that nearly every extinct crater which I have 
hitherto inspected throughout the three archipelagos 
(and in the Canarian Group there are scores of them) are 
more or less broken into, or open, on the north-eastern 
side ; thus evidently showing in which direction it was 
that the breeze was most persistent. 

Into the geological difficulties of the problem I do 
not profess to enter ; they may, or may not, be insuper- 
able. But any experienced observer, who has examined 
critically the various phenomena in situ, could scarcely 
fail, I think, to arrive at the conclusion that at all 
events the several islands themselves which compose 
each of the individual groups, and many of which are now 
separated from each other by wide oceanic channels of 
twenty, thirty, and even forty miles in breadth, were 
once united so as to form a comparatively extensive 
land ; for if there is one thing more unmistakable than 
another, throughout every portion of these sub-African 
Groups, it may be expressed in a single word — depaupera- 
tion. Taking this therefore as sufficiently proved, it 
seems to follow inevitably that (despite the uniformita- 
rian opinions of the day) " catastrophes," properly so 
called, must have had a significant place in the geologi- 
cal record ; and if this be true, who shall venture to limit 
their magnitude ? 

My own opinion is (as indeed was sufficiently expressed 
in the Preliminary Remarks both of the * Coleoptera 

* I say " the insect fauna," because if a certain proportion are 
compelled to migrate (however gradually) in the manner in which I 
have suggested, others which (like the hi;ntiug races) prey upon them 
would of their own accord inevitably follow : and so, in the course of 
time, the general tendency would be in a uniform direction, — even whilst 
occasional storms and tornados, at rare intervals, might succeed in con- 
vejing elsewhere a few of the characteristic types. 

212 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Atlantidum ' and the ' Coleoptera Hesperidura ') that the 
whole of these island clusters are but the scattered re- 
mains of a once (for the most part) continuous land — 
which, whatever were its northern bounds, had an un- 
doubted north-easterly extension into what is usually 
termed the " Mediterranean province ; " and it certainly 
appears to me that the particular region which is now 
represented by the Canarian archipelago received the 
first, and most complete, influx of Mediterranean types. 
Apart from every other motive stimulus, the ordinary 
breezes, which seem to have swept well-nigh uninterrupt- 
edly in the same direction formerly as now, would tend 
to keep up a slow, yet steady, migration towards the 
south-west, along that quondam tract ; while occasional 
tornados from the east and south, such as are still ex- 
perienced, might (on the principle suggested by Mr. 
Wallace) account for a slight sub- African element in the 
fauna, and likewise transmit a few genuine Atlantic types, 
as a repayment, to the north. Once fairly colonized, the 
gigantic subsidencies which could alone convert the major 
part of this vast continent into an ocean-bottom, may 
well be supposed to have accomplished what is further 
required, — the isolation of similar species upon areas 
which were respectively larger and smaller, and the 
greater or less depauperation of the areas themselves, 
suggesting innumerable methods for rapidly inaugurating 
distinctly modified races, and reducing the phenomena 
to what we now witness. 

Although I cannot here enter into the minuter details 
of insect-dissemination, I will just call attention to the 
fact that there is a certain small assemblage of anomalous 
beetles attendant upon ants, which would seem, as Mr. 
Wallace has remarked, to have some exceptional methods 
of dispersion ; for many of them, which possess neither 
wings nor eyes, and are partially even subterraneous in 
their habits, appear to have acquired a wider geographical 
range than is the case with numerous forms whose capa- 
bility for locomotion is developed to the full. We must 
remember, however, that the ants (which tend them with 
the greatest care) are a restless and erratic tribe, and would 
themselves carry their mysterious guests into every fresh 
area which they might succeed in occupying. Moreover, 
in the Atlantic archipelagos, I believe that another, and 
more irregular, principle may unexpectedly have been 

Atlantic Coleopt&ra. 213 

at work^ within a comparatively recent date, to dissemi- 
nate accidentally the myrmecophilous tribes, — I mean 
that of indirect human agency. Thus, to take an example, 
it was to me always an enigma how the anomalous Cossy- 
phodes Wollastoni, which is both apterous and nearly 
blind, could by any possibility have acquired the range 
which I have myself ascertained it to possess, — namely, 
from Madeira to the extreme south of the Cape Verdes ; 
for (in addition to Madeira proper, where it is far from 
uncommon around Funchal) I have captured it, always 
in company with the QJcophthora pusilla, in Teueriffe 
and Gomera at the Canaries, and in S. I ago and Brava 
of the Cape Verde group. In Brava it is indeed some- 
what abundant; and the G^cophthora swarms to such an 
extent on that remote little island, as to have become a 
downright pest, — the shingly beds of some of the half- 
dried streams (as, for instance, that of the Ribeira do 
Sorno) being literally, as it were, alive with it. Now we 
ascertained, when in Brava, that since the period of its 
occupation, numerous Madeiran families had emigrated 
thither, and had taken along with them the same taste 
for floriculture which is so striking a feature in the mora 
northern Group ; and it was easy to recognize around the 
Quintas of the Povoacao a large number of ornamental 
plants which had, without doubt, been imported, from 
time to time, from the gardens of Funchal. Now every 
consignment, of even a few plants or shrubs, would pro- 
bably be accompanied by the universal Madeiran ant, for 
garden- soil can hardly be collected, in the vicinity of 
Funchal, which is altogether free from it; and, along 
with the (Ecophthora, we may be pretty sure that an 
occasional Cossyphodes must have found its compulsory 
way to Brava. Assuming, then, that the physi'cal condi- 
tions were suitable for their development, both one and 
the other of the above-mentioned species would soon 
multiply, and more or less over-run the whole island. 

I have thought it worth while to cite the above ex- 
ample because I believe that the transmission of roots, in 
boxes, from more northern latitudes, has been a most 
significant means of introducing species (perhaps hun- 
dreds of them) into most of the inhabited portions of 
these particular oceanic Groups ; and that the ants'-nest 
forms should, par excellence, be amongst those which have 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (MAY.) Q 

214 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

been conveyed, it will immediately strike every naturalist 
as probable. And since it is further certain that ants 
are emphatically a wandering race, and would themselves 
rapidly disseminate their small Coleopterous attendants, 
we have everything* that is necessary in order to account 
for the co-dispersion of the two.* 

Having stated thus much on this particular subject, I 
will not at present add more, for my object was merely 
to call attention to the two suggestive papers of Mr. 
Murray and Mr. Wallace, rather than to discuss the 
general question itself. I will therefore proceed with 
the minutiee of this memoir, taking the several species 
seriatim, in the order which is indicated in my ' Coleop- 
tera Atlantidum.'' 


p. 9 (genus Pheeopsophus) . 

(Sp. 22) Phewpsophus hispanicus. 

According to MM. Fairmaire and Coquerel (Ann. de 
la Soc. Ent. de France, 17; 1866), this noble Brachinid 
is in all probability a geographical variety of Dejean's 
P. africanus. " II parait difficile," they add, " de ne pas 
regarder cet insecte comme une simple variete geogra- 
phique du africanus. Quand on compare les individus 
provenant d'Andalousie et ceux du Senegal on trouve 
evidemment une grande differance ; mais cette difference 
est bien peu de chose si Pon prend pour terme de com- 
paraison les Brachines de Tauger. II est du reste facile 
de comprendre qu^apres la separation de PEspagne et de 
TAfrique, la race de Brachines restee en Europe ne pou- 
vant se retromper par un croisement continuel avec celle 
des regions tropicales, a dii diminuer de taille et finir par 
constituer un type inferieur au type priraitif, comme on 
le voit pour les Carabus rugosus et hceticus, et comme 
nous le verrons plus loin pour un Paussus." 

* During onr visit to S. lago, of the Cape Verdes, I detected the nearly- 
blind Cossyphodes Wollastoni amongst vegetable detritus, at San Do- 
mingos, -which had accumulated in the hollows of ancient trees, high up 
above the ground, — situations into which it must without doubt have been 
dragged by the (Ecophthora, which positively swarmed. 

Atlantic Cole&ptera. 215 

p. 23 (genua Eurygnathus) . 
(Sp. 59) Eurygnathus LatreilUi. 

The slightly altered phasis of this insect which obtains 
on the Deserta Grande^ constituting the '^ var. /3" of my 
' Insecta Maderensia/ has lately been described by the 
Baron Chaudoir (Rev. et Mag. Zool. 121; 18(39) as a 
separate species, under the title of E. parallelus ; but I 
am nevertheless persuaded that the small characters 
which distinguish it are completely worthless in a specific 
point of view, and cannot be supposed to indicate more 
than an unimportant insular variety. Indeed, I have 
already expressed this conviction in no less than three 
publications ; and I may add that I twice submitted 
Desertan examples to the late Dr. Schaum, who affirmed 
in the strongest terms that they ought not on any 
account to be treated as more than a trifling modifica- 
tion, or race, of the Porto-Santan type. My belief is, 
that Chaudoir's conclusion is utterly untenable ; whilst 
to cite the insect as simply from '' Madeira '' conveys an 
altogether false impression of its habitat, and fails to 
imply that the form in question may be (and probably 
is) a mere insular one. Although from the Madeiran 
archipelago, Eurygnathus has never yet, in point of fact, 
been detected in " Madeira ^^ at all, it being peculiar (so 
far as hitherto observed) to Porto Santo and the Deserta 
Grande, — on the latter of which islands it assumes a 
slightly altered phasis (being, on the average, a little 
larger and more parallel, and with the sides of its pro- 
thorax somewhat broader and more recurved) . And this 
leads me to remark how dangerous a practice it is, with- 
out some knowledge of the localities which they frequent, 
to describe every slightly diff'ering form as necessarily a 
specific one ; for I do not hesitate to assert that nearly 
every species which permeates these widely scattered 
archipelagos will be found (when closely inspected) to 
possess some little peculiar feature for each individual 
islet on which it occurs ; and to treat, therefore, all these 
infinitesimal phases as specific is, to my mind, most unphi- 
losophical ; for that aboriginally distinct species should 
have been brought into existence for every oceanic rock 
which happens to have become detached from the cen- 
tral mass, is a thesis which few, I think, would endeavour 
to uphold, and one which seems to me to carry along 
with it its own immediate refutation. 


216 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

p. 28 (genus Calathus) . 

(Sp. 78) Calathus advena. 

It appears from tlie Baron Harold's recently published 
Catalogue, tliat the specific title of this insect must be 
changed, — Leconte (Ann. Lye. iv. 217) having cited a 
Pristodachjla advena in 1846, and the genus Pristodactyla 
being now by universal consent united with Calathus. 
Indeed the author has himself made the alteration 
already, by proposing for it the unfortunately inappro- 
priate name of canariensis ; so that the synonymy of the 
species will stand as follows '• — 

Calathus canariensis. 

Calathus advena, Woll. [nee Lee. 1846], Ann. Nat. 
Hist. 344 (1862); Id., Cat. Can. Col. 32 (1864); Id., Col. 
Atl. 29 (1865) . Calathus canariensis, Har., Col. Heft. iii. 
(1868); Id., Cat. Col. 361 (1868). 

Bah. — Canarienses {Can.) ; in regione intermedia El 
Monte dicta a meipso semel captus. 

p. 48 (genus Stenolophus) . 

Whilst residing at S. Antonio da Serra (at an eleva- 
tion of about 2,000 feet), during our late sojourn in Ma- 
deira, I met with seven or eight individuals of the 
European 8. exigutis, by sifting fallen leaves in the little 
wood (near to the church) known as the " Circa ; '' and 
on our return to England I found that there were two 
examples of the same species in the collection of the late 
Mr. Bewicke, which (having been placed amongst his 
series of the Bradycellus exctdtus) had escaped our notice. 
Hence, although only now for the first time added to the 
fauna (though it is recorded by Mr. Crotch as having 
been taken in S. Miguel and Terceira, at the Azores) , 
Mr. Bewicke claims the priority of capture. Judging 
from the examples before me, the Madeiran ones would 
seem to belong principally to the more pallid state (in 
which the prothorax and suture are appreciably rufes- 
cent, or diluted in hue) which has occasionally, in more 
northern latitudes, been regarded as a distinct species 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 217 

under the name of luridus, and which, according to Mr. 
Crotch, is the one which obtains at the Azores : the two 
forms, however, as in Europe, fade off gradually into 
each other. The following diagnosis will suffice to in- 
augurate the species into our Atlantic catalogue. 

Stenolophus exiguus. 

S. oblongus, nitidus, nigro-piceus, prothorace obsolete 
dilutiore {i. e., paululum magis rufescenti) ; elytris leviter 
striatis ; antenuis ad basin, palpis pedibusque piceo-testa- 
ceis, tibiis versus apicem plus minus evidenter obscuriori- 

Long. corp. lin. circa 1^. 

Acupalpiis exiguus, Dej., Spec. iv. 456 (1829). Steno- 
lophus exiquus, Daws., Geod. Brit. 161 (1854); Schaum, 
Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 620 (1860). 

Vanat colore dilutiore, — plus minus fusco-piceus, pro- 
thorace clarius rufescente, elytris in limbo et sutura 
sensim dilutioribus. 

Acupalpus luridus, Dej., loe. cit. 454 (1829). Stenolo- 
phus luridus, Daws., loc. cit. 160 (1854). Stenolophus 
■exiguus var., Schaum, loc. cit. 620 (1860) . Stenolophus 
luridxLs, Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend. 369 (1868) , 

Hah. — Maderensis {Mad.); inter folia dejecta ad S. Ant. 
da Serra a meipso, necnon olim a Dom. Bewicke, parce 

p. 52 (genus Trechus). 

After species 156, add : — 

Trechus dehiUs, n. sp. 

T. angustulo- oblongus, nitidiusculus, subdepressus, 
rufo-piceus, capite necnon elytrorum sutura (limboque 
versus apicem et humeros) obsolete dilutioribus; protho- 
race subquadrato, basi vix angustato; elytris oblongis, 
depressiusculis, profunde striatis ; antennis pedibusque 
longiusculis, graciusculis, testaceis, illis et interdum tibiis 
plus minus obscurioribus. 

218 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1^. 

Hah. — Maderensis {Mad.); in sylvaticis editioribus ad 
S. Ant. da Serra^ tempore vernali A.D. 1870^ sat copiose 

Ohs. Species T. flavomarginato affinis, sed nisi fallor 
certe distincta, Difiert corpore angustiore, oblongiore, 
graciliore, ac paulo depressiore^ sensim minus nitido sed 
omnino dilutiore (magis rufescente) j, capite praecipue 
minus obscure ; prothorace paululum magis quadrate 
(i. e., postice sensim minus angustato); elytris ad latera 
magis parallelisj subdepressioribus, ac multo profundius 
striatiSj magis concoloribus {i. e., in limbo minus evidenter 
testaceis); antennis pedibusque sub-longioribus et sub- 

Several examples of this Trechus were taken by myself 
during April and May of 1870, at S. Antonio da Serra, 
in the intermediate elevations of Madeira, — in company 
with the T. Jlavomarginatus, which is so universal within 
the wooded distiucts of that island. There can be no 
doubt, I think, that the species is perfectly distinct from 
(although closely allied to) the latter, — being not only 
narrower, slenderer, and more oblong, but likewise per- 
ceptibly less shining, and altogether more diluted, or 
rufescent, in hue (the head being especially redder) ; its 
prothorax also is just appreciably squarer, or less narrowed 
behind ; its elytra are straighter, or more parallel at the 
sides, a trifle flatter, and much more deeply striate, as 
well as more concolorous (there being less trace of a pallid 
margin) ; and its limbs are, if anything, somewhat longer 
and slenderer. It was far from uncommon throughout 
the S. Antonio da Serra region ; the majority of my spe- 
cimens having been captured by sifting dead leaves and 
refuse in, and near, the laurel woods. 

(Sp. 160) Trechus quadricollis. 

This species was founded, in 1854, upon a single example 
which was captured by myself in the autumn of 1847 at 
the Curral das Romeiras — on the mountains above Fun- 
chal; and I have already more than once expressed my 
conviction that further material was greatly needed, in 
order to determine as to whether or not it is a mere state, 
or local variety, of the T. custos. During the past winter 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 219 

and spring I met with several individuals at '' the Mount " 
(a region adjoining the Curral das Romeiras ravine) which 
I have no doubt whatsoever are conspecific with my 
original example, and which I now feel satisfied cannot 
be separated specifically from the T. custos. Indeed a 
sufficient series has convinced me that the quadricollis 
can scarcely be upheld as even a well-defined " variety," 
— the particular examples which accord with my origiual 
one being merely a trifle smaller and paler than the rest, 
and possibly a little more pai-allel in outline ; so that 
I would desire to suppress the quadricollis as a mere un- 
important phasis (if indeed a "^phasis" at all) of the 
custos, and to cite, consequently, as an additional synonym, 
the T. tefracoderus of the Baron Harold's recent Catalogue 
(394, A.D. 1868), — a title which he imposed upon my 
supposed species in consequence of the name quadricollis 
having been preoccupied for a Trcchus, by Putzeys, in 

p. 59 (genus Bembidium) . 

(Sp. 182) Bembidium concolor. 

It appears to be necessary to change the name of this 
insect, that of concolor having been pre-occupied by 
Kirby (Fna. Bor. Am. iv. 54) for a Bembidium during 
the previous year, 1837. And this perhaps is less to 
be regretted, since M. BruUe's '^ description," published 
in Webb and Berthelot's ponderous work in 1838, is so 
marvellously inaccurate that it simply amounts to no 
description at all. Having given a full diagnosis of it in 
18G4, and called attention to the exact points in which it 
is more especially peculiar, I need not insert a fresh one 
here, but will merely propose for it the title of fortunatum 
(the insect being a very characteristic one in the Cana- 
rian archipelago), citing its changed synonymy as 
follows : — 

Bembidium fortuna. turn . 

Bembidium concolor, Brulle [_nec Kby. 1837], in Webb 
at Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838); WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 70 
(1864); Id., Col. Atl. 61 (1865). 

Hab. — Canarienses (in Fuert. sola hactenus hand ob- 
servatum) ; per margines aquarum, necnon ad rupes 
aquosas, hinc inde vulgare. 

220 Mr. T, Vernon Wollaston oa 

p. 67 (genus Colymbetes) . 

The Atlantic species of this group fall more properly 
under Eschcholtz^s genus Smtopterus, which I have 
hitherto regarded as scarcely more than a subdivision of 
Colymbetes proper. As, however, it appears to be usually 
acknowledged, and the only exponents of it which have 
yet been brought to light are the coriaceus and lanio (the 
former of which is found in the south of Europe and the 
Canaries, whilst the latter is supposed to be peculiar to 
Madeira) , and the pustulatus from Italy, it will be better 
perhaps to uphold it as generically distinct, and to cite 
the species consequently as Scutopteri. They seem to 
differ from the true Colymbetes in having the first four 
joints of their four anterior male feet powerfully dilated, 
the basal three being likewise studded beneath with 
minute cushions or indvilli. Although I have not yet 
seen that particular sex of the species which I have 
enunciated below under the title of mibricatns, it never- 
theless has so very much in common both with the 
coriaceus and lanio that I have little doubt it must be a 
true member of the same actual group. Of the three 
Atlantic Scutopteri, it will be desirable to place the coria- 
ceus first, then the imbricatus (a diagnosis of which I 
subjoin below), and lastly the lanio. 

8cutopterus imbricatus, n, sp. 

S. oblongo-ovatus, elongatus, subopacus, nigro-piceus, 
capitis parte antica maculisque duabus frontalibus et pro- 
thoracis lateribus piceo-ferrugineis ; capite prothoraceque 
rugose coriaceis, hoc antice angustato ; elytris elongato- 
ovatis basi truncatis, paululum nitidioribus, grosse sub- 
imbricato-rugulosis et obsolete subtestaceo commixtis, 
singulis longitudinaliter triseriatim notatis ; antennis 
palpisque rufo-ferrugineis, pedibus rufo-piceis. 

Long, Corp. lin. 10. 

Fa-&.-— Maderensis {Mad); exemplar imicum,sc, fgemi- 
neum_, olim misit clariss. Baronus de Paiva. 

Obs. Species 8. lanioni affinis, sed corpore magis 
ovato (antice, et in elytris et in prothorace, angustiore), 
elytris obscurioribus, minus nitidis, et rugose imbricate- 

Atlantic Colcoptcra. 221 

asperatis, pedibus (ciliisque in posterioribus) piceSten- 
tioribus. A S. coriaceo (Europseo et Canariensi) differt 
corpore minus obtuse oblouo'o {i. e., antice angustiore) 
omnino minus nigro, capite distinctius maculato et pro 
thorace ad latera ferrugineo, necnon etiam in elytris 
obscure pallido-irroratis, prothorace paulo minus trans- 
verso, postice minus sinuato (angulis basalibus rectioribus), 
scutello sensim minus triangularis et elytrorum impres- 
sionibus (in seriebus tribus dispositis) magis rotundatis 

The single individual (a female) from which the above 
diagnosis has been drawn out was sent to me from 
Madeira, about two years ago, by the Baron Paiva ; and 
it has since been placed aside, hoping that further material 
might perhaps enable me to speak with greater precision 
on the specific feature of the other sex, no less than on 
those of the present one. As no further examples how- 
ever have been brought to light, and the distinctions of 
the solitary one now before me are too important to be 
ignored, I feel compelled to notice it in this memoir, and 
have proposed therefore the title of imhricatus for the 
species which it must be presumed to represent. 

Judging, consequently, from the only type to which I 
have access, the S. imhricatus, while differing widely 
from them both, appears to be in many respects exactly 
intermediate between the 8. coriaceus (of southern 
Europe and the Canaries) and the Madeiran 8. lanio. 
From both of them it recedes (though especially from 
the former) in its less oblong, or obtuse, outline, — it 
being perceptibly narrower in front, and therefore alto- 
gether more elongate-owi^e; whilst from the lanio it 
further differs in its elytra being not only much darker 
in hue, but also less shining, and scupltured after the sin- 
gular fashion which obtains in the 8. coriaceus, being 
closely roughened with coarse transverse imbrications. 
Its legs likewise are more piceous, with the long hairs 
which fringe the four hinder ones much darker, or less 

Although agreeing in its sculpture with the 8. coria- 
ceus, the present 8cutopterus (apart from its outline being 
more narrowed anteriorly) differs from that species in its 
colour being altogether less black, in its head being more 
brightly maculated, in its prothorax (instead of conco- 
lorous) being ferruginous at the sides (as in the 8. lanio) , 

222 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

and in its elytra having an obscure tmf?er-tint of testa- 
ceouSj though at the same time so densely mottled with 
black as to appear at first sight almost completely 
dark. Its prothorax likewise is a little less transverse, 
and not quite so undulated (or sinuate) along its basal 
edge, causing the hinder angles to be more decidedly 
right-angles ; its scutellum is rounder, or less triangular; 
and the triple series of its elytral impressions are more 
punctiform or less linear and elongate. * 

p. 71 (genus Eunectes). 

After species 213, add: — 

Eunectes helvolus. 

E. ovatus, angustulus, luteo-griseus, clypeo antice vix 
marginato; capite postice nigro, et macula frontali 
magna plus minus sufFusa antice bipartita ornato ; pro- 
thorace vitta transversa abbreviata ornato, ad latera 
oblique rectissimo, angulis posticis acutiusculis ; elytris 
punctis magnis sat profundis in triplici serie et ubique 
punctulis minoribus nigris notatis, singulis maculis dua- 
bus minutis sublateralibus et fascia transversa tenui den- 
tata postica (plus minus obsoleta) nigris ornatis. 

Long corp. lin. 6. 

Eunectes helvolus, King, Symb. Phys. 33*3. Eunectes 
conicollis, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 97 (1861). Eunectes 
helvolus, Id., Col. Hesp. 35 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; in Salinis ad Paul do Mar 
a Dom. Moniz deprehensus. 

A few examples of this Eunectes were captured by 
Senhor Moniz at Paul do Mar, in the west of Madeira, 
from amongst plants of Ruypia rostellata, Koch, in the 
briny water of a Saltern. It would appear, therefore, to 
be a saline species — a circumstance to which I called 
attention, at p. 36 of my ' Coleoptera Hesperidum,' 
whilst commenting on its probable habitat in the Cape 

* From the pustulatus of sonthern Europe, which appears to be re- 
garded as a Scutopteriis, it seems (judging from the published diagnosis) 
to differ even structurally, — the claws of the four anterior male feet in 
that species being described as of unequal dimensions. Moreover the 
pustulatus is said to have an fenescent tinge, with the sculpture of its 
elytra the same as that of its head and prothorax. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 223 

Verde archipelago. It doubtless possesses a wide 
African range; and I have already [Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 
99] expressed my belief that Aube was mistaken in 
treating it as a variety of the almost comopolitan E. 

p. 73 (genus Ochthebius). 

Before species 221, and commencing the genus, add: — 

OchtJiehius algicola, n. sp. 

O. angustulus, elongatulo-oblongus, submetallico-niger, 
nitidulus, (nisi oculo fortissimo armato) calvus; capita 
postice foveis binis punctiformibus impresso, leviter et 
confuse ruguloso- sed prothorace distinctius punctatis, 
hoc coleopteris subangustiore, postice paulo angustato 
sed haud pellucide (ut in Ochthehiis plurimis) marginato, 
tenuiter canaliculato, antice et postice levissime trans- 
versim impresso (impression e postica lunvilata) ; elytris 
oblongis, dense et rugose striato-punctatis (prima facie 
quasi subasperato-crenulatis) ; antennis (clava obscuriore 
excepta), palpis pedibusque piceo-testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. vix. 1. 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.) ; inter Confervas marinas in 
aquis omnino salinis ad "^ Gorgulho," haud procul ab 
urbe Funchalensij tempore vernali A.D. 1870, a meij)SO 

The habits of this most interesting OcJdhehhis appear 
to be precisely similar to those of the Calobius Heeri, — 
two examples of it having been captured by myself, 
during our late sojourn in Madeira, from amongst marine 
Confervce, in pools of unadulterated sea-water left by the 
tide on the rocks (at the Gorgulho) to the westward of 
Funchal. Indeed at the time (never suspecting that any 
other species would possess the same very anomalous 
mode of life, and despite its wanting the long wiry legs 
and unsculptured surface of Calobius *) I actually mistook 

* In the recently published Catalogue of Gemminger and Harold, Calo- 
hius is cited as a synonym of Ochthehius, which can only be due to their 
total ignorance of its structural peculiarities, — the genus, although utterly 
distinct from them both, having in reahty more in common with Hydrcena. 

224 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

it for that insect, and so merely secured these two indi- 
viduals; though in all probability I might have easily 
obtained more, had it once occui'red to me that it was 

The 0. algicola is narrower and more oblong (or pa- 
rallel) than any of the OcJdhebii which have hitherto 
been detected in these Atlantic islands, and except under 
a very high magnifying power it is totally devoid of all 
traces of even the minutest pubescence. With the ex- 
ception of its piceo-testaceous limbs, it is of a dark 
hue, being but very faintly submetallic; its prothorax 
(which is, if anything, a trifle narrower than the widest 
part of the elytra) is free from any portion of pellucid 
margin (so common in the Ocldhehii) , and is very lightly 
impressed with an anterior and (curved) posterior trans- 
verse fovea ; and its elytra are densely and coarsely 
striate-punctate, having almost the appearance at first 
sight of being subasperate and closely crenulated. 

(Sp. 223) Ochthehius suhpictus. 

Madeira proper must be added to the habitat of this Och- 
thehius ; for although the individuals taken by myself in 
Porto Santo were all that had until quite lately been ob- 
served, a specimen has more recently been communicated 
by the Baron Paiva which was captured in Madeira. 
Being, in Porto Santo, found in streams which are brack- 
ish, it is not improbable that it may occur likewise in 
water which is almost, or even entirely, saline : at any 
rate in the same bottle which contained it there are 
examples of the Calobius Heeri, which resides amongst 
marine Covfervce in the small pools of actual sea-water 
(along the rocky shores both of Madeira and Porto 
Santo) ; and I cannot but think it likely, therefore, that 
this single Ochthehius suhpictus may perhaps have been 
captured in company with the Calubii. 


p. 77 (genus Philhydrus). 

It is now more than a year since Dr. Sharp, who has 
studied the European Philhydri with considerable care, 
detected some examples of Thomson^s P. maritimus 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 225 

amongst the Canarian material which had been submitted 
to him by Mr. G. R. Crotch, and which was collected by 
the latter in the island of Gomera. Dr. Sharp having 
communicated this fact to me, I requested him to exa- 
mine critically the very variable species (so abundant in 
many parts of the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos) 
which I had hitherto referred, on the authority originally 
of Dr. Aube, to the DieJanocephcdus of Olivier ; and the 
result is that he considered it as wrongly assigned to 
the latter, being identical, rather, with what he had 
little doubt is the politus of Kiister (a species which 
occurs in Mediterranean latitudes, and which he had 
himself received from the south of Spain) . This, there- 
fore, apart from affording an absolute addition to the 
catalogue in the European P. maritimus (examples of 
which had certainly never before come beneath my no- 
tice), necessitates a change in the nomenclature of the 
othe7' species — erroneously regarded by myself as Olivier's 
melanocephalus ; and I would desire, therefore, to give 
the two following diagnoses — which will not only point 
out the difference between the species in question, but 
which will enable me also to correct the synonymy of the 
latter, and to call attention to its topographical range as 
hitherto ascertained. 

Philhydrus maritimus. 

P. oblongo-ovalis, parum convexus, subnitidus, luride 
fusco-testaceus sed in limbo sensim dilutior, ubique cre- 
bre et argute punctatus (punctis in elytris vix remotiori- 
bus) ; antennarum clava obscuriore ; coleopteris seriebus 
tribus irregularibus punctorum majorum utrinque longi- 
tudinaliter notatis. 

Mas : tarsorum unguiculis fere angulatim curvatis, ad 
basin dente valido instructis. 

Fcem. : tarsorum unguiculis ad basin dente minore in- 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 2^. 

Philhydrus maritimus, Thorns., Skand. Col. ii. 96 (1860) ; 
Sharp, Ann. Nat. Hist. 14 (1870). 

•Hab. — Canariensis {Gom.); a DD. Crotch sestate A.D. 
1864 parce deprehensus. 

226 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

The pale lurid or brownish-testaceous colour, and com- 
paratively coarsely punctured surface^ of this European 
Philhydrus (the palpi of which seem to be immaculate) 
will readily distinguish it from the following species — 
which (although it varies occasionally into a somewhat 
testaceous hue) is always darker (at times, indeed, being 
nearly black), and much more lightly sculptured. As 
already stated, it was captured by the Messrs. Crotch 
during the summer of 1864 in Gomera. 

Philhydrus politus. 

P. oblongo-ovalis, convexus, nitidus, niger sed in 
limbo dilutior, ubique crebre et subtiliter punctulatus 
(punctis in elytris vix obsoletioribus et vix remotiori- 
bus) ; capite raaculis duabus lateralibus ante oculos, an- 
tennis (clava excepta), palpis (articulo 2do ad basin 
interdum excepto) tarsisque rufu-testaceis ; coleopteris 
seriebus tribus irregularibus punctorum majorum utrinque 
longitudinaliter notatis. 

Mas : tarsorum unguiculis fere angulatim curvatis, ad 
basin dente valido instructis. 

Fcem. : tarsorum unguiculis ad basin dente minore in- 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 2|-3. 

Var. /3. — Subangustior, prothorace obsoletius punctate, 
palpis omnino testaceis (nee articulo 2do basi infuscato) . 

Var. 7. — Pallidior, sed palporum articulo 2do basi in- 
fuscato. \^Fuerteventu7'a.'\ 

Var. 8. — ''Var. <y" similis, sed palpis omnino pallidis. 
\_Porto Santo.^ 

Var. e. — "Var. 8" similis, sed corpore nigrescentiore ; 
aut " var. /3^' similis, sed prothorace distinctius punctate. 
\_Porto Santo. 1 

Hydrophilus melanncephalus, Brulle [nee Oliv. 1795], 
in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838) . Philhydrus politus, 
Kiist., Kiif. Eur. 18*9 (1849). Philhydrus atlantimis? 
Blanch., in voy. au Pole Sud, Zool., iv. 51 (1853) . Phil- 
hydrus melanocephalus, Woll. [nee Oliv. 1795], Ins. Mad. 
98 (1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 32 (1857); Id. Cat. Can. 
Col. 91 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 77 (1865). Philhydrus 
politus, Sharp, Ann. Nat. Hist. 14 (1870). 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 227 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad., Pto Sto.), et Canariensea 
{Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten., Gom.) ; in aquis et aquosis, 
hinc inde vulgaris. 

Although presenting many slight differences, both in 
colour and strength of punctation, according to the 
locality in which it is found, this appears to be the uni- 
versal Philhydrus in the Madeiran and Canarian archi- 
pelagos ; and I doubt not that it will be detected eventu- 
ally in every one of the islands where there is suflBcient 
water for its existence during the drier seasons. It 
swai'ms in the brackish streams of Porto Santo, in the 
Madeiran Group ; and it has also been captured by Senhor 
Moniz in the Salinas at Paul do Mar, in the west of 
Madeira proper. At the Canai-ies, I have myself met 
with it in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, 
Teneriffe, and Gomera, — in the first two and last of which 
it was found likewise by Mr. Gray, and in the last by the 
Messrs. Crotch. 


p. 91 (genus Sacium) . 
(Sp. 262) Sacium pusillum. 

A late revision by Kraatz (Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. xiii. 283) 
of the European members of this genus, and of Artliro- 
lips, has elicited the remark that, in his opinion, the 
Madeiran 8acium which I have hitherto referred to the 
8. pusillum, Gyll., of northern Europe, is in reality dis- 
tinct ; and he bas, consequently, proposed for it the 
specific title of maderce. It is to Mr. Rye that I am in- 
debted for drawing my attention to Kraatz^s exact obser- 
vations on the subject; and it would appear that Gyllen- 
haFs true pusilhim (which has a less extended range than 
what is usually supposed, all the examples which had 
come under Kraatz^s notice being from Finland) is larger 
and more finely punctured than the Madeiran species, as 
well as darker in colour, and with the hinder margin of 
its prothorax conspicuously bordered with brown. He 
theM compares the Madeiran insect with the obscurum, 
Sahib, {—jmsillum, Jiedt., nee Gyll.) — a species found in 
central Europe — and adds that, while in the obscurum 
the third tarsal joint is only slightly shorter than the 

228 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

second, it is in the Madeiran insect scarcely half as 
long: and, also, that whilst the second joint of the an- 
tennal club is, in the ohscurum, much smaller than those 
which are contiguous to it [as in the typical Anisoto- 
midce'], the species from Madeira has that articulation 
distinctly larger than the preceding one. * Hence, since 
it can be referred neither to the pusillum of Gyllenhal, 
nor yet to the ohscurum of Sahlberg, and it clearly is not 
conspecific with either the nanum of Mulsant, nor the 
hrunneum of Brisout (the two other species hitherto ac- 
knowledged as European) , Dr. Kraatz regards it as dis- 
tinct 5 and I may, therefore, cite its amended synonymy 
as follows : — • 

Saciuni maderce. 

Clypeaster ptisilhis, Woll. [nee Gyll., 1810], Ins. Mad. 
474(1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 140 (1857). Sacium 
pusillum, Id., Col. Atl. 91 (1865). Sacium maderce, 
Kraatz, Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. xiii. (1869). 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad., Des.) ; in graminosis inter- 
mediis, passim. 

p. 91 (genus Arthrolips). 

(Sp. 264) Arthrolips ohscurus. 

From the synonyms of this species the Cossyphus 
ohscurus. Sahib., must be ei'ased, — -Sahlbei'g's insect, ac- 
cording to Kraatz, being (as above implied) a true 
Sacium, and not an Arthrolips. Hence, since the title of 
ohscurus for this insect (assumhuj it to he identical ivith 
the south- European one) rests on a mere catalogue (that of 
Dejean's) it cannot be retained, and we are compelled to 
adopt (as, in point of fact, I did in my 'Ins. Mad.^ and 
' Cat. Mad. Col.^) Comolli's name oi piceus instead. And 
I will therefore cite the species afresh, thus : — 

* I called special attention to this fact at p. 90 of the ' Col. Atl.,' wnere, 
judginw from the sole material to ivhich I had access (namely, the exponents 
from Madeira), I stated that the only genera in the Corylo'phidce in which 
that particular structure (namely, the reduced proportions of the second 
joint of the anteunal clubj is not indicated were hacium and ArthroliiJS. 

Atlantic Goleoptera. 229 

ArthroUps piceus. 

Clypeaster ohscurus, T)ej., Cat. 129 (1821). Clypeaster 
piceus, (Kunze), ComoUi, De Nov. Col. 50 (1837). Gry- 
phinus piceus, Redt., Fna. Austr, 574 (1849). ArthroUps 
piceum, Well., Ins. Mad. 476 (1854) ; Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 
142 (1857). ArthroUps ohscuriis, Duval, Gen. des Col. 
d'Eur. ii. 232 (1859); Woll., Col. Atl. 91 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad., Des.),et Canarienses {Ten.); 
in inferioribus intermediisque, hinc inde vulgaris. 


p. 96 (genus Acrotrichis) . 

After species 274 insert : — 

Aero trichis brevicornis . 

Acrotrichis brevicornis, Mots., BuU. de Mosc. 174 (1868). 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; sub quisquiliis in inter- 
mediis degens. 

Mixed-up with my examples of the A. atomaria, from 
the intermediate districts of Madeira, are a certain number 
which are said to differ slightly from the rest (but the 
" differences" in which are to my eye totally inappreci- 
able) , and which constitute the form for which Motschoul- 
sky has recently proposed the name of brevicornis. During 
our late visit to the island we met with it both in the 
region of "the Mount" and in that of S. Antonio da 
Serra ; but until the Monograph of Mr. Matthews makes 
its appearance I will not attempt to give a regular diag- 
nosis of the " species," or to do more than just allude to the 
fact of its acknowledgment both by him and by Mots- 
choulsky. All indeed that the latter (who cites " Dal- 
matia" for its habitat, as well as Madeira) says concern- 
ing it is as follows : — " Forme entierment de V atomaria, 
mais moitie plus petite, luisante a ponctuation tres fine, 
pubescence sur les elytres assez forte, pattes testacees, 
antennes noiratres, ne depassant pas en longueur les 
angles post, du corselet." 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (MAY.) R 

230 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

(Sp. 275) Acrotrichis anthradna. 

This Acrotrichis , -which, was enunciated by Mr. Matthews 
in 1865 from the Canarian material of the Messrs. Crotch, 
is stated by the former to have since been captured by 
himself in England (namely, during the summer of 1867, 
in Sherwood Forest) , — so that the species, like so many 
others in this family, is a European one. Speaking of 
his British examples, Mr. Matthews says {Ent. Month. 
Mag. V. 10 ; 1868) " The anthradna is a distinct and 
well-marked species ; it belongs to the first division of 
the genus, which comprises the atomaria, and others, 
whose thorax is much dilated at the base, with its poste- 
rior angles produced beyond the shoulders of the elytra ; 
but from all these it may easily be known by its small 
size, and short black antennas;^' and as he then charac- 
terizes it afresh, it may be desirable perhaps to give his 
emended diagnosis, — stating the references up to the 
present date. 

Acrotrichis anthradna. 

A. ovata, maribus postice valde attenuata, valde con- 
vexa, nigra, nitida, pilis brevibus argenteis parce vestita, 
capite modico, antice elongate, oculis sat magnis, pro- 
minulis ; pronoto modico, valde convexo, postice dilatato, 
tuberculis sat magnis, ordinibus irregulariter sinuatis 
confertim dispositis, interstitiis nitidis, subtiliter reticu- 
latis, ornato, lateribus rotundatis, late marginatis, angu- 
lis posterioribus valde productis, acutissimis; elytris 
longioribus, maribus valde attenuatis, ordinibus sat re- 
motis, sinuatis, modice asperatis, lateribus fere rectis, 
leviter marginatis, apicibus vix dilutioribus, vix rotun- 
datis ; pedibus Isete flavis ; antsnnis brevioribus, piceo- 

Long. corp. lin. |. 

Trichopteryx anthradna, Matth., Ent. Month. Mag. ii. 
35 (1865). ^ Acrotrichis anthradna, WolL, Col. Atl. 98, 
et Append. 14 (1865). Trichopteryx anthradna, Matth., 
Ent. Month. Mag. v. 10 (1868) . 

Hah. — Canarienses {Gom.) ; a DD. Crotch parce de- 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 231 

(Sp. 279) Acrotrichis Montandonii. 

From the synonymy of this Madeiran Acrotrichis the 
first two lines must be erased, for Mr, Matthews (who 
originally identified it with the European A. Montandonii) 
now informs me that he is inclined to accept the opinion 
of Motschoulsky — who has recently cited (I will not say 
''described") it, under the name of " nigricornis," as 
distinct from that species. Until Mr. Matthews' Mono- 
graph shall have made its appearance I will not presume 
to say what its exact differential characters may be, or 
how it is undoubtedly separable from the A. Montandonii ; 
but, acting on the step taken by Motschoulsky (and 
subsequently endorsed by Mr. Matthews) , I will merely 
call attention as follows to the change in the synonymy, 
— adding also that I find an example in my possession 
which was captured by myself on one of the other 
islands of the Madeiran archipelago, namely the Deserta 

Acrotrichis nigricornis. * 

Acrotrichis pumila, Woll. [nee Erich.], Ins. Mad. 109 
(1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 35 (1857). Acrotrichis in- 
sularis, Id. [nee Mann.], Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 109 (1861) . 
Acrotrichis Montandonii, Id. \_nec Allib.], Col. Atl. 99 
(1865) . Acrotrichis nigricornis, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 174 
(1869) [sec. Matthews] . 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad., Des.) ; hinc inde in sub- 
inferioribus intermediisque, inter quisquilias. 

I should add, perhaps, that Motschoulsky's ''descrip- 
tion'^ of it is as foUows : " Taille, forme et couleurs de 
la depressa, Gillm., mais plus convexe, plus luisante, 
corselet large posterieureraent, avec ses angles p. un peu 
aigus et saillants, antennes enticrement foncees meme 
leurs premiers articles, pas plus longues que le corselet, 
elytres paralleles.'' 

(Sp. 280) Acrotrichis Guerinii. 

This Acrotrichis was defined by myself in 1857, as the 
" ohscoena" — a title, however, which I was compelled 
subsequently to sink into a synonym on account of the 
species having been identified by Mr. Matthews with the 

B 2 

232 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston 07i 

Ouerinii of Allibert. But lately Mr. Matthews has altered 
his opinion (having met with the same exact form in 
England as the Madeiran one), and has come to the 
conclusion that it is, after all, distinct from the Guerinii; 
so that my original title of obscoena is again adopted by 
him. Hence I have no choice (in the face of so high an 
authority) but to suppress the name under which it is 
cited in the 'Col. Atl./ and revert (as below) to that 
under which I first enunciated it in my Madeiran Cata- 
logue. Mr, Matthews' British example was captured by 
himself, during the summer of 1857, in Sherwood Forest; 
and in his published observations concerning it, he re- 
marks {Ent. 3Ionth. Mag. v. 10; 1868) that it "belongs 
to a group of which the Guerinii may be considered as 
the type, and all of which have pale or rufescent elytra, 
and the thorax scarcely dilated at the base." And he 
subsequently observes " when I mounted the specimen I 
had taken at Sherwood, I was much struck by the ap- 
pearance of its sculpture; this led to further examination, 
and I found that, though differing from the Guerinii, it 
coincided exactly in this respect with obscoena, and that 
both also difiTered from Gtierinii in the comparative length 
of the elytra, and a few other points of minor importance. 
I therefore feel no doubt that obsccena is distinct from 
Guerinii, and that Mr. Wollaston's name must be restored 
to the species." Mr. Matthews having given an emended 
diagnosis of the A. obsccena, I may as well (as in the case 
of the anthracina) insert it as follows, adding at the same 
time its corrected synonymy : — 

Acrotrichis obscoena. 

A. oblonga, elongata, valde convexa, capite atque 
pronoto nigris, elytris nigro-castaneis, pilis brevibus 
flavescentibus parce vestita, capite magno, sat elongate 
prominulo, oculis vix prominentibus ; pronoto modico, 
postice vix dilatato, tuberculis sat magnis, ordinibus in- 
terruptis dispositis, interstitiis nitidis, confertim reticu- 
latis ornato, lateribus levissime marginatis, leviter rotun- 
datis, angulis posterioribus acutis, vix productis ; elytris 
brevioribus, quadratis, haud attenuatis, ordinibus trans- 
versis, interruptis, sat profunde asperatis, sutura elevata, 
apicibus valde rotundatis; antennis brevioribus, nigro- 
piceis ; pedibus flavis. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 233 

Long. Corp. lin. circa ^. 

Acrotrichis obsccena, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 35 (1857). 
AcrotricMs Guerinii, Id. \_nec AUib., 1844], Col. Atl. 100 
(1865). Trichopteryx obsccena, Matth., Ent. Month. 
Mag. V. 12 (1868). 

Hab. — -Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses (Gom.) ; 
prgecipue sub stercore bovino et equino in locis inferiori- 
bus degens. 

After species 281, add: — 

Acrotrichis ovatula. 

Acrotrichis ovatula, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 175 (1869). 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; inter quisquilias in ipsa 
urbe Funchalensi a meipso sat copiose reperta. 

Had I only Motschoulsky's short observation (which 
takes the place of a diagnosis) to judge from, I should 
have been utterly unable to form any idea whatsoever 
about this nevertheless well-marked little Acrotrichis;, 
but since so high an authority as Mr. Matthews is satis- 
fied that it must pertain to a minute species of which I 
captured many examples, amongst refuse, in a garden in 
Funchal, I am content to cite it accordingly. It is the 
smallest Acrotrichis proper which has hitherto been de- 
tected in any of these Atlantic islands, being but slightly 
larger than the Nephanes Titan; and my specimens were 
all of them taken by sifting rubbish in the garden of the 
Quinta dos Jasmineiros, on the western outskirts of 
Funchal. Motschoulsky's "description" of it is as 
follows : — " Forme et colours voisines de celles de la de- 
pressa, Gillm., iv. 3, mais un peu plus petite et plus con- 
vexe, elytres et antennes plus courtes, les premieres plus 
retrecies vers la base ; ponctuation assez forte, pubescence 
eparse, antennes obscures." 

p. 101 (genus Ptenidium) . 
(Sp. 283) Ptenidium Icevigatum. 

This Canarian Ptenidium was originally identified by 
Mr. Matthews (apparently from Erichson's diagnosis) 
with the European P. Icevigatum of Gillmeister ; but Mr. 
Matthews now informs me that, having since received 

234 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

continental types of the latter, lie finds that the species 
from the Canaries is in reality distinct ; and he has con- 
sequently proposed for it, in his Monograph of the family 
(which is already in the press), the name of BrucMi. 
Without therefore attempting to anticipate Mr. Matthews' 
diagnosis, I will just call attention to the fact — that the 
synonymy of the species will, consequently, have to be 
thus emended : — 

Ptenidium BrucMi. 

Ptenidium Icevigatum, Woll. [nee Gillm.], Cat. Can. 
Coll. 104 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 101 (1865). {Ptenidium 
BrucMi, Matth., Mon. Trichopt.) . 

Hab. — Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro); 
sub quisquiliis in inferioribus intermediisque, late sed 
parce diffusum. 

(Sp. 284) Ptenidium apieale. 

The Atlantic examples of this Ptenidium (so abundant 
throughout the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos) 
differ a little from the ordinary ones of the P. apieale, of 
more northern latitudes ; but Mr. Matthews until lately 
did not think that the points of discrepancy were of suf- 
ficient significance to indicate more than a very slight 
geographical variety of the common European species. 
Motschoulsky, however, in a recent paper on the Ptiliada;, 
having separated the Atlantic form under the name " ato- 
maroides " (stating, moreover, that it occurs likewise in 
Georgia and Dalmatia) , Mr. Matthews is inclined now to 
acknowledge it as distinct ; and I have no choice, there- 
fore, with such an authority before me, but to do so like- 
wise. Motschoulsky gives no formal diagnosis of his 
P. atomaroides, but makes the following remark : " Forme 
et couleurs voisines de celles de Vapicalis, Gillm. viii. 2, 
mais toujours plus grand et plus large aux elytres, ce qui 
lui donne I'aspect trapu du pusillum ; de chaque cote de 
la base du corselet on voit une impression transversale 
foveiforme et sur le milieu des vestiges de deux points ; 
elytres ponctuees par des points tres-fins, disposes en stries 
et garnis chacum d'un poll assez long.^' Accepting 
therefore the atomaroides as distinct from the European 
P. apieale (which I must confess that I do with consider- 
able reluctance) , the synonymy of the species will require 
to be emended thus : — 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 235 

Ptenidium atomaroides. 

Ptenidium apicale, Woll. \_nec Gillm., 1845], Ins. Mad. 
110 (1845); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 37 (1857); Id., Cat. Can. 
Col. 104 (18G4); Id., Col. Atl. 101 (1865). Ptenidium 
atomaroides, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 191 (1869). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad., Des.) , et Canarienses {Fuert., 
Can., Ten., Gom.) ; inter quisquilias, vulgare. 

p. 102 (genus Ptinella). 
(Sp. 287) Ptinella Proteus. 

Of this Ptinella, so abundant locally beneath the damp 
rotting bark of trees within the cultivated districts of 
Madeira, it appears necessary once more to alter the 
name under which it must be cited, — Mr. Matthews 
having received types from Dr. Heer which prove it to 
be conspecific with his Trichopteryx testacea. Its sy- 
nonymy, therefore, so for as I am able to ascertain, 
would seem to be as follows ; though whether the species 
is truly distinct, as I very much doubt, from the one 
which I have quoted on Mr. Matthews' authority {vide 
Col. Atl. 102) as the P. aptera, Guer., from the Canarian 
archipelago I will not undertake, at any rate until Mr. 
Matthews' Monograph has been published, to decide. 

Ptinella testacea. 

Trichopteryx, testacea, (Chevr.), Heer, Fna. Col. Helv. 
376(1841). Ptinella aptera, Woll. \_nec Guer.], Ann. 
Nat. Hist. viii. 101 (1861). Trichopteryx ratishonensis. 
Id. [nee Gillm.], ibid. x. 341 (1862). Trichopteryx Pro- 
teus, Matth., in Zool. xx. 8262 (1862); Woll., Col. Atl. 
103 et Append. 15 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; sub cortice laxo humido^ 
hinc inde in intermediis inferioribusque vulgaris. 


p. 110 (genus Meligethes) . 

(Sp. 311) Meligethes echii. 

I think it very doubtful whether the few Canarian 
examples which were taken by the Messrs. Crotch in 

236 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston 07i 

Tenerlffe, Gomera, and Hierro, and which I cited as 
rather aberrant individuals of the Madeiran M. echii, are 
more in reality than a somewhat large variety of the 
M. seniculus (=ztristis, mihi, nee Sturm) ; at any rate 
the only specimen to which I now have access belongs 
manifestly to that species : and if this should prove to be 
the case, it will follow that the M. echii has been observed 
hitherto only in Madeira. 

I may just state, however, that the typical M. echii 
(which occurs on the flowers and woolly foliage of the 
gigantic E. candicans of intermediate elevations, in the 
Madeiran archipelago) is certainly distinct from the 
(much smaller and darker-limbed) M. seniculus; so that 
the note at p. Ill of my ^ Col. Atl.', which calls this 
point in question, requires to be qualified. 

(Sp. 312) Meligethes tristis. 

According to Mr. Rye this Meligethes is not the tristis, 
of Sturm, as I have hitherto imagined, but Erichson's 
seniculus — a species equally European in its range. 
Whether however it is attached to plants of the Echium 
group in the Atlantic islands, as it would appear to be in 
more northern countries, I am unable to say; though 
perhaps, on enquiry, this will be found to be the case. 
*' The true tristis," Mr. Eye observes, '^is more ovate and 
less depressed than the seniculus, as also broader, darker, 
and with less and lighter pubescence ; its prothorax, too, 
is more contracted in front, its hinder tibiae are wider, 
and the anterior ones are a trifle narrower." Mr. Crotch 
was evidently mistaken when, recording {Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Loud. 371 ; 1867) the M. incanus from the Azores (on the 
strength of a single individual taken in Fayal) , he re- 
marked that " the M. tristis of Mr. WoUaston^s work 
must probably be referred to it \_i. e., to the incanus] ." 
Whatsoever Mr. Crotch's insect may be, the Madeiran 
and Canarian one at all events is totally distinct from the 
European M. incanus — which is very like the timhrosus, 
but not so broad, most densely punctured, with its legs 
picescent, and its anterior tibiae considerably dilated to- 
wards the apex — where there are three pretty conspicuous 
teeth externally. The corrected synonymy, therefore, of 
the species will stand thus: — 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 237 

Meligethes seniculus. 

Meligethes seniculus, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 
192 (1845). Meligethes tristis, WoW. [nee Sturm.], Ins. 
Mad. 124 (1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 41 (1857); Id., 
Cat. Can. Col. 113 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. Ill (1865). 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad., Pto. Sto., Des.), et Canar- 
iensis {Can., Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro); ad flores vul- 

(Sp. 313) Meligethes picipes. 

This Meligethes appears to be correctly identified with 
the European M. picipes, according to Mr. Rye — who 
however observes that the Madeiran examples are, on the 
average, a trifle larger than the ordinary British ones. 

(Sp. 314) Meligethes virescens. 

Mr. Rye informs me that this Canarian Meligethes (like 
the Madeiran M. echii) is quite unknown to him ; and in 
all probability, therefore, it is not a European species. 

(Sp. 315) Meligethes varicollis. 

Concerning the Canarian form which I cited as a 
''var. /3" of this Madeiran Meligethes I have always had 
considerable doubt, though my desire not to multiply 
species unnecessarily induced me to register it as in all 
probability a geographical phasis of the latter. Yet a 
re -examination of the two, added to the decidedly-ex- 
pressed opinion of Mr. Rye that they must be truly dis- 
tinct, inclines me to correct what I feel now would 
almost certainly be regarded as a mistake by any Coleop- 
terist who may have made this group his particular 
study; and in order therefore to point out the discrepan- 
cies between them, I think it will be desirable, whilst 
enunciating the Canarian species as a new one, to give 
also an emended diagnosis of the M. varicollis — ^its already 
described Madeiran ally. 

Meligethes varicollis. 

M. ovato-oblongus, convexus, aut aeneo- aut cya- 
neo-viridis, grosse fulvo-cinereo pubescens, densissime 

238 Mr, T. Vernon Wollaston on 

punctatus; protliorace latiusculo; antennis pedibusque 
ferrugineis ; tibiis anticis latis, extus minute sed sub- 
insequaliter serratis. 

Var. IB. [an sexualis distinctio ?] — prothoracis lateribus, 
antennis pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

MeUgethes varicolUs, Woll., Ins. Mad. 126 (1854); Id., 
Cat. Mad. Col. 41 (1857); (pars) ; Id., Col. Atl. 112 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad) ; ad fiores in sylvaticis 
intermediis, rarissimus. 

An exceedingly rare MeUgethes, being confined so far 
as I have hitherto observed to the intermediate sylvan 
districts of Madeira proper — where I have taken it, 
during' the summer months, at the Ribeiro Frio and else- 

MeUgethes Byei, n. sp. 

M. ovato-oblongus, convexus, jeneo-viridis, fulvo- 
cinereo pubescens, dense et profunde punctatus ; antennis 
pedibusque ferrugineis; tibiis anticis latis, extus sat 
grosse sed insequaliter serratis. 

Long. Corp. lin. \\. 

MeUgethes varicoUis, (pars), Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 112 
(1864); (pars) ; Id., Col. Atl. 112 (1865). MeUgethes 
erythropa, Hart. [wecMshm.], Geolog. v. Lanz.und Fuert. 

Hah. — Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Ten.) ; hinc inde 
ad fiores, hand infrequens. 

Ohs. — Speciei prsecedenti affinis, sed diflert praecipue 
corpore profundius ac paulo minus dense punctate et pube 
sub-bi-eviore sericato, prothorace (nisi fallor) semper 
concolori, ad latera sensira minus rotundato, quare angulis 
posticis paulo minus obtusis, antennis sublongioribus, 
necnon tibiis anticis extus (conspicue) grossius ac magis 
inaequaliter serratis. 

Species in honorem E. C. Bye, inter Entomologicos Bri- 
tannicos lojige lateque Celebris, oh gratis amicissitne ohlatas 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 239 

As I have already stated elsewhere, this fine Meligethes 
is far from uncommon in the two eastern islands (Lanza- 
rote and Fuerteveutura) of the Canarian Group, but so 
far as I have observed hitherto it seems to be scarcer in 
the more western parts of the archipelago : nevertheless 
I have met with it sparingly in Teneriffe. Although 
with much the same brassy-green hue and pallid limbs 
as its Madeiran ally (the M. varicoUis) , it differs in being 
much more coarsely, and rather less closely, punctured 
than that insect, and clothed with a rather shorter sericeous 
pubescence ; its prothorax (which is a trifle less rounded 
at the sides, and with consequently the hinder angles 
somewhat less obtuse) is apparently always concolorous 
(never being diluted in hue towards either external edge); 
its antennae are appreciably shorter; and the outer edge 
of its anterior tilaiee are more powerfully (though un- 
equally) serrate. 


p. 118 (genus Monotoma). 

Motschoulsky has lately informed us {vide Bull. Mosc. 
196 ; 1869) that he considers Lacordaire was mistaken 
in citing only three joints for the tarsi, and ten for the 
antennae, in Monotoma, and in consequence placing 
it amongst the Latridiidce ; for, in point of fact, the feet 
are tetramerous and the antennae (as he asserts) com- 
posed of eleven articulations: and he argues therefore 
that, both in structure and habit, it belongs more properly 
to the Colydiens " a cote des Pycnomerides." Although 
I believe that Motschoulsky is incorrect as regards the 
antennae, which seem to me to have but ten joints (the 
terminal one being completely lost, or swallowed-up, 
within the apex of the one-articulated club) , he is 
evidently right about the tarsi ; and the conclusion which 
he comes to about the afiinities is exactly the same as I 
had myself arrived at twelve years before [vide Cat. Mad. 
Col. 67) , though I did not so far deviate from the usually- 
received opinion as actually to place the genus amongst 
the Colydiadce. In my ' Canarian Catalogue' however, 
in 1864, I made the alteration, and during the following 
year adopted the same position in my ' Coleoptera Atlan- 
tidum ' — though assigning it to a separate family, instead 
of to the Endophlceideous section of the Colydiadce. 

240 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston 07i 


p. 120 (genus Tarphius) . 

After species 338, add : — 

Tarphius lutulentus, n. sp. 

T. subcylindrico - oblongus, subopacus, piceo-niger, 
getulis brevissimis fulvescentibus parce obsitus ; protho- 
race subquadrato (ad latera paululum subsequliter facile 
rotundato) , vix canaliculato; elytris concoloribus, rugose 
substriato-punctatis^ fere simplicibus {%. e., interstitiis 
alternis vix etiam obsolete interrupto-elevatis) ; antennis 
(breviusculis) pedibusque vel rufo-piceis, vel piceo- 
ferrugineis; tarsis (nisi fallor) in utroque sexu simplici- 
bus^ similibus. 

Long. corp. lin. 1^-2. 

Tarphius inornatus {pars), WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 43 

Mah. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; castaneta pinetaque in 
montibus supra Funchal sita (prascipue inter 1700' et 
2000' s. m.) colons, — vel sub ligno bumi jacente vel 
sub cortice laxo emortuo, vulgaris. 

Ohs. — T. inornato (et spinipedi, olim.) plerumque paulo 
minor angustior, vix minus rugose sculpturatus, et 
Betulis etiam sub-brevioribus (sc. brevissimis) obsitus, 
prothorace antice subangustiore, elytrorum interstitiis 
fere simplicibus {i. e., minus evidenter subelevatis) , 
antennis obsolete brevioribus, pedibus seepius paululum 
minus obscuratis, necnon prsecipue (ut mibi videtur) 
tarsis in utroque sexu simplicibus, nee in maribus subtus 

When compiling my Madeiran Catalogue, in 1857, 1 felt 
it necessary to unite the T. inornatus and spinipes (both 
of which had been published in the ' Ins. Mad.') , — further 
material having convinced me that the type on which 
I had established the latter was but a highly organized 
male, in reality, of the former, in which the front feet 
were quite as powerfully armed as the hinder ones ; and 
every opportunity for observation has since satisfied me 
that I was correct, for the male tarsi of the inornatus are 
eminently variable as to the exact amount of their deve- 
lopment, — occasional examples having only the posterior 
pair conspicuously spined, whilst in others (and indeed 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 241 

in most) the spinule is more or less decidedly expressed 
in the anterior ones likewise. But whilst recording this 
fact, I distinctly expressed my belief that perhaps two 
species might nevertheless be concealed under the '' T. 
inornatus " as then limited, — seeing that all the specimens, 
some thirty in number, which I had taken in the south 
of Madeira (where they occur, for the most part, beneath 
the bark and chippings of Spanish-chestnut trees and 
Firs on the mountains above Funchal) wei-e not only a 
little smaller and narrower, but had their antennae just 
perceptibly shorter, than those from the interior and 
north of the island; whilst at the same time the still 
more remarkable circumstance remained that the whole 
of these southern individuals (so far at least as the mere 
fact of their feet being simple enabled me to judge) 
appeared to he females! 

Now it is this particular form (from the mountain- 
slopes in the south of the island) , which appears to have 
its feet simple in both sexes, and which I admitted re- 
luctantly into my emended diagnosis of the inornatus in 
1857, that I have enunciated above under the title of 
lutulentus ; and I will distinctly state that were it not for 
the apparent similarity of the male and female tarsi, I should 
scarcely perhaps have regarded it even now as more than 
a small and depauperated variety of that species. Yet 
the fact (if true) is so stri:icturally important that I can- 
not but lay greater stress, in consequence, upon certain 
other minute characters which, per se I might have looked 
upon as insignificant — even though they are sometimes so 
faintly appreciable that specimens are with difficulty 
separated from Jemale ones of the inornatus. Indeed 
(apart from its feet) the lutulentus would seem mainly to 
differ from the inornatus in being on the average a little 
smaller and narrower (its length ranging- from 1^ to 2 
lines, whereas that of the latter ranges from 2 lines to 
2^) , a ti'ifle less coarsely sculptured, and beset with, if 
possible, even shorter setse still, in its prothorax being 
just appreciably (in proportion) less widened in front, in 
its alternate elytral interstices having a still less tendency 
to be obsoletely raised and interrupted (being, in point 
of fact, almost simple), and in its antenna3 being if any- 
thing a little shorter, and its legs usually somewhat less 

That the tarsal character however of the lutulentus is a 
real one appears more than probable from the fact that 

242 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

I have lately examined 203 examples of it (taken during 
the last winter and spring in the chestnut-woods at 
''the Mount/' above Funchal) without being able to dis- 
cover a single individual which has even the slightest 
tendency to a spiniform development about the feet, and 
it is hardly likely that amongst such a mass of material 
both sexes should not be represented, — more particularly 
since in the case of the true inornatus (found in the more 
central and northern districts of the island) the males 
and females are numerically in about equal proportions. 
And indeed if we further take into account the indivi- 
duals which I overhauled a few years ago, I must have 
seen, at the very lowest computation, 250 of them, and 
have yet been unable to detect any trace of the particular 
structure which is so conspicuous in the inornatus, and 
which we have been now considering. 

(Sp. 348) TarpMus Wolffii. 

The excessive difficulty attending the determination of 
some of the Tarphii, and (above all) the separating of 
the sexes in certain of the unarmed species, must be my 
excuse for feeling compelled to suppress the present one 
— which was founded in 1865 on two Madeiran examples 
which were taken by Dr. C. Wolff in the chestnut-plan- 
tations at " the Mount," above Funchal. Even now, 
however, I cannot but acknowledge the very great prima 
facie difierence which exists between small and compara- 
tively un-nodose specimens (such as those from which 
my diagnosis of the T. Wolffii was drawn out) and the 
much larger and more roughened ones which seem 
nevertheless to merge gradually into the others, and 
which represent the species which I described (from a 
unique individual, in 1854) under the title of rtigosvs. 
Yet remembering how greatly the sexes in many of the 
forms recede from each other, both in size and develop- 
ment of their elytral callosities, I have little doubt (after 
a careful inspection of fifty individuals which were taken 
at '' the Mounf during the past winter and spring) that 
the smaller ones, in which the lumps are less elevated 
(though usually more rufescent) , and which constitute 
my T. Woljfii, are merely the (unarmed) males of the 
larger and rougher ones ; and I would therefore sink the 
T. Woljjii as a synonym of the previously- enunciated T. 
mgosus, — believing that all future observations will tend 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 243 

equally to necessitate that step.* I may just state, 
however, that without a sufficient series to judge from it 
is highly probable that collectors will hereafter be found, 
fi-om time to time, who perhaps may feel inclined to 
reinstate the T. Wolffii as distinct ; yet 1 nevertheless 
cannot see how any line of specific demarcation is to be 
drawn between any of the examples now before me, — 
even though some of them may have their prothorax a 
little more widened before the middle than others, and 
present at first sight a somewhat different aspect. The 
greater or less rufescence of the callosities however is in 
reality more apparent than real, and depends upon the 
amount of scales and setae with which they happen to be 
clothed, — for even the most concolorous individuals when 
denuded of the latter will be seen to have their elytra 
obscurely maculated. 

Apart from all other points of similarity, the compara- 
tively hruivn hue and oblong-squarish, postex'iorly trun- 
cated outline, and densely scaly surface of the whole of 
my fifty examples give a character to the T. rugosus, in 
all its phases, which when once seen it is impossible to 
mistake. The following, I may add, is the corrected 
synonymy of the species as now elucidated : — 

(Sp. 354) Tarphi'us rugosus. 

Tarphhis rugosus, Well., Ins. Mad. 144 (1854) ; Id., 
Cat. Mad. Col. 48 (1857) ; Id., Col. Atl. 124 (1865) ; 
Tarphius Wolffii, Id., Ibid. 123 et App. 21 (1865). 

Hob. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; in castanetis longe supra 
urbem Funchalensem, prascipue inter 1700' et 2000' 
s. m., parce occurens.f 

* Considering how closely allied to the T. truncatus I regarded the T. 
WoJffi.i, when I had an opportunity (in 1865) of comparing the latter with 
my original types now in the British Museum, it may yet be open to 
inquiry whether the truncatus also should not be treated eventually as a 
variety, or state, of the rugosL(,s. 

■f- Before dismissing the Madeiran Tarpliii I may just call attention to 
the fact that, during a two months' residence on the mountains above 
Funchal — in Januaiy, February, and March of 1870 — we met with the 
T. lutidentas and nodosus in profusion, as well as, though less abundantly, 
the rugosus and compactus ; and the same district produced a few ex- 
amples of the veiy rare and interesting T. angufftulus. A little later in 
the season a sojourn of two months at S. Antonio da Serra, on the 
mouutaius in the east of the island, afforded us the T. echinatus—o. 

244 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

p. 128 (genus Peostheca). 
(Sp. 369) Prostheca aspera. 

Hitherto this interesting little insect has been known 
only from the single example which was captured, about 
ten years ago, by the late Mr. Bewicke, at the Quinta da 
Palmeira, above Funchal; and I was glad, therefore, 
during our late sojourn in Madeira, to meet with a 
second. It was taken from beneath the loosened bark 
of a felled tree in the garden of the Quinta dos Jasmi- 
neiros, on the western outskirts of Funchal ; so that I 
was probably mistaken in my conjecture {vide Col. Atl. 
128) that the species would be found to be of Euplwrhia- 
infesting habits. 


p. 131 (genus L^mophl(eus). 

After species 379, add : — 

Lcemophloeus suffusus, n. sp. 

L. linearis, depressus, subopacus, sericeo-pubescens, 
ferrugineus sed in elytris (humeris exceptis) obscuriori- 
bus ; capite prothoraceque grosse sed hand dense punc- 
tatis, illo vix canaliculate, fronte a clypeo (antice recte 
truncato) haud divisa, oculis prominentibus, hoc longius- 
culo postice angustiore angulis posticis fere subrotundatis ; 
coleopteris argute tenuiter striatis, stria sublaterali costi- 
formi; antennis brevibus, robustis, submoniliformibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); exemplar unicum olim cepit 
Dom. Bewicke. 

Ohs. — Lcemophloeus colore subobscuro elytris (humeris 
exceptis) paulo obscurioribus necnon antennis brevibus 
robustis moniliformibus S. axillari affinis, sed paulo minor, 
sub-brevior, evidenter minus angustatus, magis depressus 

species, although generally scarce, universal throughout that particular 
region ; the T. lauri and nodosus in considerable numbers, the compactus 
and inornatus, both of them more sparingly, the minute T. Lowei, abun- 
dant (in company with the Acalles Wollastoni) amongst Lichen on the 
trunks of various trees, the small, rounded T. sylvicola, by sifting fallen 
leaves and sticks at an elevation of about from 3000 to 4000 feet, the T. 
rotundatus, though not commonly, two examples of the rare and elegant 
T. /ormosus, and one of the equally scarce T. angustulus. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 245 

ac magis sericeo-pubescens, labro (ut raihi videtur) bre- 
viore, oculis magis prominentibus, capite prothoraceque 
argutius punctatis sed minus rugosis, hoc (fere ut in 
L. claviroUi) postice angustiore, necnon coleopteris magis 
regulariter argutiusque striatis et (nisi fallor) costu unica, 
so. sublaterali, utrinque solum instructis. 

The single example from which the above diagnosis hag 
been compiled was taken in Madeira by the late Mr. 
Bewicke, but whether near Funchal or in some more 
remote part of the island I have now no means of ascer- 
taining. In its robust, abbreviated, submoniliform an- 
tenna and rather dark ferruginous hue, the elytra with 
the exception of the shoulders being of a still obscurer 
tint, it resembles the L. axillaris ; nevertheless it appears 
to be a trifle smaller, and relatively a little shorter and 
broader than that species, and it is likewise rather flatter 
and more thickly clothed with a coarser sericeous pubes- 
cence ; its eyes also are more prominent, its upper lip 
appears to me (judging from the only type to which I 
have access) to be decidedly shorter, its head and pro- 
thorax (the latter of which is narrower behind, as in the 
L. clavicollis) are more distinctly punctured but less 
rugose, and its elytra are more uniformly and regularly 
(although delicately) striate, and seem to have only a 
single raised costa, namely a sublateral one, down each, 

p. 135 (genus Silvanus) . 

(Sp. 387) Silvanus unidentatus. 

For this Silvanus, instead of '' unidentatus, Oliv.," read 
hidentatus. Fab. A more critical examination of it has 
convinced me that it should be referred to the latter of 
those species, rather than (as I had concluded) to the 
former. And I may add that the S. hidentatus differs from 
the iinidentatus in being a little larger and more coarsely 
sculptured, in its limbs being proportionately a trifle 
longer and its eyes more developed, and in its prothorax 
(which is more evidently bisulcate down the disc) being 
a little more sinuate, or less straightened, at the sides, 
with the anterior angles a good deal more produced, and 
even the basal ones just appreciably more prominent — ■ 
so as to occasion the prothorax to appear, relatively, a 
trifle less narrow behind. During our late sojourn in 


246 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Madeira we took the 8. hidentatus in profusion, from 
beneath the dead bark of Spanish-chestnut trees, at '' the 
Mount" — about 1700 feet above Funchal, the same 
locality in which the late Mr. Bewicke met with it 
(though more sparingly) a few years ago. The follow- 
ing entry into the catalogue will suffice to place on record 
the corrected synonymy of the species : — 

Silvamis hidentatus. 

Dermestes hidentatus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 233 (1792) . 
Silvanus unid entatus, WoW. [nee Oliv. 1790], Cat. Mad. 
Col. 53 (1857); Id., Col. Atl. 135 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.) ; in castanetis editioribus 
longe supra Funchal, sub cortice laxo emortuo, vulgaris. 


p. 136 (genus Ceyptophagus) . 
(Sp. 390) Cryptophagus saginatus. 

Until our recent sojourn in Madeira I had seen but two 
examples of this common European Cryptophagus (taken 
by the late Mr. Bewicke near Funchal) from any of these 
Atlantic islands ; but whilst residing at S. Antonio da 
Serra, in the spring of 1870, we met with it abundantly, 
amongst decayed corn and refuse, in a granary adjoining 
the house in which we were living. In all probability, 
therefore, the species has become thoroughly established 
at Madeira, — having doubtless been introduced originally 
from some more northern country. 

After this species (No. 390), add: — 

Cryptophagus pilosus. 

C. subovali-oblongus, leviter convexus, ferrugineus, 
pube longiuscula depressa dense vestitus, grosse punc- 
tatus; prothorace ad latera paululum subaequaliter 
rotundato, crenulato, angulis posticis argute determi- 
natis sed paulo obtusis, dente anteriore retrorsum acuto, 
posteriore in medio sito. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-H. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 247 

Cn/ptophagus inlosus, GylL, Ins. Suec. iv. 287 (1827) j 
Sturm, Deutsch. Fna. xvi. 64, t. 313, f. A (1845) ; Erich., 
Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 352 (1846) . 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); in granario quodam ad 
S. Ant. da Serra, tempore vernali 1870, sat copiose re- 

A considerable number of examples of this European 
Cryptophagus were taken by my wife and myself at S. 
Antonio da Serra, during our late sojourn in Madeira, — 
amongst rotten corn and refuse, in company not only 
with the preceding species but also with the G. ajfiids 
and dentatus. Like other insects of similar habits, it has 
doubtless become naturalized in the island from moie 
northern latitudes. 


p. 148 (genus Cokticaeia). 

Motschoulsky having, in his recent enumeration of such 
members of this genus as were known to him {vide Bull. 
Mosc. 1867), cited no less than four Madeiran Oorticarice 
which he assumed to be new, I have examined his short 
diagnosis with considerable care, and cannot feel justified 
in admitting more than one of them as indicating a 
genuine addition to the catalogue. Even that " one" 
indeed has so much the iirimd facie aspect of the C.fulva 
(with which it is, for the most part, found in company) 
that I had until now overlooked it amongst supposed 
examples of that somewhat variable species ; but I think 
nevertheless that it may be regarded as distinct, and I 
will therefore give a brief description of it (under 
Motschoulsky^s name oiciliata), — adding at the same time 
an emended one of what I believe to be the true G.fidva, 
in order to point out more exactly the characteristic 
features of the two. Of the three other Motschoulskian 
species I suspect that two {attenuata and iinicarhndata) 
were founded upon small, accidental varieties, or states, 
of the ciliata, whilst the remaining one {flavifrons) may 
perhaps represent a mere immature individual of my 
previously-enunciated C. inconspiciia — of the existence 
of which he does seem to have been aware. Until further 
evidence has been adduced I prefer to dispose thus of at 
any rate three out of the four supposed '' species " of 

s 2 

248 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Motschoulskyj — being unwilling to burden the Atlantic 
list with (to say the least) exceedingly doubtful addi- 
tions in this rather obscure and insignificant group, and 
because his diagnoses appear to me fully to warrant the 
conclusions at which I have arrived. 

If we except the C. crenicollis, which I admitted into 
the catalogue in 1854 on the evidence afforded by a 
single and somewhat unsatisfactory individual which was 
identified with that species about twenty years ago by 
Motschoulsky, and which (in the absence of the specimen 
itself for a re-examination) I cannot hnt si( sped may per- 
haps prove to be but an accidental vai"iety of the O.fulva, 
(as now separated from the ciliata) , the Madeiran Gorti- 
carice, so far as I am acquainted with them, are remark- 
ably well-defined, and (I will further add) may be cited 
in the following order: — 

A. Prothorax ad latera crenulatus. — puhescens, Gyll.; 
ciliata, Mots.; fulva, Mann.; (?) crenicollis, Mann.; ma- 
cvlosa, Well.; fngi. Well.; serrata, Payk ; inconspicua, 

B. Prothorax ad latera vel omnino vel fere simplex. — 
transversalis, Gyll. ; rotundicollis, Well. ; curta, Well. 

p. 148. After species 422, add : — 
Corticaria ciliata. 

C. ovali-oblonga, convexa, subnitida, aut rufo- aut fusco- 
testacea (antennis pedibusque paulo dilutioribus) , longe 
lulvo-pilosa; capite prothoraceque grosse punctatis, hoc 
transverse, ad latera rugose crenulato, pone discum fovea 
media rotundata sed hand profunda impresso ; elytris 
paulo ventricosis, profunde sed subconfuse substriato- 
punctatis, interstitiis obsoletissime subconvexis. 

Long. corp. lin. |-1. 

Corticaria fulva, (pars), Woll. [nee Mann. 1844], Ins. 
Mad. 185 (1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 65 (1857); Id., 
Col. Atl. 148 (1865) . Corticaria ciliata. Mots., Bull. Mosc. 
55 (1867). _ Corticaria atte^mata,? Mots., lh\d.Q7 (1867) 
— status minor? Corticaria unicariniilata, ? Mots., Ibid. 
76 (1867) — status minor ? 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.); domos in ipsa urbe Fun- 
chalensi praecipue colons ; forsan ex alienis introducta. 

Atlantic Ooleoptera. 249 

Ohs. — Species a sequent! (i. o., nisi fallor, C. fulva, 
Mann.) parum distincta ; differt corpore paulo convexiore 
et magis ovali (sc. sensiin minus oblongo), necnon, pr£e- 
sertim in capite prothoraceque, grossius punctate, et pilis 
etiam sublongioribus obsito ; prothorax magis transversus 
fovea media magis rotundata et paulo minus profunda 
impressus, elytra quoque sensim magis ventricosa. 

Amongst the Madeiran specimens which I have hitherto, 
from time to time, assigned to the European C. fulva a 
certain number are more strongly punctured than the 
rest, and seem to difter also in a few other distinctive 
characters ; and I have little doubt that they represent 
the particular form (perhaps a truly specific one) which 
Motschoulsky described, three years ago, under the title 
of ciliata. It is equally common, with what I believe to 
be the true fulva, in the houses of Fulchal, — the two 
species, which much resemble each other at first sight, 
being usually met with together; and both have doubt- 
less been naturalized from some more northern country. 
The G. ciliata (if rigiitly understood, and identified, by 
me) may be known from the fulva in being a trifle more 
oval and convex (the prothora,x being a little wider and 
more developed, and the elytra somewhat rounder and 
more ventricose) , and clothed with perhaps even a still 
longer fulvescent pile, in its head and prothorax being 
much more coarsely punctured, aud in the fovea with 
which the latter is impressed behind being appreciably 
shallower, as well as a trifle smaller and more rounded. 
Its colour, too, although often quite as pale as that of 
what I believe to be the /w?ya, is more frequently of a 
slightly darker tint — being generally bruivnish testaceous. 

The C. attenuata and unicarinulata, of Motschoulsky, 
judging from their diagnoses, might well have been 
erected on accidentally small examples of this species; 
indeed I possess a specimen, undoubtedly conspecific 
with the rest, which answers almost exactly to his descrip- 
tion of the former, and nearly as well with that of the 
latter; and until further evidence therefore shall prove 
the contrary, I must regard them both as referable to 
the ciliata. 

(Sp. 423) Gorticaria fulva. 

C. oblonga, subnitida, rufo-testacea (antennis pedibus- 
que paulo dilutioribus), longe fulvo-pilosa ; capite pro- 

250 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

thoraceque alutaceis et leviter punctatis, hoc subquadrato- 
cordatOj ad latera rugose crenulato, pone discum fovea 
media magna profunda transverso-rotundata impresso ; 
elytris sabrugulose substriato-punctatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. |-1. 

Latridius fulvus (Cbevr.), Villa, Cat. Col. Eur. 45 
(1833) . Gorticaria fulva, Mann., in Germ. Zeitsch. v. 42 
(1844); {jmrs), Well., Ins. Mad. 185 (1854); Id., Cat. 
Mad. Col. 65 (1857); Id., Cat. Can. Col. 146 (1864); Id., 
Col. Atl. 148 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.); et Canariensis ? (Lanz., ? 
Ten.?); praecipue in domibus, una cum specie praece- 
denti, degens. 

As already stated, the present species (which I think 
is correctly identified with the ordinary European G. ful- 
va) differs from the preceding one in being a little less 
convex and more strictly oblong (the elytra being rather 
more straightened, or less rounded at the sides), and in 
its sculpture being less coarse, — the head and prothorax 
(the latter of which is narrower and more cordate, and 
impressed with a somewhat larger, deeper, and a little 
more transverse fovea on its hinder disc) being more 
evidently alutaceous, and studded with comparatively 
shallow punctures. It is common, in company with the 
G. ciliata, in Madeira — where it may generally be found 
crawling on the inner walls of the houses ; and although 
I have no access at the present moment to my late 
Canarian types (which are now in the British Museum) , 
I believe that the " G. fulva" recorded by me from Lan- 
zarote and Teneriffe is referable to this species {i. e., to 
what I regard as the true G. fulva), rather than to the 

(Sp. 427) Gorticaria inconspicua. 

Judging from the short diagnosis in the Bulletin de 
Moscou (p. 66, 1867), it seems highly probable to me 
that the C.flavfrons of Motschoulsky was founded upon 
an example (perhaps immature) of this insignificant little 
Gorticaria — so like at first sight (though certainly distinct 
from) the common European G. s errata ; and therefore 
until further evidence has been adduced I prefer assign- 
ing it to the G. inconspicua, rather than running the risk 

Atlantic Ooleoptera. 251 

of multiplying " species " in a somewhat obscure group. 
The G. mconspiciia is far from uncommon within the in- 
habited districts of Madeira, — occurring generally in 
houses and outhouses, and sometimes even under the 
bark of trees, irrespective of elevation. I originally met 
with it, in profusion, amongst bones and chippings of 
wood, in a small outhouse in Mr. Leacock's garden at the 
Quinta de Sdo Joao, near Funchal; and during our late 
campaign we found it beneath the dead bark of Spanish- 
chestnut trees at " the Mount," as well as at S. Antonio 
da Serra. 

After species 427, add : — 

Corticaria transversalis . 

C. elongate- ovata, nitidiuscula, piceo-brunnea (anten- 
nis, clava excepta, pedibusque piceo-testaceis) , breviter 
cinereo-pubescens ; capite profunde sed prothorace paulo 
levins ac confuse punctatis, hoc angustulo, subcordato- 
quadrato, versus angulos anticos obtuse rotundato, 
angulis ipsissimis posticis minute subrectis, ad latera 
integro (nee crenulato), pone medium late transversim 
impresso (impressione maxima, sublunato-arcuatu) ; ely- 
tris substriato-punctatis (fere quasi-subcrenulatis). 

Long. Corp. lin. f . 

Latridius transversalis, Schilppel, in litt. ; Gyll., Ins. 
Suec. iv. 133 (1827). Corticaria transversalis, Mann., 
Mon. 51 (1844). 

Ilab. — Maderenses (Mad.) ; in montibus longe supra 
Funchal, in horto quodam (inter quisquilias) , semel de- 

A single example of the common European C. trans- 
versalis was taken by my wife (on the 6th of January, 
1870) during our late sojourn in Madeira — namely, 
amongst vegetable refuse, in the garden of the Quinta 
do Prazer, at " the Mount," above Funchal ; and it is 
not unlikely that the species may have become natural- 
ized accidentally from more northern latitudes. If such 
be the case, however, there can be no doubt that it is 
extremely rare, — -for, in spite of a subsequent residence 
of two months on the actual spot where it was captured, 
and the most careful collecting from day to day, we 

252 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

failed to procure even a second. Apart from its dark- 
brown hue and elongate- ovate outline, it may at once be 
known from the other Madeiran Corticarice hitherto 
brought to light by the broad transverse arcuated im- 
pression which stretches completely across the hinder 
region of its (rather narrowed) prothorax. 

(Sp. 431) Corticaria tenella. 

It would appear from the Baron Harold's recent Cata- 
logue that a Corticaria was published by Leconte (Proc. 
Ac. Phil. 301) under the title of tenella in 1855 ; so that 
the little Canarian species which I described in 1864 will, 
in consequence, require a new name. I would therefore 
propose for it that of delicatula (which seems to be un- 
appropriated in this genus) , and will cite its corrected 
synonymy thus: — 

Corticaria delicatula. 

Corticaria tenella, Well, [nee Lee. 1855], Cat. Can. Col. 
150 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 151 (1865). 

Hah. — Canariensis {Can., Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro); 

p. 152 (genus Latridius) . 

It is somewhat remarkable that the British L. nodifer 
should have escaped all former observations in the Atlan- 
tic islands, for during our late sojourn at Madeira we met 
with it in profusion throughout the entire district of 
"the Mount'' (from about 1600 to 1900 feet above Fun- 
chal) , and likewise in scarcely less abundance at S. An- 
tonio da Serra. It was obtained chiefly from amongst 
garden-refuse, and by sifting, in cultivated spots; and I 
think it far from unlikely therefore that the species has 
become accidentally naturalized from some more northern 
country. At any rate it is an interesting addition to the 
catalogue, and all the more so since it has been recorded 
by Mr. Crotch as having been taken likewise in S. Miguel 
and Fayal at the Azores. The following brief diagnosis 
will suffice to inaugui-ate the species into the Madeiran 

Atlantic Goltvptera. 253 

Latridius nodifer. 

L. elongate- ovatus, niger vel piceo-niger, valde in- 
a3qualis, subnitidus ; prothorace subquadrato-cordato, in 
disco bicostato, necnon utrinque costa secunda flexuosa 
(in medio evanescente, fracta) instructo; elytris grosse 
striato-punctatis, interstitiis alternis plus minus inter- 
rupte elevatis, interstitio 2do pone medium nodum 
magnum efficiente, 4to magis costiformi ac magis elevato, 
subtlexuoso sed ante apicem subito terminate, 6to 
(humerali) recto abbreviate, ante medium evanescente; 
antennis gracilibus pedibusque picescentioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Latridius nodifer, Westw., Int. to Ent. i. 155, pi. 13, 
f. 23 (1839); Steph., Man. Brit. Col. 129 (1839); 
Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend. 373 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; inter quisquilias, prseser- 
tim in cultis intei'mediis, copiose occurrens. 

After species 437, add : — 

Latridius Watsoni, n. sp. 

L. elongato-filiformis, pallidus, subopacus ; capita 
protheraceque angustissimis, rufo-testaceis, dense punc- 
tato-rugosis, ille elongate- quadrate, antice recto sat 
prominulo, oculis minutis prominentibus, hoc obtriangu- 
lari-cordato ; coleopteris paralle-ellipticis, dense et grosse 
striato-punctatis, interstitiis 2de et submarginali alte 
elevatis, costas duas integras utrinque efficientibus; 
antennis pedibusque gracilibus, testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. f . 

Hab. — Maderenses (Mad.) ; in demo quodam mox 
supra urbem Funchalensem a Rev'^o Dem° Watson parce 
deprehensus, cujus in lionerem nomen triviale propesui. 

Four examples of this remarkable and most elegant 
little Latridius have lately been detected by the Rev. W. 
B. Watson, crawling on the inner walls of his house — 
the Quinta do Valle — above Funchal; and I have much 
pleasure in naming it after its captor, whose indefatigable 
researches in various branches of natural science, espe- 
cially concholegy, are well known both in the island and 
elsewhere. Its wholly testaceous hue and marvellously 

254 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

narrowed outline (the elongate-quadrate head and sub- 
cordate prothorax being narrower than in any Latridms 
with which I am acquainted), in conjunction with its 
minute eyes and pai-allel- elliptic elytra — which are 
densely and coarsely striate-punctate, and have their 
second interstice, as well as the subraarginal one, elevated 
into an unbroken costa extending from the base to the 
extreme apex, — give it a character which it is impossible 
to mistake. Its head and prothorax (the anterior portion 
of the former, containing the mouth-organs, being much 
developed and prominent) are greatly roughened, and 
almost scabrose, and its limbs are slender. 

The L. Watsoni, like most of the Latridii, and other 
insects of similar habits, is manifestly not truly indigenous 
in Madeira ; though it may very possibly have become 
naturalized in some of the houses of Funchal. Indeed it 
is far from unlikely that it was originally of even Ameri- 
can origin, for there is an example of it in the collection 
of the British Museum labelled as having been received 
from Chili. 

p. 156 (genus Symbiotes). 

(Sp. 447) Syynhiotes i^ygmoBus. 

According to Tournier {Tet. Nouv, Ent. No. 3), who 
professes to have seen Heer's type, the Symhiotes pyg- 
7}iceus is identical with the " Epurcea ruhiginosa" of that 
author; and of course, therefore, if this should prove to 
be the case, the latter specific title (having been published 
nine years before the other) would have the priority. 
However I cannot but feel that there must be some mis- 
take either on the part of M. Tournier, or else perhaps 
in the accidental transposition of Prof. Heer^s types, — 
for, in the first place, there is no species published by 
Dr. Heer under the actual title of Epurcea ruhiglnosa ; 
Erichson's genus EpurcBa was not even established until 
two years after the appearance of the ' Fauna Coleopte- 
rorum Helvetica.' There is a " Nitidula ruhiginosa" it 
is true, which I fully admit, from its position in the 
genus, must in all probability be an Epurcea, ; but it is 
well-nigh incredible, judging from the diagnosis, that it 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 255 

can have anything whatever to do with the Mycetopha- 
gideous genus Symbiotes, — Dr. Heer being far too acute 
a Coleopterist ever to have permitted a totally dissimilar 
form like the latter to be introduced amongst his ordinary 
Nitidulce, in the situation moreover which the following 
specific sequence will show: — N. flexuosa, F., 10-guttata, 
F., ruhiginosa, Heer, silacea, Hbst., ohsoleta, F. More- 
over, apart from the description itself, the very size 
given for the N. ruhiginosa (namely a line and a quarter) 
renders it quite inapplicable to the 8ymhiotes 'jpygmcBus — 
which measures from seven-eighths to (at utmost) one 
line. Until therefore further evidence is adduced, I shall 
refuse to believe that Heer's insect and Hampe's are even 
congeneric, — so much more, therefore, conspecific. 


p. 168 (genus Sapeinus). 

(Sp. 485) Saprimis ignohilis. 

In the Appendix to the ' Coleoptera Hesperidum ' I 
called attention to the fact that De Marseul, without 
stating the reason why, has changed {L'Abeille, i. 353 ; 
1864) the title of my Saprinus ignohilis into " S. Wollas- 
toni." I think it sufficient just to mention this; though 
until some explanation on his part be forthcoming I 
cannot believe that the alteration is valid, not knowing 
on what principle it has been made. 

(Sp. 489) Saprinus nitidulus. 

The name '' semistriatus" for this common and ^^^dely- 
spread Saprinus (which has been cited, also, by Mr. 
Crotch from the Azores) seems to have the precedence 
over ''nitidulus.'' Hence its synonymy must be thus 
corrected : — 

Saprinus semistriatus. 

Bister semistriatus, Hbst., Kiif. iv. 306 (1791). Bister 
nitidulus, Fab., Syst. Eleu. i. 85 (1801). SaiJrinus niti- 
dulus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 215 (1854) ; Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 
75 (1857); Id., Cat. Can. Col. 169 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 
171 (1865). 

]Jah. — Maderenses {Mad.) , et Canarienses {Lanz., Can., 
Ten.) ; in cadaveribus, hinc inde abundans. 

256 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 


p. 179 (genus Oxyomus) . 

The two species •which, in my ' Coleoptera Atlantidum ' 
and previous publications, I regarded as Oxyovd have 
been formed (along with many others), by the Baron 
Harold (Col. Heft. ii. 100-1867), into a distinct group — 
under the title of Atcenms ; and consequently, since the 
0. Heinekeni has moreover heen identified by him with 
the Scarabceus stercorator of Fabi'icius, they must for the 
future be cited as follows : — 

Atcenius stercorator. 

Scarabceus stercorator, Fab., Spec. Ins. i. 22 (1781) ; 
Oliv., Eut. i. 3-89, t. 17, f. 155 (1789). Oxyomus Heinec- 
feewi, WoU., Ins. Mad. 228(1854). Ox yo7uus Heinekeni, 
Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 79 (1857) ; Id., Col. Atl. 179 

Hab. — Maderenses (Mad.); sub putridis in inferioribus 

Atoinius brevicollis. 

Oxyomus brevicollis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 229 (1854) ; Id., 
Cat. Mad. Col. 79 (1857) ; Id., Cat. Can. Col. 191 
(1864) ; Id., Col. Atl. 179 (1865). 

Hab. — Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses [Gom., 
Palma) ; passim. 


It will be sufficient to state here that Blanchard, in his 
' Cat. de la Coll. Ent. du Mus. d' Hist. Nat. de Paris,' 
published in 1850, has described a member of the genus 
Hoplia (under the name of H. Peronii) which is said xo 
have been brought [doubtless by M. Peron] from Tene- 
riffe. I can do no more than allude to this fact, for I 
have had so many instances forced upon my notice of 
the almost incredible want of accuracy displayed by many 
French entomologists as regards tJieir professed luibitats 
that it is next to impossible not to suspect that perhaps 

Atlantic Coleoptcra. 257 

some error may have occurred in the citation as '' Tene- 
riffan " of the exponent of a group of which I have seen 
no single representative throughout the numerous islands 
of these scattered archipelagos. Is it possible that M. 
Peron may have touched at some Mediterranean country, 
or island, en route, and afterwards mixed-up unintention- 
ally a portion of his collectanea from two distinct regions ? 
Be this as it may, I will at any rate, without holding 
myself responsible for the accuracy of the supposed 
hahitat, just cite the short diagnosis of M. Blanchard, in 
order to call attention to the iact that a Hoplia (although 
totally undetected during any of our recent campaigns) 
may possibly be found to exist in the Canarian Group. 

Hoplia Peronii. 

" H. aulica affinis, sed distincta, prothorace angustiore ; 
elytris oblougioribus, laete viridi - squamosis, pedibus 
tenuioinbus, tibiarumque dente primo minore.^' 

Blanchard, he. cit. 72 (1850). 

Hah. — Canarienses ? {Te7i. ?) ; mihi non obvia, sed a 
Dom. Blanchard citata. 


The observations which I have just made with respect 
to the Hoplia Peronii might be repeated here, for it 
appears to be on precisely the same authority that M. 
Blanchard has admitted into his Catalogue a Tricliius 
(under the title of T. Fortunatarum) which purports to 
have come from Tenerifie. It is of course possible that 
the genus may have a representative in the Canarian 
archipelago, but I have certainly no other evidence of 
its existence in any of the various islands of these widely- 
scattered Atlantic Groups ; and it is at least remarkable 
that two such conspicuous forms as Trichins and Hoplia 
should have escaped our combined researches during so 
many campaigns, and that yet both of them should be 
supplied by a single naturalist who appears to have 
made a passing visit to Teneriffe. I must be excused 
therefore, under the circumstances, if a slight suspicion 
should involuntarily arise that there may perhaps have 
been some unintentional mistake in M. Peron's habitats; 

258 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

though as it is of course impossible to ascertain this for 
certain, I will (as in the case of the Hoplia already 
referred to) cite the diagnosis of M. Blan chard, while at 
the same time recording my conviction that further evi- 
dence is greatly needed in order to establish the species 
as a truly Canarian one. 

Trichius Fortunatarum. 

" T. affinis prsecedentibus [sc. zonatus, Germ., abdomi- 
nalis, Sch., et fasciatus, Linn.] ; thorace depresso, fere 
quadrate, denudato ; elytris aureis, sutura faciisque tribus 
nigris, prima secundaque interruptis. 

Du voyage de M. Peron." 

Blanchard, Liste des Get. du Museum, 21 (1842) ; Id., 
Cat. Col. Ent. 47 (1850). 

Hah. — Canarienses ? {Ten. ?) ; a Dom. Blanchard cita- 
tus, sed mihi ignotus. Species dubia, a T. zonato, 
Europae meridionalis Algeriaeque, teste cl. Harold, vix 


p. 186 (genus Acm^odera) . 
(Sp. 533) Acmceodera ornata. 

It would seem that there is a Fabrician Buprestid (of 
which I was not aware) bearing the specific title " ornata/' 
which enters into this genus ; and the Baron Harold 
appears therefore to have proposed for my Fuerteventuran 
Acmceodera the name of elegans instead. Hence, the 
corrected synonymy will be as follows : — 

Acmceode7'a elegans. 

Acmceodera ornata, Woll. [nee Fab.], Gat. Can. Col. 
207 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 187 (1865). Acnmodera 
elegans, Harold, Col. Heft. v. 223 (1869) ; Id., Cat. Col. 
1410 (1869). 

Hab. — Canarienses (Fuert.) ; semel deprehensa. 

Atlantic Goleoptera. 259 


p. 196 (genus Attalus) . 

(Sp. 573) Attalus rugosus. 

As in the case of the following species, a rather wider 
range has been ascertained for the present Attalus than 
what was indicated in the ' Coleoptera Atlantidum/ 
Until recently it had been observed only on the low 
sea-cliSs to the westward of Funchal ; but during our 
late sojourn in Madeira we met with it (in company with 
the Pecteropus rostratus) , amongst flowers, on the Ponta 
de Sao Louren^o ; and I also perceive that a single 
example of it has been mixed up with my series of the 
Pecteropus rostratus which I collected in Porto Santo 
about twenty years ago. Hence it would seem to have 
much the same range, and habit, as that insect ; for we 
may expect that it will be found to occur (at an equally 
low elevation) on the Desertas likewise. Apart from 
minor differences, it may readily be known from the P. 
•maderensis, to which in outline and general aspect it is 
much allied, and which is peculiar to the higher alti- 
tudes of the Madeiran Group, by its more densely 
roughened and less shining surface, as well as by its 
flatter head, and by its slenderer and less pallid limbs. 
The following brief entry will suflice to place on record 
its more extended range — as lately ascertained. 

Attalus rugosus, 

Pecteropus rugosus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 249 (1854) ; Id., 
Cat. Mad. Col. 86 (1857). Attalus rugosus, Id., Col. 
Atl. 202 (1865) . 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad., Pto. Sto.) ; ad flores in in- 
ferioribus, praesertim juxta mare, ssepe cum Pecteropo 
ruguso degens. 

p. 202 (genus Pecteropus) . 
(Sp. 574) Pecteropus rostratus. 

In the ' Coleoptera Atlantidum ' I stated that this in- 
sect has been observed only in Porto Santo, and on the 
two southern Desertas; but during our late visit to 

260 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Madeira we met with it, rather abundantly, on the 30tli 
of March, on the Ponta de Sao LourenQO — the low rocky- 
promontory which stretches out, in the direction of the 
Desertas, in the extreme east of that island. Hence there 
is every reason to suspect that it will be found on the 
northern Deserta likewise, and that the species is conse- 
quently universal (on the sea- cliff's of a low elevation) 
throughout the Madeiran Group. It is remarkable how- 
ever that, so far as Madeira proper is concerned, the Sao 
Louren^o promontory would appear to be its peculiar 
habitat; a fact which affords another instance of the 
curious affinity which that singular tongue of land pos- 
sesses, not merely with the Desertas (from which it is 
separated by a channel of only nine miles in breadth) , 
but even (and in a still moi'e remarkable manner) with 
the more remote island of Porto Santo. I have already 
mentioned elsewhere that the Desertan examples are, on 
the average, a trifle larger and more roughly sculptured 
than those from Porto Santo, with their prothorax just 
appreciably wider (or less laterally-compressed), and 
with their tibiae more or less obscurely darkened ; and 
this state I regarded as a " var. ^," treating the Porto- 
Santan ones as typical. The specimens from Madeira 
proper are, I find, almost similar to those from the 
Desertas ; and, moreover, amongst my original series 
from Porto Santo (collected in 1848 and 1850) there are 
several, I now perceive, which belong to the same rugu- 
lose form cited by me as the "var.^;" though I am 
not the less persuaded, on that account, that the two 
states (although perhaps not so strictly "insular" as I 
had suspected) are but very slightly altered races of a 
single rather variable type. Nevertheless, in order to 
define their points of difference more exactly, and to place 
on record the more extended range of the ''var. /8," I 
will cite the species afresh as follows : — • 

Pecterojms rostratus. 

status a (typicus) . — Plerumque subminor, ac sensira 
minus rugose sculpturatus, prothorace sub-angustiore, 
i. e., magis lateraliter compresso, pedibus sEepius omnino 
pallidis. [ins. Tortus Sandus.] 

status |Q (aberrans) floricola. — Plerumque submajor, 
ac sensim magis rugose sculpturatus, prothorace paulu- 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 261 

lum minus angustato, i. e., sensim minus lateraliter com- 
presso, tibiis seepius plus minus evidenter obscurioribus. 
[ins. Afadera, Partus Sanctus, Deserta Grandis, et Deserta 

Pecteropus rostratus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 250, tab. iv. f. 
9 (1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 86 (1857); Id., Col. Atl. 
202 (1865). 

Hab. — Maderenses (Mad., Pto. Sto., Des., Bugio) ; ad 
flores in apricis minus elevatis, tempore vernali, hinc 
inde vulgaris. 


p. 206 (genus Dolichosoma) . 

In a revision of the members of this group (Berl. Ent. 
Zeit. 136-140; 1867) Kiesenwetter states that the D. 
Hartuvgii, of the Canarian archipelago, will fall under 
his subgenus Dolichophron ; and that the Madeiran and 
Mediterranean " Dasytes iUustris" (usually cited, also, 
as a Dolichosoma) , will enter the subgenus to which he 
has applied the name of Psilotlirix. This latter species I 
may add, occurs also on the Great Salvage, — an example 
having lately been detected by myself in a bottle of 
Coleoptera which had been obtained by the Baron Paiva 
from that remote island. 


p. 225 (genus Anobium) . 

(Sp. 641) Anobium striatum. 

It would appear that this common, widely-diffused 
Anobium must be cited as the " domesticum, Fourcr.," 
that name having the priority over Olivier's " striatum." 
Hence its synonymy should be thus cited : — 

Anobium domesticum. 

Anobium domesticum, Fourcr., Ent. Par. i. 26 (1785). 
Anobium striatum, Oliv., Ent. ii. 16-9 (1790); Well., Ins. 
Mad. 278 (1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 92(1857); Id., 
Cat. Can. Col. 250 (1864) ; Id., Col. Atl. 227 (1865). 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad., Des.) , et Canarienses {Ten., 
Gom., Palma) ; late sed parce diffusum. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (MAY.) T 

262 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

After species 644, add -.^ 

Anohium nitidulum, n. sp. 

A. cylindricum, rufo-ferrugineum, nitidulum, grosse 
griseo-pubescens, et parce (sed in pi-othorace paulo 
densius) granulatuin, aut forsan asperato-punctulatum. 
A. molli similimura, sed paululum minor, clarius rufes- 
cens, nitidior, minus dense et minus rugose granulatum, 
et pube sensim longiore ac robustiore vestitum. 

Long. Corp. lin. l^ — 2. 

Hah. — Maderenses [Mad.) ; a Dom. Anderson hand 
longe ab urbe Funchalensi, sc. ad Sanctum Antoniura, 
inter pinos, olim captum. 

Several examples of an Anohium, which were taken in 
Madeira by the late Mr, F. A. Anderson (namely at S. 
Antonio, near Funchal), have long been placed aside by 
me, unexamined, as in all probability small individuals 
of the European A. moUe — a species which occurs, also, 
though sparingly, both in the Madeiran and Canarian 
archipelagos. A more critical inspection, however, shows 
them to be truly distinct; and 1 may add that Mr. Rye 
is equally of opinion that they cannot be regarded as any 
state, or variety, of the nioUe. They appear to differ 
from the latter in being on the average a little smaller, 
and of a clearer or more rufo-castaneous hue, in their 
granules (or asperated punctules, if so regarded) being 
more distant and minute, and in their surface being more 
shining, and clothed with a coarser pubescence. Mr. 
Rye has called my attention to an Anohiwih described by 
Mulsant (Opusc. Ent. 13, Cah. 117; 1863), under the 
name of consimile, which might possibly prove to be the 
one which we are now considering ; but since the author 
says nothing about the manifest difference of sculpture 
(as compared with the A, molle) , and leaves equally 
unnoticed its more shining and more coarsely pubescent 
surface, it is scarcely possible to treat his insect as con- 
specific with the Madeiran one. 


p. 236 (genus ToMicus) . 

(Sp. 665) Tomicus nohilis. 

This fine Canarian wood-borer is said by Ferrari (Berl. 
Ent. Zeitsch. 254 ; 1868) to belong to the subgenus Cyr- 

Atlantic Coleoptcra. 263 

totomieus; and he is further of opinion that it may possibly 
he, in reality, but a large local form of the C. dujplicatus, 
Sahib, [zzirectangulus , Eichh., in litt.). 

p. 239 (genus Aphanarthrum) . 

In my definition of this genus {vide Ins. Mad. 292 ; 
1854) I stated, unreservedly, the funiculus to be 3-arti- 
culate ; and it was not until seven years afterwards, when 
compiling a paper on the " EnpJwrbia-iniestmg Coleop- 
tera of the Canary Islands," for the 'Trans, of the Ent. 
Soc, of London/ that a re-examination of several of the 
antennas (carefully mounted in Canada Balsam) convinced 
me that in reality only two joints were distinctly appre- 
ciable, — although in one species (the Madeiran A. eu- 
phoj'hice, from which my original diagnosis was drawn out) 
I fancied that I could still trace a third, infinitesimal 
articulation between the second one and the club : and 
this led me to the conclusion that it would perhaps be 
safer to regard the funiculus of Aphanarthrum as only 
5i-articulate, — though, at the same time, adding the 
qualification " that in one species, at all events, there are 
indications, beneath a high microscopic power, of what 
may possibly be an additional joint at the base of the 
capitulum.'^ And I then remarked that "when thus 
emended, the diagnosis will better accord with what is 
likely to be observed; whilst the fact of an extra joint 
being faintly indicated in one of the exponents will leave 
it an open question whether the funiculus may not in 
reality be triarticulate, even though but two joints are 
distinctly traceable in the various members of the group" 
[^vide Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend., 3rd ser., i, 165; 1861]. 
Under these circumstances it is satisfactory to notice 
that Ferrari, in a paper published in the 'Berliner Ent. 
Zeitsch.' in 1868, came to much the same conclusion, — 
remarking (p. 254) that the A. Juhce, canariense, and 
eupliorhice appeared to him to have a 2-jointed funiculus, 
while in the luridus the funiculus seemed to be indis- 
tinctli/ triarticulate. 

Taking the above considerations into account, I cannot 
altogether endorse the suspicion of Leconte (Trans. Am. 
Ent. Soc. ii. 152) that the llylastes pumilus of Manner- 
heira, from Alaska, which forms the type of Eichhoff's 
genus Dolurg us (Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. 147; 1868), should 


264 Mr. T. Vernon WoUaston on 

be referred to Aplianarthrum ; for althougli Leconte 
thinks that Eichhoff was mistaken in regarding the funi- 
culus of Dolurgus as 4-jointed, believing it rather to be 
triarticulate, the fact at least remains that at any rate 
three joints must be thoroughly apparent (as indeed he 
plainly affirms), — whereas in Aphanarthriim (as already 
shown) it seems more probable that the funiculus is com- 
posed of only two articulations. 

p. 244 (genus Cryptuegus) . 

(Sp. 686) Crypturgus concolor. 

Ferrari thinks it possible {vide Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. 254; 
1868) that this may prove to be but a geographical form 
of the European G. pusillus, Gyll. 

p. 250 (genus Hylastes) . 
(Sp. 703) Hylastes trifoUi. 

This European Hylastes, which is locally rather abun- 
dant in the intermediate elevations of Madeira (where it 
would seem to be attached principally to the Genista sco- 
paria, or common Broom) ^ has been shown to be con- 
specific with the ohscurus of Marsham. Its corrected 
synonymy, therefore, will be as follows : — 

Hylastes ohscurus. 

jps o&sc«rws, Mshm., Ent. Brit. 57 (1802). Hylesinus 
trifolii, MiilL, Journ. du Mont Tonnere (1803). Hylastes 
trifolii, Well., Ins. Mad. 304 (1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 
99 (1857); Id., Col. Atl. 251 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); praecipue inter ramulos 
emortuos Genistce scoparice, L., hinc inde in intermediis. 


p. 252 (genus Rhyncolus). 

(Sp. 706) Rhyncolus crassirostris. 

In the Appendix to my ' Coleoptera Hesperidum' I 
called attention to the fact that the title of crassirostris 

Atlantic Goleoptera. 265 

for this insect must be changed, that name having been 
pre-occupied by Perris (in the '^ Ann. de la Soc. Linn, de 
Lyon/ s('r. 2, iv. 147) for a Bliyncolus from the south of 
France; and, having therefore at the time proposed that 
of pimpotens instead, the synonymy of the species will 
stand as follows : — 

Rhyncolus pinipotens. 

Rhyncol'us crassirostris, WoU. [nee Perris], Trans. Ent. 
Soc. Lond. V. 367, pi. 18, f. 3 (1861); Id., Cat. Can. 
Col. 270 (1864) ; Id., Col. Atl. 252 (1865). Rhyncolus 
piWj90^en.9, Id., Col. Hesp. (Append.) 275 (1867). 

Hah. — Canarienses (Can.) ; lignum antiquum Piiii 
canariensis in montibus parce destruens. 

p. 259 (genus Caulotrupis) . 

After species 726, add: — 

Caulotrupis pyricollis, n. sp. 

C. ellipticus, nigro-^neus (rarius feneus) , subnitidus ; 
prothoi"ace pyriformi-conico, fere impunctato (sc. punc- 
tulis levissimis parce irrorato) ; elytris obsolete et 
levissime subpunctulato- striatis, striis postice paulo 
distinctioribus, antice evanescentibus; antennis brevius- 
culis, ferrugineis, pedibus rufo-piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-2. 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; sub cortice, truncis humi 
jacentibus, lignoque recenter secto, in castanetis longe 
supra urbem Funchalensem (priesertim inter 1600' et 
2000' s. m.), vulgaris. 

Ohs. — Species C. conicolli affinis, sed nisi fallor dis- 
tincta ; differt corpore plus minus evidenter angustiore 
aut magis oblongo-elliptico {nee obpyriformi) , necnon 
minus senescenti minusque nitido, prothorace sublougiore, 
subampliore, minus argute conico, elytris postico minus 

I cannot feel altogether certain that this Caulotrupis is 
more than an extreme variety, or race, of the C. conicollis, 
— for the Caulotnipides appear to be eminently liable to 
slight alterations, both in outline and sculpture, accord- 
ing to the exact locality in which they severally occur. 

266 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Nevertheless since the present one, which abounds 
throughout the region of "the Mount " (from about 1700 
to 2000 feet above Funchal) , has very decided characters 
to separate it from at any rate the typical G, conicollis, I 
think it better, in spite of a few rather doubtful examples 
which have elsewhere occurred (and which would seem 
in some respects to be intermediate between the two) , to 
treat it as distinct. In that particular district it often 
swarms beneath chippings of wood, and under logs and 
planks, and never appears to be mixed-up with the true 
conicollis — ^ which occurs more especially towards the 
eastern parts of the island, being tolerably common at S. 
Antonio da Serra and along the high sea-cliffs towards 
the Brazen Head ; yet this very fact, I am aware, might 
tend to imply that it is but a modification, or race, pecu- 
liar to the mountain slopes above Funchal. Be this how- 
ever as it may (for it seems next to impossible to decide 
for certain) , the G. pyricollis may be said to differ from 
the conicollis in being a little narrower and more oblong 
(the elytra being less expanded in the middle, and there- 
fore the whole outline less pear-shaped or broadly-elliptic) , 
in its prothorax being a trifle wider and more developed 
(being perhaps somewhat less strictly conical), in its 
elytra being more even behind (where there is less appear- 
ance of the inequalities occasioned by the anteriorly- 
evanescent sulcate striae) , and in its entire surface being, 
on the average, a little darker, less shining, and less 
brassy. Still, considering the variations which the mem- 
bers of this genus are apt to undergo in the different 
districts in which they are found, I would desire to record 
at any rate my doubt as to whether the G. pyriformis is 
more in reality than an extreme modification of the coni- 

p. 265 (genus Nanophyes) . 

(Sp. 738) Nanophyes longulus. 

It would appear, according to Brisout de Barneville 
(L'Aheille, vi.), that this Canarian Nanophyes is con- 
specific with the N. Ghevrieri, Boh., from southern and 
south -westei'n Europe, and perhaps also with the 
(previously-described) N. nitidulus of Gyllenhal. Pos- 
sessing no type of these species, I cannot test the 
conclusion for myself; but assuming the identification 
to be correct, the emended synonymy will stand thus : — 

Atlantic Coleojytera. 267 

Nanophyes Chevrieri. 

Nanophyes nitidulus? (HofFm.), Gyll., in Sclion. iv, 
785 (1838). Nanophyes Chevrieri, Boh., in Schon. viii. 
(pars 2) 193 (1845). Nanophyes longuhis, Woll., Cat. 
Can. Col. 299 (18G4) ; Id., Col. Atl. 265 (1865). 

Hah. — Canarieuses (Can., Ten.) ; super folia planta- 
rum in herbidis intermediis humidiusculis, rarior. 

p. 270 (genus Acalles) . 

While residing at S. Antonio da Serra, on the moun- 
tains in the east of Madeira, during March, April, and 
May of 1870, 1 had an opportunity of observing the habits 
of at any I'ate four of the numerous species of Acalles 
peculiar to the island, — three of which may be said to be 
universal throughout that particular district. The species 
to which I refer are the terminalis, dispar, WoUastoni, 
and glohulipennis, — all of which occur amongst the lichen 
which clothes the trunks and boughs of the trees, which, 
from the general humidity of that cloudy region, attains 
an unusual amount of development. The apple trees, on 
account of the marvellously thick Cryptogamic envelope 
of their branches and dead twigs, were more particularly 
rich in the lichen-infesting forms; and in such situations 
(accompanied by the equally common Tarphius Lowei) 
the Acalles WoUastoni might be said almost to abound. 
The A. glohulipennis and terniinalis were less plentiful, — 
yet widely distributed, and by no means scarce; and at 
a still higher altitude (perhaps from about 8000 to 4000 
feet above the sea) the A. dispar, when searched for in 
the proper situations, literally swarmed. This last was 
usually to be met with congregating in the larger kinds 
of lichen which are accustomed to hang in dense masses 
from the gnarled trunks of the old laurels; and towards 
the summit of the Pico Gordo the few trees which are 
still remaining, amongst the thickets of the Vacciniimi 
maderense, were pretty sure, in every instance, when well 
shaken into a net, to yield a liberal supply. 

p. 284 (genus Torneuma) . 

We are informed by Mr. G. R. Crotch (Pet. Nouv. Ent. 
No. 12) that Fairmaire's genus Crypharis, founded {Ann. 

268 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

cle la Soc. Ent. de France, 498) in 1868 for the reception 
of a small blind Curculionid from Algeria and Sicily, is 
identical with my Madeiran and Canarian Torneiima, — 
his type however {C. planidorsis) being specifically dis- 
tinct from both of the Atlantic ones, I need scarcely 
add, if this be the case, that the title of Tornemna, having 
been proposed in 1860, has of course the priority. 

p. 296 (genus Peocas) . 

(Sp. 822) Procas picipes. 

During our late sojourn in Madeira a single example of 
this rare European Curculionid was captured by my wife 
at "the Mount/^ about 1700 feet above Funchal, — 
making the third which has hitherto been recorded from 
the Madeiran Group. Of the other two, the first was 
found by the late Mr. F. A. Anderson, at a high elevation, 
on the edges of the Great Curral, and the second by Mr, 
Bewicke — ^in his garden at the Quinta da Palmeira. 

p. 298 (genus Lixus) . 

(Sp. 829) Lixus rujitarsis. 

According to Desbrochers des Logos {Pet. Nouv. Ent. 
No. 10), the European and Madeiran L. rujitarsis of 
Sclionherr's work is in all probability a phasis of the 
widely spread Fabrician L. filiformis. Still, as this re- 
quires corroboration, I shall not until farther evidence 
has been adduced disturb the present synonymy. 

p. 304 (genus Hypera) . 

According to a late revision of the Hyperides by M. G. 
Capiomont {Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, vii. et viii.; 
1867-68), the species of this group which I cited in the 
' Coleoptera Atlantidum^ enter more properly into the 
genus Phytonomus, as there separated (and distinguished) 
from Hypera proper; so that^ for the future, they must 
be corrected accordingly. 

(Sp. 839) Hypera lunata. 

This Phytonomus is said by M. Capiomont to be not spe- 
cifically separable from the widely-spread P. fasciculatus ; 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 2G9 

but I cannot help thinking (as indeed I have long ago 
expressed) that the form which obtains throughout the 
Mediten-anean region and the Atlantic islands (extend- 
ing even to Egypt and Ab3'ssinia), and which is a little 
larger and differently marked, cannot be absolutely 
identified with the one which occurs in sub-northern 
Europe; and if therefore the latter be the true fa scicti- 
latus of Herbst, it follows that the other (which is 
undoubtedly Olivier's daiici, and which I subsequently 
described under the name lunatus) must be accepted as 
distinct. * Under these circumstances, therefore, I will 
not at present amalgamate them ; though the title under 
which the species has hitherto been acknowleged by me 
must be changed, — that of " dauci" (which until lately 
I was not aware had been actViQWy 'piibli shed by Olivier) 
having of course the priority. 

As mentioned in my ' Coleoptera Atlantidum,' the P. 
lunatus {i. e. dauci) is universal throughout the Madeiran 
and Canarian archipelagos — Goraera being the only 
island in the two Groups on which it does not happen, as 
yet, to have been observed ; nevei-theless Capiomont, in 
accordance with that strange want of precision as regards 
habitat which is so characteristic of the French entomo- 
logists, gives merely (for its Atlantic dissemination) 
" File de Madere," — thus ignoring altogether its Canarian 
range ; and that too whilst citing the P. irroratus, which 
is only Canarian, as found equally in " Madeira ! " Assum- 
ing it therefore to be distinct from the typical fascimdatus 
of Herbst, the emended synonymy of this Fhytonomus 
will be as follows: — 

Fhytonomus dauci. 

Bhynchcenus dauci, Oliv., Ent. v. 127, t. 35, f. 542 
(1793). Fhytonomus dauci, ByxxW^, in W. et B. (Col.) 
72 (1838). 'Eypera lanata, Woll., Ins. Mad. 398 (1854); 
Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 118 (1857); Id., Cat. Can. Col. 326 
(1864); Id., Col. Atl. 304 (1865). Fhytonomus fascicu- 
latus (pars), Cap., loc. cit. 129 (1868). 

* Even Capiomont himself remarks that " En general, les fascicidatus 
du nord de I'Europe sent plus fences en couleur et plus petits que ceux 
du midi, et surtout que ceux du nord de I'Afrique et de I'Asie occiden- 
tale" (loc. cit. 131). 

270 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad., Pto. 8to., Des.), et Canari- 
ensis (in Gom. sola liaud observatus); sub lapidibus in 
aridis, prgesertim calcai'iis inferioribus, late diflusus. 

(Sp. 840) Hypera irrorata. 

While recording it properly as Canarian, M. Capiomont 
(as just stated) misquotes this insect {loc. cit. 121) as 
like\vise Macleiran, and even refers it (in general terms) to 
the 'Insecta Maderensia;' though, of course, had he 
taken the trouble to look into that volume he would have 
seen at once that it was not contained there. This how- 
ever is but one instance out of many (alluded to, passim, 
in my Canarian Catalogue and elsewhere), in which the 
excessive inaccuracy of the French entomologists, as 
regards habitats, is well-nigh incredible. The fact is, 
that the P. irroratus has been observed hitherto only in 
Lanzarote and Fuerteventura — the two eastern islands of 
the Canarian archipelago. 

After allowing it to be truly distinct, M. Capiomont 
then states that he believes, on re-consideration, that it is 
a variety of the P. isahellinus — a species which is found 
in Arabia, Egypt, and Algeria ; but I suspect that in this 
conjecture he is wrong, — for I compared the Lanzarotan 
and Fuerteventuran insect very diligently with types of 
the isabellmus, and pointed out in my Canarian Catalogue 
(p. 327) the exact characters, one or two of tliein being 
structural ones, in which it seemed to me to differ from 
that species. Therefore, until further evidence has been 
adduced, I certainly shall not refer the H. irroratus to the 

(Sp. 841) Hypera murina. 

In my ^Ins. Mad.' and Madeiran Catalogue (published, 
respectively, in 1854 and 1857) I treated the common 
P. murimis and variabilis, however nearly related inter se, 
as specifically distinct; but in 1865, when compiling the 
' Coleoptera Atlantidum,^ I had so thoroughly satisfied 
myself (as I thought) tliat they merge imperceptibly 
into each other that I made up my mind to regard them 
as but phases of a single plastic form, and cited them 
accordingly. Yet M. Capiomont, in his late revision of 
the Hyperides, has expressed his conviction that, after 

Atlantic Goleoptera. 271 

all, they are not conspecific ; so that, on the strength of 
so high an authority, and so careful a monograph, I have 
practically no choice left but to accept the conclusion at 
which he has arrived, and to revert to my own opinion 
as originally expressed. Without discussing their dis- 
tinctive features afresh, I may add that, since both forms 
(whether truly specific or not) do undoubtedly occur both 
in the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos, their cor- 
rected synonymy may be thus tabulated, and the " H. 
tnurina" as defined in the ' Col. Atlant.' consequently 

rh yto }iomus mnrinus . 

Curculio niurinus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i., ii. 463 (1792) . 
Hypera niurina, Well., Ins. Mad. 399 (1854) ; Id., Cat. 
Mad. Col. 118 (1857). Hypera variabilis (pars). Id., 
Cat. Can. Col. 328 (1864). Hypera murina (pars). Id., 
Col. Atl. 305 (1865) . Fhytonomus murinus, Cap., Zoo. cit. 
199 (1868). 

Hab. — Maderenses (in Hheo Cliao sola haud detectus), 
et Canarienses (ins. omncs) ; praecipue in cultis, hinc 
inde vulgaris. 

Fhytonomus variabilis. 

Curculio variabilis, Wost., Kiif. vi. 263 (1795). Hypera 
variabilis, Well., Ins. Mad. 400 (1854) ; Id., Cat. Mad. 
Col. 119 (1857) ; (pars). Id., Cat. Can. Col. 328 (1864). 
Hypera niurina (pars). Id., Col. Atl. 305 (1865). Fhyto- 
nomus variabilis, Cap., lac. cit. 205 (1868). 

Hab. — Maderenses, et Canarienses; una cum specie 
praecedenti, nisi fallor, degens. 

p. 309 (genus Atlantis) . 
(Sp. 858) Atlantis noctivayans. 

My attention having been drawn by T. S. Leacock, 
Esq., during our late sojourn at Madeira, to the fact that 
an Atlantis has long been known in the vineyards, in 
most parts of the island, under the name of the "besta 
da vinha," from causing great injury to the vines — the 
young shoots of which it would often entirely destroy, I 

272 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

took a considerable series of it from his vineyard at S. 
Joao, near Funchal, hoping that the examples thus ob- 
tained might enable me to clear up one or two doubtful 
points concerning some of the closely-allied forms which 
I had originally published as specifically distinct^ but two 
of which I afterwards suppressed, — feeling it more pro- 
bable that they were in reality but local races of the 
(evidently variable) A. noctivagans. Accordingly, having 
likewise captured a long array of individuals, barely 
differing at first sight from the others, at S. Antonio da 
Serra, I have been examining the two sets with unusual 
care, — being satisfied that if there is more than a single 
species concealed amongst the three forms which I 
admitted into my emended definition of the A. noctiva- 
gans in 1857, t%vo at any rate would be likely to present 
themselves amongst my series from regions so dissimilar, 
and remote, as the vineyards around Funchal and the 
elevated mountain-district of S. Antonio da Serra. The 
result is that, despite the prima facie resemblance of the 
whole, I cannot but believe, as I did originally in 1854, 
that, after all, there must be tioo species indicated (one 
found in the higher altitudes, and the other in the lower) , 
and that consequently I was mistaken when, in my sub- 
sequently-published (and re-adjusted) Madeiran Cata- 
logue, I referred them both (contrary to my original 
conviction) to a single plastic type. Yet at the same 
time the extreme difliculty of ascertaining the true 
specific limits of these variable, scale-covered Gyclomides 
must be my excuse if even now I am in error, when 
endeavouring to re-instate at all events one of the two 
forms which, although treated in the ^Insecta Made- 
rensia' as truly specific, I afterwards suppressed. 

Since the true A. noctivagans (as enunciated by me in 
1854) clearly attains its maximum in the laurel regions 
of a high altitude (being more particularly abundant from 
about 2000 to 5000 feet above the sea) , I had always thought 
it extremely improbable that it could be absolutely con- 
specific with the particular form (so much resembling it) 
whose manifestly normal range is the vineyards and cul- 
tivated grounds of the lower districts ; yet the difierences 
were so slight between the two, and both forms were so 
inconstant, that it was difficult to arrive at a satisfactory 
solution of the problem. But, taking their habits again 
into consideration, I am inclined to believe now that the 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 273 

one differential character wliicli I have been able to detect 
(slight though it be) must suffice for their specific sepa- 
ration. Fortunately that character is a structural one, 
and I do not perceive that it is subject to any great 
amount of instability. It consists in the exact shape of 
the "heel," or projecting process which constitutes the 
inner apical angle of the two hinder tibiaB in the male 
sex, — a kind of compressed spur, which in the A. nocti- 
vayans terminates in an acute prominent angle, but in 
the allied form from the lower regions in a comparatively 
rounded or obtuse truncate plate. This latter species 
includes the A. laiiripotens and ai(stra,lis of my 'Insecta 
Maderensia ; ' and it is usually, likewise, a trifle larger, 
on the average, and more densely and softly pubescent, 
than the genuine A. noctivagans of the higher altitudes, 
as well as perhaps a little more ferruginous or less brightly 
tessellated ; and in order therefore to place on record the 
conclusion at which I have now (again) arrived, that the 
laiiripotens (so destructive, and abundant, in the vine- 
yards around Funchal) should be treated as distinct from 
its ally, I will cite it afresh, and coi'rect its synonymy, 
as follows : * — • 

Atlantis lauripotens. 

Atlantis lauripotens, Woll., Ins. Mad. 369 (1854). 
Atlantis australis, Id., Ibid. 370 (1854). Atlantis nocti- 
vagans (pars). Id,, Cat. Mad. Col. 114 (1857); (pars). 
Id., Col. Atl. 311 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses ( Mad. ) ; in cultis inferioribus 
abundans : prsesertim in vinetis ramulos vinearum de- 

* Even thougli abuudaut, more particularly, in the vineyards of a low 
elevation, I do not think it necessary to adopt the name of australis for 
this species, in preference to that of lauripotens, — (1) because the original 
diagnosis of the latter (in the ' Ins. Mad.') agrees more accurately with 
the particular form which I wish now to define, and (2) because I have 
little doubt (since the vine is not truly indigenous to Madeira) that the 
Atlantis in question is in reahty a laurel insect (perhaps ccmmon in the 
lower districts before the primeval forests were cleared away) which has 
simply adapted its mode of life to the altered circumstances of the island. 
Whether, however, this "adaptation" may in any way account for the 
slight structural pecuUarity which it now presents, it would be idle even 
to speculate. 

274 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

(Sp. 869) Atlantis cenescens. 

This Madeiran Atlantis, which I had regarded hitherto 
as somewhat scarce, appears to be the common species 
throughout the mountain region of S. Antonio da Serra, 
— where, during March, April, and May of 1870 we met 
with it in profusion, by sifting fallen leaves and rubbish, 
particularly in sylvan spots. It ascends however to a 
very high altitude, being* equally common towards the 
summit of the Pico Goi'do and in the direction of the 
Poizo; aad this indeed accords with the habitat of my 
original types, which were taken "on the lofty upland 
ridges between the Fonte das Mocas and the Pico do 
Areeiro, — from about 4000 to 5000 feet above the sea. 
It is very nearly allied to the A. ventrosa — which is found 
likewise at a high elevation, though more frequently on 
the exposed mountain-slopes ; but it may be known from 
that species by being, on the average, rather smaller, 
shorter, and more ovate (or ventricose), as well as just 
appreciably more shining and brassy, with its limbs 
perceptibly paler or more rufescent. Its antennas more- 
over are, if anything, a trifle shorter, — the funiculus 
joints a little more abbreviated. 

p. 327 (genus Scolioceeus) . 

It would appear that this genus is, after all, identical 
with Cathormiocerus of Erichson, though, in the absence 
of a type of the latter from which to form an opinion, I 
pointed out a few characters (in my diagnosis of it in 
1854) which I thought might perhaps serve to separate 
it therefrom. Seidlitz, however, in his late revision of 
the Otiorhynchides {vide Berl. Ent. Zeitsch., 1868), seems 
to have no doubt on the matter; and Mr. Rye (Ent. 
Month. Mag. 151; 1870) goes so far as to question 
whether " future entomologists will consider Cathorndo- 
cerus as in reality distinct from Trachyphlceus." Be this 
however as it may (and the members of the two groups 
are certainly, as regards their structure, barely distin- 
guishable from each other) , Scoliocerus it is clear must, at 
any rate, as a genus, be suppressed ; and I would there- 
fore desire for the future to cite the two Madeiran 
Curculionids which I have hitherto referred to it, as 
Cathormioceri. I may also add that the G. curvipes does 
not appear to be peculiar (like the G. maderce) to that 
island, it having been observed during the last few years 
both in France and Algeria. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 275 

p. 328 (genus C-Enopsis) . 

(Sp. 914) CcBnopsis Waltoiii. 

Until our late visit to Madeira the admission of };his 
European Curculionid into the island list was dependant 
upon a single example which was taken, a few years ago, 
by the late Mr. Bewicke, at " the Mount "—about 1700 
feet above Funchal, But during our sojourn at the Mount, 
in January, February, and March of 1870, we met with 
it rather abundantly, in the grounds of the Quinta do 
Prazer, — not merely beneath logs and chippings of wood, 
but more particularly by sifting ftiUen leaves. I did not 
observe it, however, in any other district; and during an 
after residence at S. Antonio da Serra, although the 
Trachyphlceus scaher (which so much resembles it) was 
tolerably common, there was no appearance of Ccenopsis. 


p. 340 (genus Bruchus) . 

(Sp. 943) Bruclms suhellipticiis. 

According to Kraatz (Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. 331; 1869), 
this Bruchus is the irresectus of Schonherr's ' Gen. et Spec. 
Cure./ an insect recorded as Persian, and distinct from 
the E. inimos(B — with which, in that work, in habit and 
affinity, it is compared.* I had always felt it probable 
indeed that the B. suhellipticus would sooner or later be 
identified with some known form, for it had every 
appearance in Madeira of having been naturalized through 
the medium of commerce ; nevertheless being unable 
to identify it, I was compelled to treat it as new. It has 
manifestly acquired a wide geographical range ; and Mr. 
Crotch lately re-described it, under the name of B. 
Breiveri, from the Azores. Its emended synonymy will 
stand thus : — 

Bruchus irresectus. 

Bruchus irresectus, Fhs., in Schon. Gen. et Spec Cure. 
V. 18 (1839). Bruchus suhellipticus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 

* Kraatz likewise considers the '' ohtectus, Schon." to be identical \\'ith 
the B. irresectus ; but as the only Bruchus in Schonherr's work which 
bears that title is a North-American one described by Say, and is placed 
at the end of the genus amongst the forms which Schouherr had not 
inspected, I feel doubtful whether the Louisiana species can be referred 
safely to the irresectus and subellipticus. 

276 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

420 (1854) ; Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 123 (1857) ; Id., Col. 
Atl. 341 (1865). Bruchus Breweri, Crotch, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond. 379 (1867). 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; hinc inde in domibus et 


p. 355 (genus Cryptocephalus) . 

(Sp. 976) Cryptocephalus crenatus. 

This Madeiran Cryptocephalus appears to be much at- 
tached to the various kinds of Sedum and Sempervivum ; 
and during our late sojourn at " the Mount " (about 
1700 feet above Funchal) we met with it in profusion on 
the fleshy leaves of a shrubby species of one of those 
plants, — in company with the exceedingly rare Ceuthor- 
hynchus linea totes sellatus, which is equally partial to the 
Seda and Semperviva. 


p. 361 (genus Mniophilosoma) . 

When defining this genus (Ins. Mad. 433) in 1854, I 
stated that the four anterior feet of the male sex have 
their basal joint considerably enlarged. A more careful 
inquiry has just convinced me that the articulation is 
almost as greatly developed in the hinder pair likewise ; 
so that I would desire to make a correction to that effect 
in my original diagnosis. Moreover, although I noticed 
the fact that the M. Iceve has sometimes a perceptibly 
greenish tinge (like the individual figured in the ' Ins. 
Mad.^) whilst at others it is entirely black, I omitted to 
mention that the examples in the latter predicament 
(which I may here cite as the "var. ^. ohscurior") hav^e 
their limbs not only less clearly rufo-testaceous, but also 
their antennal club and tarsi more or less conspicuously 


p. 364 (genus Longitarsus) . 

(Sp. 1007) Longitarsus saltator. 

I find that this large Longitarsus is attached to a 
Scrophularia which is common throughout the inter- 

Atlantic CoJeoptera. 277 

mediate elevations of Madeira. During our residence at 
''the Mount," in January, February, and March of 1870, 
we met with it sparingly on that particular species of 
plant ; and I subsequently captured it, under similar 
circumstances, though still more rarely, at S. Antonio 
da Serra. 


p. 377 (genus Epilachna) . 

Mr. G. R. Crotch, who is engaged just now in studying 
the CoccineUidce, informs me that he believes my Canarian 
Epilachna bella and 4-pIagiata' belong to the genus Platy- 
naspis, and that the lO-plagiata, of the Madeiran and 
Canarian archipelagos is most likely referable to the 
genus Pharus, — being manifestly allied to the P. setulo- 
sus from Algeria. 

p. 378 (genus Coccinella) . 

I may just mention that two examples of the common 
European Coccinella midahUis (so general in the Madeiran 
Group), and one of the well-nigh cosmopolitan C. 7 -punc- 
tata, have lately been detected by myself amongst some 
specimens (in spirits-of-wine) which had been obtained 
by the Baron Paiva from the Great Salvage ; so that the 
very limited Coleopterous fauna of that small and remote 
island must be credited accordingly. 

p. 382 (genus Scymnus) . 
After species 1054, add : — 

Sc7/mnus epistemoides. 

S. ellipticus, niger aut subpiceo-niger, nitidulus, leviter 
punctulatus, parce cinereo-pubescens ; prothorace breviter 
subconico, concolori; elytris subventricosis ; labro, an- 
tennis, palpis pedibusque infuscate testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Scymnus epistemoides, Well., Col, Hesp., Append., 276 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (maY.) U 

278 Mr. T. Yernon Wollaston on 

Hah. — Maderenses {Pto. Sto.) ; exemplar unicum olim 
collegit Dom. Bewicke. 

Obs. — Species nigra, aptera, 8. limnichoides propin- 
quans ; sed subrainor (?) , magis elliptica {%. e., antice et 
postice subacutior) , vix minus nitida, et conspicue levins 
minntiusqne punctata, prothorace magis conico (antice 
sensira angustiore), etiam ad latera concolori, linea 
basali magis per basin ipsissiman sita, elytris paulo magis 
ventricosis (pone basin utrinque magis rotundatis) . 

In the Appendix to my ' Coleoptera Hesperidum ' I 
stated tliat " the single example from which the above 
diagnosis has been compiled was taken in Porto Santo, 
several years ago, by the late Mr. Bewicke, and was 
inadvertently identified by myself with the »S. Umniclioides 
— to which in its size, general affinity, apterous body, 
and dark colour it closely approaches. The specimen 
having however, since the death of Mr. Bewicke, fallen 
into my possession, I am enabled to examine it with 
greater care, and I now perceive that it is unquestionably 
distinct from the limnichoides — though belonging clearly 
to the same type. Whether it be a trifle smaller than 
that species I can, from the evidence afforded by a single 
individual, scarcely say; but it is considerably more 
elliptical in outline, or sharper before and behind (the 
prothorax being more conical, or attenuated in front, 
and the elytra more rounded outwards behind the 
shoulders) ; it is also much more lightly, and finely, 
punctulated; and its prothorax, which has the basal line 
placed even still nearer to the extreme edge, does not 
appear (at any rate in the example before me) to be 
diluted in hue towards the sides. Although there is no 
label appended to it, I have said that it was captured in 
Porto Santo because I distinctly recollect that it was 
communicated to me by Mr. Bewicke as found by him- 
self in that island." 


p. 414 (genus Hadrus) . 

Fairmaire (Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 546; 
1856) says that the Opatrum carhonariwm of Schonherr 
is a member of this genus ; but, as rightly observed by 
Lacordaire (Gen. v. 274, note 1), Schonherr has no Opa- 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 279 

trum under that title in bis published works. Accordingly 
the Baron Harold, in his recent Catalogue (p. 1939), makes 
the Platynotus carhonarius oiQ\xen^Q\ (defined, in 1806, in 
Schonherr's ' Synonymia Insectorum,'i. 142, note ;t) iden- 
tical with the common Madeix"an Hadrns cinerascens ; and 
if his conjecture be correct, of course the former name will 
have the priority over Dejean^s one of cinerascens ; but 
since the habitat given for the P. carbonarius is '' in in- 
sula Java, ad Augeri,^^ and it is likewise difficult, even 
assuming that a mistake had arisen as regards the 
country from which it was obtained, to decide as to 
which of the four nearly-allied Tladri the title of carbona- 
rius should belong-, I prefer — until both of these points 
have been satisfactorily cleared up — to quote it still as 
the H. cinerascens. 

Fam. ULOMID^. 
p. 418 (genus Adelina) . 

According to the recent Catalogue of Gemminger and 
Harold (p. 1987), this genus is identical with Sitophagus 
of Mulsant (Col. Fr., Latig., 264; 1854); but I have not 
had any opportunity, myself, of comparing a type of the 
latter with my Adelina far inari a. 


p. 426 (genus Helops) . 

(Sp. 1175) Helops arboricola. 

Of this large and apparently scarce Madeiran Helops I 
took a single example, beneath the loosened bark of an 
old Spanish-chestnut tree (during our sojourn at " the 
Mount''), about 1800 feet above Funchal. I think this 
locality worth placing upon record, because the only spots 
in which the species had hitherto been observed are the 
Vasco Gil ravine and the Rib. de Santa Luzia, — in both 
of which it was captured, under precisely similar circum- 
stances as by myself at the Mount, by the late Mr. Bewicke. 

(Sp. 1177) Helops asper. 
Although I still believe that what I regarded in the 
' Ins. Mad.' as the " state /S " of this insect is ti-uly con- 
specific with the "state a" (for the two forms seem to 
merge gradually into each other), nevertheless as there 
is such a decided prima facie difl'erence between the two 


280 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

that some naturalists might perhaps be induced to treat 
them as distinct, I will propose for the former (which 
occurs in the higher elevations, and is the more lightly 
sculptured of the two, with the hinder edge of its pro- 
thorax more arched-out, or sinuate) the varietal name of 
obliteratus, retaining (as formerly) the ''state a" for the 

(Sp. 1179) Helops congener. 

It appears that the title of congener for this Canarian 
insect cannot be retained, a Helojps congener having been 
described by Eeiche [vide Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 
372) in 1861. Hence, the name of con/orrm"s having been 
proposed for it, in 1870, by Gemminger, the synonymy 
of the species will stand thus : — ■ 

Helops conformis. 

Helops congener, Woll. [nee Reiche, 1861], Cat. Can. 
Col. 504 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 429 (1865). Helops con- 
formis, Gemm., Col. Heft. vi. (1870) . 

Hah. — Canariensis [Can., Ten., Palma, Hierro); hinc 
inde, prsecipue in intermediis, congregans. 

(Sp. 1187) Helops subdepressus. 

Until our late visit to Madeii'a I had not myself ever 
captured this very distinct Helops, — three examples, which 
were found by Mr. Mason, and three more by Mr. Be- 
wicke, being all that had come beneath my notice ; but 
during our sojourn at S. Antonio da Serra, in March, 
April, and May of 1870, we met with it not only amongst 
lichen on the trunks of various trees, but more particu- 
larly under the loose outer fibre of the gigantic Heaths 
{Erica arhorea, L.) for which the little wood known in 
that upland region as the " Circa" is so justly cele- 


p. 448 (genus ScTDMiENUs) . 

(Sp. 1236) Scydmcenus castaneus. 

The late Dr. Schaum having apparently {vide Mon. 21) 
published a Scydmcenus under the above title in 1841, 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 281 

the name of castanicolor has been proposed for the pre- 
sent Canarian species by the Baron Harold ; and the 
synonymy of it will consequently stand thus: — 

Scydmcenus castanicolor. 

Scydmcenus castaneus, Woll. [_nec Schm. 1841], Col. 
Atl. 449 (1865). 8cydnicenus castanicolor, Har., Col. 
Heft. iii. 164 (1868) . 

Hah. — Canarienses {Gom., Hierro) ; sub marcidis 
foliisque dejectis a DD. Crotch repertus. 

p. 449. After the genus ScYDMiENus, add : — 

Genus Cephennium. 

Milller, Mon. d. Ameisenk. 12 (1822). 

Cephemiium mycetceoides, n. sp. 

C. elongatulum, obovato-ellipticum, nitidulum, omnino 
(palpis tarsisque testaceis exceptis) pallide rufo-ferrugi- 
neum et grosse fulvo-cinereo pubescens, parum dense sed 
minute (in elytris distinctior) punctulatum ; prothorace 
magno, convexo, postice aiigustiore, ad latera oblique 
recto et anguste marginato : coleopteris ellipticis basi 
truncatis, utrinque ad basin ipsam mox intra humeros 
fovea magna lata sed vix profunda impressis ; antennis 
pedibusque elongatis, robustis. 

Long. corp. lin. |. 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); in montibus excelsis supra 
S. Ant. da Serra, inter folia Vaccirdi dejecta, exemplar 
unicum inveni. 

Ohs. — Species valde distincta, 0. tlwracico, Europaso, 
multo major, elongatior, minus nitida, densius (tamen 
minute) punctulata, et omnino pallide rufo-ferruginea, 
prothorace elytrisque longioribus, illius angulis posticis 
rectioribus, horumque fovea basali multo latiore ac magis 
humerali sed minus profunde et minus argute determi- 
nata, antennis pedibusque longioribus, robustioribus. 

The single example from which the above diagnosis 
has been compiled is perhaps the most interesting of the 
various additions which we made to the fauna of Madeira 
during our late campaign in that island ; and it having 

282 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston 07i 

been met with also at a great elevation on the mountains 
(namely by sifting fallen leaves near the summit of the 
Pico Gordo, far above the inhabited districts), I have 
little doubt that the species is a truly indigenous one, 
and in all probability peculiar to those wild upland 
regions. Judging from the type before me, it is consi- 
derably larger, and relatively more elongate, than the 
European C thoracicum ; and it is also less shining, 
much more densely (although minutely) punctulated, 
and its colour (instead of being dark) is altogether pale 
reddish-ferruginous ; its prothorax and elytra are longer 
in proportion, and the former has its hinder angles more 
evidently right angles, whilst the latter have their basal 
fovea, although not so deep and well defined, both larger 
and wider, and placed nearer to either shoulder. Its 
limbs, too, are longer and more robust. Its colour and 
jorimd facie aspect are faintly suggestive of a narrow 
Mycetcea, — a circumstance which I have taken advantage 
of in selecting a specific name. 

Cephennium australe. 

C. ellipticum, nitidulum, parce sed grosse fulvo-cinereo 
pubescens, remote sed parum profunde punctatum ; capite 
prothoraceque pallide rufo-ferrugineis, illo convexo, pos- 
tice ad latera subrecto et anguste marginato ; coleopteris 
piceis vel ferrugineo-piceis, ad basin ipsam fovea media 
rotundata utrinque impressis ; antennis pedibusque tes- 

Long. Corp. lin. 

1 2 
2" 3' 

Cephennium australe, Well., Col. Hesp., Append. 277 

Eab. — Maderenses (Mad.); a meipso in castanetis 
editioribus longe supra Funchal (sc. 1800' s. m.) mense 
Decembri, A.D. 1865, parce deprehensum. 

Ohs. — Species C. thoracico, Europ^o, minor, angustior, 
minus polita, paulo densius punctata, necnon omnino 
pallidior — sc. capite prothoraceque pallide subrufescenti- 
bus, elytrisque plus minus picescentibus. 

I captured three examples of this interesting little 
Cephennium on the 19th of December, 1 865, while touching 
at Madeira, with Mr. Gray, on our outward route to the 
Cape Verdes, They were taken by sifting fallen leaves 

Atlantic Coleoptora. 283 

and refuse, in the chestnut- woods at " the Mount " — 
about 18U0 feet above Funchul; but their extremely 
minute size rendered them somewhat diificult to detect. 
They are smaller and narrower than the European C. 
thoracicvm ; also less highly polished, rather less remotely 
punctured, and considerably paler — their head and pro- 
thorax being pale rufo-ferruginous, and their elytra more 
or less piceous ; whilst the limbs, which are slender, are 


p. 452 (genus Pselaphus) . 

After species 1244, add: — 

Pselaphus minyops, n. sp. 

P. gracilis, rufo-castaneus, nitidissimus, parcissime 
fulvo-pubescens, impunctatus; capite prothoraceque an- 
gustissimis, ovalibus, oculis minutis ; elytris triangulari- 
bus, brevibus, singulis lineis duabus integris (sc. suturali 
et discali) instructis ; antennis, palpis pedibusque longis- 
simis ; palporum articulo ultimo longissimo, subflexuoso, 
gradatim facile clavato ; antennarum articulo Imo et ultimo 
robustis, illo elongate, hoc ovato, apicem versus oblique 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1. 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; ad S. Ant. da Serra, in 
lauretis editioribus, a meipso parcissime leotus. 

Three examples of this very distinct and interesting 
PseJaplius were taken by myself, during May of 1870, by 
sifting fallen leaves and rubbish at S. Antonio da Serra, 
in the intermediate districts of Madeira. It is a little 
larger than the European P. Ileisii, with the limbs 
considerably longer, with the head and prothorax (each 
of them) narrower and more elongate, and with the eyes 
very much smaller. Its elytra also are still more 
attenuated towards their base, the apical joint of its 
palpi is more flexuose and much less suddenly clavated, 
and the basal and terminal ones of its antennge (the latter 
of which is more obliquely-truncate) are more developed. 

In its extremely narrowed head and prothorax, as well 
as in the peculiar shape of the last joint of its maxillary 
palpi, the P. minyops is in reality more on the type of 
the Canarian P. palpiger; nevertheless it may imme- 

284 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

diately be known from that insect by being not only rather 
larger and with more elongated limbs, but likewise by 
its eyes (although minute) being distinctly developed, 
by its elytra being less abbreviated, less plicate at the 
base, and with their discal line entire, by the second 
joint of its feet being rather less clavate, and by the first 
one of its antennee being much longer. 


p. 452 (genus Falagria) . 

Before species 1245, add: — 

Falagria longipes, n. sp. 

F. gracillima, nitida, inasqualiter brunneo-picea, parce 
subtiliter fulvo-pubescens ; capite prothoraceque parce 
vix punctulatis, illo quadrato-orbiculato, hoc elongate, 
hexagono-cordato, linea media profunda impresso, angulis 
ipsis posticis acute prominulis ; elytris evidentius sed 
minute punctulatis, sensim magis testaceis sed in disco 
et versus utrumque latus obscurioribus ; abdomine dis- 
tinctius punctulato, versus basin testaceo-dilutiore ; an- 
tennis, palpis pedibusque longissimis, infuscate testaceis, 
illis in medio obscurioribus sed ad apicem laste rufo-tes- 
taceis, femoribus (ad basin, prsecipue in posterioribus, 
exceptis) plus minus obscuratis. 

Long, Corp. lin. 1|. 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); sub cortice laxo necnon 
inter quisquilias in horto quodam juxta urbem Funchal- 
ensem tria exemplaria deprehendi. 

The larger size and much longer limbs of this fine 
Falagria would, even of themselves, at once separate it, 
even at first sight, from the common European F. ohscura 
• — which is so abundant in most of these Atlantic islands. 
It may however be further known from that species by 
the paler or more reddish-brown hue of its head and 
prothorax (the former of which is relatively rounder, 
whilst the latter, which has a much deeper dorsal groove 
extending along its entire length, is much longer and 
more rectangular hehiud, though -with the posterior angles 
themselves acutely prominent) , by the lighter portion of 
its elytra being clearer or more testaceous, by its abdomen 
being diluted behind, and by its femora (at any rate 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 285 

except at their base) being picescent. Its antennse, also, 
in addition to being longer, are rufo-testaceous at their 
base and apex, the intermediate joints being reddish- 
brown. It appears to be extremely scarce, the only three 
examples which I have yet seen having been captured by 
myself, during March of 1870, beneath the loosened bark 
of a felled tree, and amongst refuse, in Madeira, — namely 
in the garden of the Quinta dos Jasmineiros, on the 
western outskirts of Funchal. 

p. 455 (genus Phl(eopora) . 

(Sp. 1250) Phloeopora corticina. 

When compiling my Canarian Catalogue (in 1864), I 
imagined that the present Phloeopora offered a few trifling 
characters sufficient to permit of its being treated as 
distinct from the common European P. reptans. It is 
the opinion, however, of Dr. Sharp that it ought not to 
be separated from that species ; and, on further consi- 
deration, I agree with him in so thinking. Until our 
late visit to Madeira it had been observed only (so far as 
these Atlantic Groups are concerned) in the Canarian 
archipelago ; but during the early spring of last year I 
met with two examples of it in the latter island also, — 
namely, beneath the bark of a felled Spanish-chestnut 
tree at " the Mount," about 1700 feet above Funchal. 
Hence, its corrected habitat and synonymy will be as 
follows ; and perhaps it may be desirable, also, to add an 
emended diagnosis. 

Phloeopora rep tans. 

P. linearis, angustula, (abdomine nitidiusculo rugosi- 
usque punctato excepto) subopaca, subtilissime punctu- 
lata, pube fulvescenti demissu grossa vestita; capita 
prothoraceque nigris, illo subconvexo, hoc (interdum 
paulo dilutiore) transverse - quadrate, angulis posticis 
obtusis sed argute determinatis ; elytris rufo-ferrugineis, 
versus basin et latera plus minus obscurioribus ; abdomine 
nigro, ad apicem ferrugineo; antennis brevibus, incras- 
Batis, fuso-, ad basin pedibusque rufo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

286 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Aleochara reptans, Grav., Mon. 154 (1806). Phloeopora 
reptans, Kraatz, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. ii. 337 (1858). 
Phloeopora corticina, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 533 (1864); 
Id., Col. Atl. 455 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.) , et Canarienses {Ten., Gom., 
Palma, Hierro); sub cortice in intermediis, rarior. 

p. 458 (genus Homalota). 

Out of the 44 species of Homalota which have hitherto 
been detected in the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos, 
32 have been examined by Dr. Sharp — who it is well 
known has paid great attention to the members of that 
genus; and since many of his remarks possess consider- 
able interest, as bearing on the affinities of certain forms, 
I purpose calling attention to them in my observations 
as given below. Out of this large number it is at least 
satisfactory to find that only one (namely my Madeiran 
H. obliquepunctata — which appears to be identical with 
the pavens of Erichson) requires positively to be cited 
under a fresh title ; though at the same time it is extremely 
likely that one more name at any rate will have eventually 
to be changed, — my Canarian H. suhsericea being in all 
probability conspecific (as indeed I originally suspected) 
with Mulsant's H. sericea; and also that the Teneriffan 
H. aleocharoides will have to be suppressed, as probably 
a mere phasis of the common H. clientida. It is true that 
the Madeiran H. montivagans has been identified by Dr. 
Sharp with Kraatz's ptdchra; but in this case no dis- 
turbance will be necessary, of the Atlantic nomenclature, 
the former title having the priority. One endemic form, 
however, which I had regarded as a mere variety (namely 
the " H. sanguinolenta, var. ^" of my hitherto published 
volumes) has been raised, and I now believe quite cor- 
rectly so, to the rank of a species; and I have great 
pleasure in dedicating it to Dr. Sharp, at whose sugges- 
tion the alteration has been made. 

Amongst these forty- four Madeiran and Canarian Homa- 
lotas there are (in addition to the montivagans, pavens, 
and perhaps sericea) at any rate thirteen ordinary European 
species, all of which appear to have been rightly deter- 
mined in my ' Coleoptera Atlantidum.-" They are as 
follows: clientula, ^rich.. ; pZitmftea, Waterh.; luridipennis, 
Mann.; gregaria, Erich.; longula, ILeer ; fragilis, Kr. ; 

Atlantic Coleojptera. 287 

palustris, Kiesw. ; anal is, Grav. ; nigra, Kr. ; atramentaria, 
Gyll. ; coriaria, Kr. ; longicornis, Grav., and melanaria, 
Sahib. But of these thirteen there seeras a possihility of 
the Madeiran " H. longula" proving to be specifically 
distinct from the Canarian form, which last differs in no 
respect from the European type. * 

(Sp. 1261) Homalota sanguinolenta. 

A more careful examination, during the past winter, 
of a very extensive series of this Homalota has convinced 
me that the form which I have hitherto recorded as the 
*' var, /3" is in reality specifically distinct; and lam 
the further corroborated in this from the opinion of Dr. 
Sharp — who considers that thei"e can be no question on 
the subject. It will perhaps therefore be desirable to 
give an emended diagnosis of the type, and afterwards 
(in order to point out the distinctions more accurately) 
a comparative one of its ally. 

Homalota sanguinolenta. 

H. aptera, subnitida, dense rugulosa-punctulata, plus 
minus infuscate rufo-testacea, fulvo-pilosa ; capite abdo- 
mineque (nitido parcius punctulato, ultra medium sub- 
dilatato) obscurioribus, i. e. seepius piceis ; prothorace 
lato, ad latera rotundato ; elytris brevibus ', antennis 
fusco-piceis, ad basin pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. lJ-1^. 

Homalota sanguinolenta, WolL, Ins. Mad. 547 (1854); 
Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 173 (1857); Id., Col. Atl. 459 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); inter quisquilias in inter- 
mediis editioribusque sylvaticis, vulgatissima. 

* Although the present memoir pertains to the Madeiran and Canarian 
archipelagos only, I may perhaps just state that of the six species of 
Homalota which I recorded for the Cape Verde Group, five have lately 
been examined by Dr. Sharp — who remarks concerning them as follows : 
H. coriaria, " differs in no respect from the usual, more northern type ; " 
suhpidrescens, "distinct from the Canarian H. putrescens, WolL, next to 
■which it must be placed;" clientida, "this seems to be a little more 
strongly punctured than the ordinary European form, and might perhaps 
come nearer in reality to the H. orhata; " glareosa, "a very distinct species, 
to be placed next to H. testudinea; " and ca/rbunculus, " a "well-marked little 
ppecies, of the aterrima group." 

288 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

An abundant Homalota throughout the entire sylvan 
districts of Madeira, — occurring, normally, from about 
2000 to 5000 feet above the sea. It appears to belong 
to the same group as the European H.Jungi. 

Homalota Sharpiana, n. sp. 

H. prsecedenti similis, sed plerumque paulo major et 
vix sublatior ; capite (sensim latiore) , prothorace elytris- 
que conspicue clarioribus, sc. laete rufo-testaceis aut 
testaceo-rufis : abdomine ut in H. sanguinolenta sed magis 
setoso et versus apicem leetius dilutiore ; antennis sub- 
robustioribus, ac paululum minus obscurioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. H-l|. 

Homalota sanguinolenta, var. yS, WolL, Ins. Mad. 547 
(1854); (pars), Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 173 (1857); {pars), 
Id., Col. Atl. 459 (1865) . 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.); in regionibus sylvaticis una 
cum specie precedente degens, sed in locis valde humidis 
praecipue abundat. Species in honorem cl. D. Sharp 
citata, Staphylinorum indefessi oculatissimi scrutatoris. 

This is on the average a trifle larger, and perhaps 
broader, than the H. sanguinolenta, and its head (which 
is appreciably more developed), prothorax, and elytra 
are of a much paler and redder hue, — being clear rufo- 
testaceous ; its abdomen is more diluted at the apex, and 
more densely studded with long setse ; and its antennas 
are a little more robust, and not quite so dark. It is 
found in company with the H. sanguinolenta, hut is usually 
the rarer of the two ; nevertheless during the spring of 
1870 I met with it in great abundance throughout the 
entire region of S. Antonio da Serra, — perhaps, on the 
whole, in somewhat wetter places than those which are 
generally most favourable to its ally. I have much 
pleasure in naming it after Dr. D. Sharp, whose indefati- 
gable labours amongst the European Staphylinidce are 
well known, and to whom I have been much indebted for 
many valuable remarks on the affinities of some of the 
Atlantic species. 

(Sp. 1262) Homalota haligena. 

Although manifestly allied (as I have elsewhere stated) 
to the H. sanguinolenta, Dr. Sharp is of opinion that the 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 289 

haligena is certainly distinct from that species, — differing 
in the punctation of the elytra, as well as in the other 
characters which I have already pointed out. 

(Sp. 1264) Homalota montivagans. 

This species has been identified by Dr. Sharp with the 
H. pulchra of Kraatz {Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. ii. 321; 
1858) ; but as my diagnosis was published a year before 
Kraatz's, the title " moutivar/ans" will clearly have the 
priority. I may mention that during our late sojourn in 
Madeira I took it sparingly (by sifting fallen leaves and 
refuse) at S. Antonio da Serra, on the eastern mountains 
of that island. 

(Sp. 1265) Homalota vagepunctata. 

A Canarian Homalota regarded as " a remarkably 
distinct species" by Dr. Sharp, and apparently somewhat 
akin to a British one which has lately been enunciated 
by Mr. Rye [Ent. Month. Mag. vii. 6 ; 1870) under the 
name of H. Sharpi. 

(Sp. 1268) Homalota ohliqiiepunctata. 

A Homalota (cited, also, lately, by Mr. Crotch, from 
the Azores) which Dr. Sharp identifies with the European 
H. pavens, of Erichson ; and the corrected synonymy of 
which will, in consequence, stand as follows: — 

Homalota pavens. 

Homalota pavens, Erich., Kaf. der Mark Brand, i, 689 
(1839) . Homalota obliquepunctata, Woll., Ins. Mad. 549 
(1854) ; Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 174 (1857) ; Id., Col. Atl. 
461 (1865) ; Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 381 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); in intermediis per mar- 
gines aquarum, vel fluentium vel stagnantium, vulgaris. 

(Sp. 1269) Homalota amnicola. 

" A fine and distinct species, near to H. pavens and 
insecta." — Dr. Sharp. 

290 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

(Sp. 1271) Homalota gregaria. 

So far as the Madeiran Group is concerned, this 
European Homalota had been observed only in Porto 
Santo — where (as in certain of the Canarian islands) it 
swarms, beneath stones and shingle, along the edges of 
the brackish, half-dried streams ; but during our late 
visit to Madeira I met with two examples of it (on the 
30th of March, 1870) towards the extremity of the Ponta 
de Sao Lourenco, — thus introducing the species into the 
local list of Madeira proper, and affording another in- 
stance of the curious similarity which exists between the 
fauna of that low eastern promontory and that of Porto 
Santo. Dr. Sharp says, concerning this Homalota, " It 
is just possible that it is a distinct species from our 
gregaria ; but even if so, it is found in England likewise, 
■ — for the ' H. gregaria^ var. minor ' of my paper must be 
referred to it." 

(Sp. 1273) Homalota amnigena. 

According to Dr. Sharp this Homalota is allied to the 
planifrons, of Waterhouse. 

(Sp. 1275) Homalota longula. 

The Canarian specimens of this fragile little Homalota 
agree in every respect with the ordinary European ones ; 
but those which I have hitherto captured in Madeira are 
just appreciably smaller and narrower, and likewise (un- 
less indeed the whole of ray examples be immature) paler, 
with their head perhaps a trifle narrower and less square ; 
so that Dr. Sharp is of opinion that they may possibly 
prove to be the representatives of a species which is dis- 
tinct from the other, however closely allied to it. Still, 
the difierential characters are so slight that I will not at 
present venture to do more than indicate the Madeiran 
form as a geographical one ; though I will propose for it 
in the following emended diagnosis a varietal name, in 
the event of future investigations rendering its isolation 

Homalota longula. 

H. et synonymiaut in Cat. Can. Col. p. 539 ; sed adde ; 
var. /3, maderce [an species distincta ? ] — vix minor et 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 291 

angustior^ necnon forsan pallidior, capite sensim angus- 
tiore minusque quadrate. 

Hah. — Canarienses {Lanz., Ten., Gom.), sed "var./3" 
Maderensibus [Mad.) pertinet ; inter lapillos ad margines 
aquarum velocissime cursitans. 

The species would appear to possess a wide Atlantic 
range, having been cited also by Mr. Crotch from the 

(Sp. 1279) Homalota suhsericea. 

Judging from a single type of this Homalota which I 
sent to Dr. Sharp, he is inclined to suspect that the species 
is not distinguishable from the European H. sericea, Muls. : 
in all probability, therefore, the title "suhsericea" will 
have eventually to give way. 

(Sp. 1286) Homalota aleocharoides. 

This will probably prove to be identical with the some- 
what variable H. dientula. At any rate a single example 
which has been examined by Dr. Sharp was thought by 
him to be scarcely separable from that widely-spread 

(Sp. 1289) Homalota canariensis. 

" A very distinct species," according to Dr. Sharp — 
who adds that " its place is in the H. plana gvo\x^" of 
his arrangement. 

(Sp. 1290) Homalota insignis. 

" A distinct species, of the merdaria group," according 
to Dr. Sharp — who likewise informs me that the nearly- 
allied H. keta, of the Canarian archipelago, appears to him 
(although closely resembling the Madeiran insigins) to 
be separable from it. 

(Sp. 1296) Homalota cacti. 

Concerning this Canarian Homalota Dr. Sharp says — 
" It is a species unknown to me, and one which should 
be placed near the trinotata of Kraatz.'^ 

292 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

(Sp. 1297) Homalota putrescens. 

According to Dr. Sharp, '' pretty close to the boletobia, 
Thorns., but really distinct; the male characters are very 
curious. ^^ 

(Sp. 1299) Homalota Waterhousii. 

Dr. Sharp remarks of this Canarian Homalota, " a dis- 
tinct species, its nearest ally known to me being my 
suhcRnea." Fauvel indeed, from a cursory examination 
of one of my types, has stated that it is identical with 
the oeneicolUs of Sharp. But in that conclusion I think 
that he was somewhat hasty; and I may mention that 
Mr. Eye is clearly of the same opinion, — adding '' The 
H. WaterJiousii, WolL, is undoubtedly very close to 
Sharp's ceneicollis {= xa7ithoptera,* Kby.), but I am 
nevertheless convinced that it is a good species. It is 
more engine-turned in the punctation of its elytra, and it 
is also narrower and more convex ; its prothorax is 
rather less transverse ; and the apical joint of its antennee 
(in both sexes) is much shorter." 

p. 473. After gen as Oxypoda, insert the following: — 

Genus Placusa. 

Erichson, Kiif. der Mark Brand, i. 370 (1837) . 

Nine or ten examples of a small Staphylinid which I 
captured, during February of 1870, beneath the bark of 
a felled Spanish-chestnut tree, at '' the Mount " (above 
Funchal), in Madeira, have been identified by Dr. Sharp 
with the British Placusa infima — which he informs me 
he has taken under precisely similar circumstances in 
England ; and I will therefore record the species, briefly, 
as follows: — 

Placusa infima. 

P. depressiuscula, subopaca, densissime ruguloso-punc- 
tata, minute griseo-pubescens, nigra; elytris (prsesertim 

* Nee merdaria, Kraatz, — erroneously identified in Waterliouse's Ca- 
talogue with Kirby's xanthoptera. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 293 

postice) plus minus obscure fuscescentioribus ; protliorace 
transverse, basi leviter bisinuato ; antennis breviusculis, 
Bubrobustis, ad basin pedibusque saturate testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1. 

Placusa infima, Erich., Gen. et Spec. Staph. 196 (1839) ; 
Redt., Fna. Ausfcr. 823 (1849); Kraatz, Nat. der Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 333 (1858) . 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.); sub cortice laxo in casta- 
netis longe supra urbera Funchalensem a meipso parce 

Whether the P. infima has been naturalized in Madeira, 
or whether it is truly indigenous, it is useless to speculate ; 
suffice it to observe that it was found within the cultivated 
districts, at an elevation of about 1700 feet above the 
sea, and that I did not observe it (in spite of a two 
months' residence on the actual spot) except beneath the 
bark of a single Spanish- chestnut tree. 

p. 473 (genus Aleochara) . 
(Sp. 1310) Aleochara moesfa. 

During our sojourn (in the spring of 1870) at S. 
Antonio da Serra, on the eastern mountains of Madeira, 
we met with one more example of this common European 
Aleochara — by sifting rubbish in an outhouse which 
adjoined our residence. The only Madeiran example 
which, until then, had come beneath my notice was cap- 
tured by myself, in 1855, in the Ribeira de Sta. Luzia. 

After species 1312, add: — 

Aleochara clavicornis. 

A. nigra, elytris, antennarum basi, palpis pedibusque 
fusco-testaceis, nitida, grosse sed vix dense fulvo-pubes- 
cens, parce et subasperate punctata ; abdomine apicem 
versus dilutiore; antennis crassis et (basi excepta) 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Aleochara clavicornis, Redt., Fna. Austr. 822 (1849); 
Kraatz, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. ii. 108 (1858) ; WolL, 
Col. Hesp., Append., 277 (1867). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (mAY.) X 

294 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.) ; juxta mare in urbe Fun- 
chalensi a nieipso mense Decembri 1865 semel capta. 

In the Appendix to my ' Coleoptera Hesperidum' I 
stated that " I met with a single specimen of this little 
Aleochara, immediately behind the sea-beach, at Funchal 
— during the few days that we touched there, in Decem- 
ber 1865, on our outward route to the Cape Yerdes. 
Although occurring in central Europe, it appears to be 
found more particularly in Mediterranean latitudes ; and 
I may add that I took several examples of it, some years 
ago, in the vicinity of Lisbon — a fact indeed which 
suggests the possibility of its having perhaps been intro- 
duced into Madeira (like, doubtless, many of the sterco- 
raceous Staphylinidce) , along with cattle, from Portugal. 
The Madeiran individual was captured on the wing ; and 
we may expect that the species will shortly become 
abundant in the island, if indeed this is not the case 
already. Although scarcely agreeing with the diagnosis 
given by Kraatz, particulai-ly as regards its somewhat 
larger size, I am indebted to M. Fauvel for identifying 
it with Redtenbacher's A. clavicornis ." 

p. 476 (genus Oligota). 
(Sp. 1314) Oligota castanea. 

According to M. Fauvel this Canarian Oligota is the 
rufipennis of Kraatz ; but Dr. Sharp, who (in the absence 
of a type of the latter for comparison) is inclined likewise 
to suspect that such may perhaps prove to be the case, 
considers nevertheless that further evidence is desirable 
before the two can safely be regarded as conspecific. 

(Sp. 1315) Oligota injiata. 

From information which has been given me by Dr. 
Sharp, it would appear that the insect which I have 
hitherto regarded as the 0. injiata, Mann., is not that 
species, but the parva of Kraatz. Indeed the Canarian 
examples seem to be distinct from both, and perhaps 
altogether undescribed ; but the Madeiran ones do not 
differ, apparently, from the European 0. parva; and I 
may also add that the Oligota from the Cape Verde archi- 
pelago which I described in 1867 under the title of " con- 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 295 

tempta" is likewise referable to the parva — which would 
consequently seem to be very widely spread over these 
various Atlantic islands. In Madeira it is exceedingly 
common (amongst refuse, and under the bark of felled 
trees) throughout the cultivated districts — particularly 
in gardens around Funchal ; and in order that it may not 
be confounded with the still more minute, and darker, 
0. ptisillima (which occurs also in the Madeiran Group) , 
I subjoin the diagnosis of it given in my ' Coleoptera 
Hesperidum,' along with its corrected synonymy and 

Oligota parva. 

O. linearis, subnitida, parce griseo-pubescens, fusco- 
nigra elytris plus minus fuscis, abdominis apice testaceo ; 
capite prothoraceque minutissime punctulatis ; elytris 
abdomineque densius rugosiusque subasperato-punctatis ; 
antennis pedibusque saturate testaceis, illarum articulis 3 
ulterioribus parum abrupte incrassatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-vix |. 

Oligota inflata, Woll. \_neG Mann.], Ins. Mad. 562 
(1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 184 (1857). Oligota pygnicea, 
Kraatz [nee Sol.], Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. 352 (1858) . Oligota 
parva, Id., Ibid. 300 (1862) . Oligota ivflata, Woll., Cat. 
Can. Col. 555 (1864^; Id., Col. Atl. 476 (1865). Oligota 
contempta, Id., Col. Hesp. 231 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.); inter quisquilias, necnon 
sub cortice laxo emortuo, praecipue in cultis abundans. 

Amongst a large number of specimens of the 0. parva 
(and a few of the pusilUma) , which I collected in Madeira 
during the spring of 1870, there is one which has been 
identified by Dr. Sharp with his European 0. rvjicornis, 
and which appears to agree perfectly with English exam- 
ples (in my own collection) of that species. This there- 
fore is an undoubted addition to the Atlantic catalogue, 
and consequently I will briefly record it as follows : — 

Oligota ruficornis. 

O.. linearis, subnitida, parce griseo-pubescens, nigra; 
capite prothoraceque minutissime punctulatis; elytris 
abdomineque densius rugosiusque subasperato-punctatis ; 


296 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

antennis pedibusque saturate testaceis, illarum articulis 
3 ulterioribus parum incrassatis, ultimo stepius plus minus 

Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Oligota rujicornis, Sharp, Ent. Month. Mag. vi. 232 

Hah. — Maderenses [Mad.]; tempore vernali, A.D. 1870, 
a meipso capta. 

This species is a little larger and relatively broader 
than the 0. parva; it is also blacker (neither the elytra nor 
the apex of the abdomen being much, if at all, diluted in 
hue), and its antennse are yellowish-testaceous, the apical 
joint only being usually a trifle infuscate. The only ex- 
ample which I have yet seen from any of these Atlantic 
islands was (as above stated) taken by myself, during 
the spring of 1870, in Madeira, — I believe near Funchal.* 

p. 477 (genus Somatium) . 
(Sp. 1317) Somatium anale. 

Until our late visit to Madeira, I had considered this 
insect as one of the rarest of the native Coleoptera ; but 
during a residence at S. Antonio da Serra, in the spring 
of 1870, I met with it in tolerable abundance — not only 
by sifting dead leaves and rubbish in sylvan cultivated 
spots, but more especially by shaking piled-up masses of 
rotten sticks which were thickly overgrown with lichen. 
Dr. Sharp has called my attention to the fact that it is 
certainly congeneric with the section of broad-bodied 
Oligotas represented in Europe by the 0. xanthopyga, api- 
cata, and flavicornis, — which will probably combine, there- 

* In addition to the 0. parva, ruficornis, pusillima, and the Canariau 
casta7}ea, there is probably yet one more Atlantic Oligota, at least, which 
remains to be recorded ; but as my material (at present available) is too 
scanty to render it desirable to erect a species in a group thus minute and 
obscure, I prefer putting it aside until more satisfactory examples shall 
Tiave enabled me to pronounce upon it with precision. A single specimen 
however, which I took in Madeira during our late campaign, was singled 
out by Dr. Sharp as pyohably distinct (in its somewhat smaller head, 
longer elytra, &c.) from the remainder, and it seems hkely also that three 
(rather imperfect) individuals which I captured formerly in Lanzarote of 
the Canarian archipelago are conspecific with it. These latter are what I 
assigned in my Canarian Catalogue to the iiiflata, Mann. ; so that it is 
probable that a fifth species (perhaps as yet undescribed) remains to be 
recorded, and one which will be found to permeate both the Madeiran 
and Canarian Groiips. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 207 

fore, with the S. anaJe into a tolerably well-defined group. 
Indeed M. Fauvel {UAbeille, vi. 150) actually identified 
it with Kraatz's 0. xanthopi/ga ; but as nearly every 
species which Fauvel has hitherto examined for me, from 
these various Atlantic islands, has been returned with a 
most unmistakeably false determination, I have no con- 
fidence whatever in his dictum as regards Sornatium. 

p. 478 (genus Conosoma) . 
(Sp. 1319) Conosoma p^ihescens. 

Without assigning his reasons for the change, Mr. 
Crotch enters this common Tachyporid into his Azorean 
Catalogue as the " sericeus, Latr/^ * Strictly, no doubt, 
PaykulFs title of puhescens (under which it has almost 
universally been acknowledged) cannot be retained, for 
there was already a '' Staphylinus puhescens" published 
by Ue Geer in 1774; but as the latter falls now into a 
totally different genus ( — being a true Stapliylimis) , and 
the present Conosoma is invariably recognized under the 
trivial name of puhescens, I hardly think that it is abso- 
lutely necessary to disturb the commonly-received no- 

p. 482 (genus Mycetopoeus) . 

(Sp. 1328) Mycetoporus Johnsoni. 

During our late sojourn in Madeira I took several ex- 
amples of a Mycetoporus throughout the elevated region 
of S. Antonio da Serra (chiefly by sifting fallen leaves 
and rubbish) which seem to difl'er a little from the or- 
dinary ones of the M. Johnsoni, yet not suSiciently so, I 
think, to be ti-eated safely as representing more than a 
slight variety, or state, of that species. I vnW however 
give a short diagnosis of it as a "var. /3," assigning to 
it at the same time a varietal, or subspecific, name — in 
the event of further material rendering it desirable, at 
any future time, to cite it as distinct. It appears, on the 
average, to be a trifle larger and darker than what I have 
hitherto regarded as the M. Johnsoni type, — its antennje 

* I cannot but think that this must be a misprint, and that Lacordaire 
(Faun. Ent. Paris, i. 619; 1835), not " Latreille," was intended. 

298 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

being appreciably less pale, and its elytra (instead of 
being concolorous with the prothorax) merging into 
almost a piceous -black. Its elytra too are perhaps just 
perceptibly more convex, and have their three longitu- 
dinal rows of punctures somewhat more developed. The 
following brief formula will suffice to place it upon 

MycetojJorus Johnsoni. 

Var. ^, lubrica [an species vera?] — plerumque paulo 
major, elytris antennisque (preecipue illis) obscurioribus, 
punctorum seriebus tribus in elytris sensim distinctiori- 
bus {i. e. minus obsoletis). 

Long. Corp. lin. 1 — vix 1^. 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; sub folia dejecta necnon 
inter quisquilias supra S. Antonio da Serra, tempore 
vernali 1870, baud infrequens. 

p. 485 (genus Heteeothops) . 

(Sp. 1337) Heterotliops minidus. 

This widely-spread Heterotliops, so nearly universal 
(particularly amongst the refuse around the base of 
corn-stacks, as well as in gardens and other cultivated 
grounds) throughout the Madeiran and Canarian archi- 
pelagos, would appear after all, according to Mr. Rye 
(who has studied the genus with particular care) , to be 
inseparable from the common European H. clissimilis ; 
and I would desire therefore to correct its synonymy 
accordingly. I may just add however that M. Fauvel, 
though with singular want of precision, identified it 
[UAbeille, yi. 150) with Erichson^s H.prcevius — a species, 
nevertheless, from which it is totally distinct. * 

Heterotliops dissiniilis. 

Tacliyporus dissiniilis, Grav., Col. Micropt. 125 (1802). 
Meterothops dissiniilis, Ki"aatz, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. ii. 

* According to a very valuable paper by Mr. Eye in the ' Ent. Month. 
Mag.' (iv. 256), the T. prcevius, apart from the fact of its elytra being 
perceptibly longer than its prothorax, " may be distingnished from the 
clissimilis (the most abundant and widely distributed in the genus) by its 
broader head and shorter and stouter antennfe, the joints whereof are 
sub-obconic, the apical ones being not longer than broad, and the basal 
ones pitchy-red, by its much more finely and closely punctured abdomen, 
and by its darker legs." 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 299 

485 (1858). Heterothops 77iinutus, Woll., Ann. Nat. 
Hist. vi. 53 (18(30); Id., Cat. Can. Col. 562 (18G4) ; Id., 
Col. Atl. 485 (1865) . 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad.),et Canarienses (ins. omnes) ; 
inter quisquilias, necnon pra3cipue sub recremento farris 
ad basin acervoi'um tritici sj^arso. Line inde vulgaris. 

p. 486 (genus Quedius) . 

(Sp. 1339) Q.uedins fulgidiis. 

The only Atlantic specimens of this insect which I 
possess are three Canarian ones — from TeneriflFe and 
Gomera ; and Dr. Sharp, having a short time ago requested 
the loan of them for examination, remarks that they seem 
to divide themselves into two rather diiferent forms, — • 
one being larger with robust feet, and the usual darkened 
antennas, and, as it seems to me, corresponding sufficiently 
(though by no means exactly) with the northern type, 
and the other being smaller, with lighter coloured limbs, 
slenderer posterior tarsi, and the intermediate antennal 
joints just appreciably more transverse. He then goes 
on to add — " Both differ a little from any of the European 
forms, and if Thomson^s attempt at dividing Q. fulgidus 
into several species be sustained, these would have to be 
considered as two new species.'' I cannot believe, how- 
ever, myself, that either one or the other is reall}'^ distinct 
specifically from the European type, — though different 
habitats may pei'haps have resulted in slightly altered 
races ; nevertheless in the event of future naturalists 
thinking it desirable to detach them (which I do not in 
the least anticipate) from the more northern, ordinary 
state, I would cite the larger one under the varietal name 
of " robusta," and the smaller one under that of " depau- 
perata." Of my three individuals, one (corresponding 
with the larger state) is from Gomera, and the other two 
(smaller, and with paler limbs) from that island and 

p. 487 (genus Ocypus) . 
(Sp. 1342) Ocypus olens. 

This common European Ocypvs, which occurs in the 
whole seven islands of the Canarian archipelago (indeed 

300 Mr. T. Vernou Wollaston on 

I have myself captured it in six of them), has been 
reported by Mr. Crotch from the Azores — where it 
appears also to be well-nigh universal; so that its total 
absence from the Madeiran Group is even still more 
remarkable. It seems to be cited in Dejean^s Catalogue 
under the title of Emus morosus, with the habitat " Tene- 
rift'e ; ^' and therefore the two following references may 
be added to its synonymy as given in the * Coleoptera 

Emus morosus, Dej., Cat. edit. 3, 68 (1837). Ocypus 
olensy Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 383 (1867). 

(Sp. 1346) Ocypus curtipennis. 

It appears from Harold^s recent Catalogue that an 
Ocypus was published by Motschoulsky {Bull. Mosc. iii. 
87) under the title of curtipennis in 1849, so that the 
present Canarian species will require a fresh name. And 
therefore as the Baron has himself proposed that of 
canariensis, I may cite the corrected synonymy as 
follows : — ■ 

Ocypus canariensis. 

Ocypus curtipennis, Well, [nee Mots. 1849]; Cat. Can. 
Col. 567 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 488 (1865). Ocypus 
canariensis, Har., Cat. 581 (1868). 

Hab. — Canariensis [Can.) ; in sylvaticis subsylvati- 
cisque intermediis, minus frequens, 

(Sp. 1348) Ocypus atratus. 

It is far from impossible that M. Fauvel's identification 
of this Lanzarotan and Fuerteventuran Ocypus, with the 
common European 0. ater (vide L'Abeille, vi. 151), may 
be correct; nevertheless since it certainly possesses a 
few minute distinctions of its own I will not absolutely 
suppress it as a species, seeing that it has already been 
established, — though I am quite willing to admit that its 
small differential characters (such as they are) may 
perhaps be merely indicative of a slight geographical 
variety, or race, of the ordinary northern type ; and the 
more so, since an accurate re-comparison of its man- 
dibles has led me to believe that I was mistaken in 

Atlantic Goleoptera. 301 

regarding them as less dentate than those of the 0. ater. 
So far as I can now detect, it would appear to recede 
from the latter in its elytra being a little more coarsely 
and remotely punctured, with the suture perceptibly less 
raised, and in its head being appreciably shorter (or 
more straightly and suddenly truncated behind the eyes 
— which are consequently nearer to the basal margin), 
with the large additional punctures on either side (pos- 
tez'iorly) shallower and less developed. Its prothorax 
also, if anything, is a trifle longer, just perceptibly 
narrower (or' less downwardly-produced) towards the 
anterior angles, and with the posterior ones perhaps less 
completely rounded-off; and Mr. Rye has remarked 
{Ent. Month. Mag. iv. 256) that the basal joint of its 
middle and posterior tarsi is appreciably thicker and less 

(Sp. 1350) Ocypus punctatissimus. 

As mentioned in the Appendix to my ' Coleoptera Hes- 
peridum,' M. Fauvel [UAheille, vi. 151) affirms this 
Lanzarotan and Fuerteventuran Ocypus to be identical 
with the common European 0. cupreus. As already 
stated in no less than three separate volumes, I am far 
from certain that it may not be in reality a geographical 
variety of that species; nevertheless its few distinctive 
features are so constant, and pronounced, that I cannot 
but regard M, FauveFs dictum as (to say the least) un- 
necessarily positive. Thus the Canarian specimens are 
not only a ti-ifle narrower and darker (or less aeneous) 
than British ones now before me, but their head and pro- 
thorax are more closely and very much more finely punc- 
tured, — the former moreover being appreciably less 
developed, and the latter relatively narrower (or more 
laterally-compressed): the penultimate segment of their 
abdomen, also (at any rate in the male sex) , is perhaps 
rather more sinuate along its upper hinder-edge. Kraatz, 
to whom I sent it for examination when compiling my 
Canarian Catalogue, returned it as " Ocypus, cupreo 
affinis : " yet the Baron Harold, despite my repeated 
assertions, and accepting doubtless the dictum of Fauvel, 
identifies it {Cat. Col. 582 ; 1868) with the cupreus. 

Since it appears, however, that an Ocypus (said to be 
conspecific with the 0. ater, Grav.) was published under 

302 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

the title of " punctatissimus" in 1843, it is clear that the 
one from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, if eventually 
upheld as distinct from the European cupreus, will 
require re-naming ; and I would therefore cite its syno- 
nymy afresh, as follows : — 

Ocyious fortunatarum. 

Ocypus punctatissimus, WoU. [^oiec Duf,, Bull. Soc. 
Pau, 1843], Cat. Can. Col. 568 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 
489 (1865). 

Hah. — Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.) ; sub lapidibus, 

Ohs. — Species 0. cupreo affinis (sec D. Fauvel etiam 
sequalis) , sed, nisi fallor, aut vere distincta aut varietas 
geographica. DiflFert corpore sub-angustiore, sub-obscu- 
riore (minus aeneo), uecnon capite (sub-minore) protho- 
raceque (sub-angustiore, magis lateraliter compresso) 
densius ac multo minutius punctatis. 

p. 490 (genus Philonthus). 
(Sp. 1358) Philonthus scyhalarius. 

It appears necessary to cite this common European 
Philonthus (which is so abundant throughout the Ma- 
deiran and Canarian archipelagos, and which is found 
also at the Azores, Cape Verdes, and even at Ascension) 
as the loncjicornis, Steph., — that name having the pre- 
cedence over Nordmann's "scyhalarius ;" moreover 
Nordmann appears to have described the species under 
two different titles — scyhalarius and fuscicornis. Hence 
the synonymy will be thus: — 

Philonthus longicornis. 

Philonthus longicornis (Kby.) Steph., 111. Brit, Ent. v. 
237 (1832). Philonthus scyhalarius ei fuscicornis, Nordm., 
Symb. 94 et 96 (1838) . Philonthus varians, Woll. [nee 
Payk.], Ins. Mad. 583 (1854). Philonthus scyhalarius, 
Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 189 (1857) ; Id., Cat. Can. Col. 671 
(1864) ; Id., Col. Atl. 492 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad., Pto. Sto.) , et Canariensis 
{Lanz., Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro) ; sub stercore quis- 
quiliisque vulgaris. 

Atlantic Coleopiera. 303 

(Sp. 1359) Philonthus marcidus. 

It seems, according to Fauvel {L'Aheille, vi. 151), that 
this Philoiithus, so universal throughout the Canarian 
archipelago (but which has not yet been observed in the 
Madeiras), is conspecific with the European P. concinmis, 
Grav. ; so that its synonymy must be cited as follows : — 

Philonthus concinmis. 

Staphylinus concinmis, Grav., Col. Micropt. 21 (1802). 
SfaphyUnus politus, (?) Brulle \nec Grav.], in W. et B. 
(Col.)' GO (1838) . Philonthus marcidus, WolL, Cat. Can. 
Col. 571 (1864); Id., Col. Atl. 492 (1865). 

Hah. — Canarienses (ins. omnes); ab ora maritima usque 
ad 9000' s. m. ascendens. 

(Sp. 1360) Philonthus proxitnus. 

Apparently identical, as first stated by Fauvel {L'A- 
heille, vi. 150), with the European P. ventralis, Grav., — 
a species which is very widely, though sparingly, spread 
over these Atlantic archipelagos ; having been taken by 
myself, and others, in the Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape 
Verde Groups. Its synonymy, therefore must be thus 
emended : — 

Philo n th us ven tra Us . 

Staphylinus ventralis, Grav., Col. Micropt. 174 (1802). 
Philonthus proxi7nus,Wo\\., Cat. Mad. Col. 189 (1857); 
Id., Cat. Can. Col. 573 (1864) ; Id., Col. Atl. 493 (1865). 
Philonthus ventralis, Id., Col. Hesp. 238 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad., Pto. 8to.) , et Canarienses 
{Ten., Gom.) ; in stercore bovino necnon sub quisquiliis, 
late sed parce diffusus. 

(Sp. 1364) Philonthus punctipennis. 

As mentioned in the Appendix to my * Coleoptera 
Hesperidum,' this Philonthus is identical with the turhi- 
dus of Erichson, — a species of a very wide geographical 
range, having been taken not only in the Madeiran, 

304 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

Canarian, and Cape Verde Groups, but reported also 
from Egypt, the Mauritius, Madagascar, and Assam. 
Its corrected synonymy must stand thus : — 

PhilontJms turhidus. 

Philonihus turhidus, Erich., Gen. et Spec. Staph. 484 
(1839). Philonthus pimctipennis,Wol\., Cat. Mad. Col. 
192 (1857); Id., Cat. Can. Col. 575 (1864); Id., Col. 
Atl. 495 (1865). Philonthus turhidus, Id., Col. Hesp. 
240 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses {Can., 
Gom.) ; sub quisquliis in humiuscuHs, rarior. 

(Sp. 1367) Philonthus filif or mis. 

I took a single example of this very rare little Ma- 
deiran Philonthus during our late sojourn at " the 
Mount" — about 1700 feet above Funchal. It is very 
closely allied to the P. tenellus, found in Teneriffe and 
Gomera ; but, in addition to the distinctive characters 
(of smaller eyes, less deeply sculptured elytra, and more 
flattened, less coarsely punctured abdominal segments) 
which I pointed out at p. 577 of my Canarian Catalogue, 
it may be further known from that species by its head 
being a little squarer and more developed (being appre- 
ciably wider behind the eyes, and more straightly 
truncated at the base), by its elytra being less picescent 
and perhaps a trifle longer, and by its antennae also 
being somewhat obscurer, and just perceptibly less 

Whether the Philonthus which is admitted by Mr. 
Crotch into his Azorean list, on the strength of " a single 
specimen from a mountain-stream in Fayal," and which 
in 1867 he cited (evidently by mistake) as the "P. 
proximus, Woll.^^ {vide Proc. Zool. Soc. 383), but subse- 
quently coi-rected {teste Godman^s Azores, 91 ; 1870) into 
"P. filif ormis," be this Madeiran species, or its near 
Canarian ally, I have no means of ascertaining ; but in 
all probability Mr. Crotch is right in his subsequent 
identification, and it will prove to be the Madeiran one. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 305 

p. 497 (genus Leptacinds) . 
(Sp. 1374) Leptacinus linearis. 

In his Catalogue of Azorean Coleoptera, Mr. Crotch 
remarks that *' Gravenhorst's name [^linearisl for this 
species is inapplicable, it having been adopted erroneously 
from Olivier/' On referring however to the ' Col. 
Micropt.' I cannot perceive anything to indicate that the 
title VMS borrowed from Olivier at all ; though since it is 
equally certain that there could not be two insects bear- 
ing the name " 8taphyJimis linearis" at the same time, 
and Olivier's (which pertains to our common European 
Xautholinus) had the priority by seven years, it follows 
as a matter of course that Gravenhorst's specific title 
must be forfeited, and that we have no choice but to 
accept the next one in succession, — i. e. Stephens' 
" pusillus." Hence, its synonymy should be thus 
corrected : — 

Leptacinus pusillus. 

Stapliylinus linearis, Grav. [nee Oliv. 1795], Col. 
Micropt. 43 (1802). Gyrohypnus inisillus, Steph., 111. 
Brit. Ent. v. 264 (1832) . Leptacinus linearis, Woll., 
Ann. Nat. Hist. vi. 101 (1860) ; Id., Cat. Can. Col. 580 
(1864); Id., Col. Atl. 498 (1865). Leptacinus pusillus, 
Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend. 383 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.), et Canarienses {Lanz., 
Ten.) ; inter quisquilias et praecipue sub recremento ad 
basin acervorum tritici sparse, hinc inde vulgaris. 

p. 498 (genus Othius) . 

(Sp. 1379) Othius philonthoides. 

According to Fauvel [L'Aheille, vi. 151), this Canarian 
Othius is merely a small variety of my 0. brachypterus — 
equally from the Canarian archipelago ; but considering 
that Fauvel's only acquaintance with the two species rests 
upon a single example of each which I forwarded to him, 
and I have myself inspected at any rate a certain number 
of them, and pointed-out their exact differential charac- 
ters, I must be pardoned if I fail to acknowledge the 
necessary indisputability of Fauvel's dictum. Although 

306 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

by no means wishing to pronounce for certain that the 
0. philonthoides may not be a depauperated modification 
of the In-achy pter lis, my own opinion is that, while belong- 
ing to undoubtedly the same geographical type, it is most 
decidedly distinct, — it being not only considerably smaller 
and with more abbreviated antennte, but likewise less 
coarsely sculptured as regards both its elytra and abdo- 
men^ and with its head even relatively less developed. 

p. 504 (genus Scop^ds) . 
(Sp. 1390) Scopceus trossulus. 

This Canarian Scojjceus is said by M. Fauvel {L'Abeille, 
vi. 152) to be conspecific with the Mediterranean 8. seri- 
cans, of Mulsant and Rey; but as I possess no type of 
the latter, in order to judge for myself, I have no means 
of testing the accuracy of this identification. Assuming 
it, however, to be correct (which may, or may not, be the 
case), the corrected synonymy will stand thus : — ■ 

Scopceus sericans. 

Scopceus sericans, Muls. et Rey, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 
165 (1854). Scopceus trossulus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 
585 (1864) ; Id., Col. Atl. 504 (1865). 

Hah. — Canarienses [Fuert., Can., Ten.) ; inter lapillos 
per margines aquarum, prsecipue in inferioribus ac paulu- 
lum elevatis, sese occultans. 

p. 505 (genus Lithocharis) . 
(Sp. 1395) Lithocharis Juscula. 

I am indebted to Dr. Sharp for correcting an error 
into which I had fallen as regards this Lithocharis — which 
appears to be the European apicalis, Kraatz, and not the 
"fuscula." The mistake was partly due to the insuffi- 
ciency of the material from which I was compelled origi- 
nally to form an opinion ; but during our late visit to 
Madeira I met with it abundantly by sifting garden-refuse 
at the Quinta dos Jasmineiros, on the western outskirts 
of Funchal, and the more extensive series thus obtained 
renders the distinctive characters of the species at once 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 807 

evident. Mixed-up however with the few examples of 
the apicalis (now before me) which were collected many 
years ago in Madeira (I think in the north of the island) , 
are three which manifestly diiier from the rest, and which 
accord precisely with an English type of the L. ripicola, 
Kr.j which I have captured in south Devon. This latter 
species, consequently, is an addition to the Madeiran list, 
and an all the more interesting one perhaps through the 
fact of its having been cited by Mr. Crotch from S. 
Miguel in the Azores. In order to prevent, therefore, 
the two species [7-ipicola and apicalis], which at first 
sight much resemble each other, from being confounded 
inter se, I will subjoin diagnoses of them both, as 
follows : — 

TAthocharis ripicola. 

L. rufo-ferruginea, nitidiuscula, confertim subtiliter 
(capite rugosiore excepto) punctulata et pube grisea 
demissa parum dense vestita; capite magno, convexo, 
nigrescenti, rugose punctato, oculis parvis ; prothorace 
rufulo, subquadrato postice angustiore, linea media longi- 
tudinali lasviore ; elytris longioribus ; abdomine fusco, 
apice dilutiore ; antennis pedibusque rufo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 2. 

LitJiocharis ripicola, Kraatz, Nat. der Jns. Deutsch. ii. 
715 (1858) ; Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend. 384 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.) ; inter quisquilias humidas, 
minus frequens. 

Obs. — L. apicali submajor, subrobustior, subnitidior, 
paulo minus dense pubescens, ac sensim rugosius (preeser- 
tim in capite majore) punctulata ; prothorace rufescentiore 
(minus obscuro) , minus quadrato {i. e., antice latiore) , et 
in linea media laeviore ; elytris concoloribus (nee postice 
obscuratis) , necnon antennis pedibusque paululum longi- 
oribus ac robustioribus. 

LitJiocharis apicalis. 

L. fusco-ferruginea, subopaca, confertissime subtilis- 
simeque punctulata et pube grisea demissa dense vestita; 
capite convexo, nigrescenti, oculis parvis; prothorace 

308 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

subquadrato ; elytria longioribus, postice plus minus ob- 
solete obscurioribus ; abdomine fusco, apice dilutiore ; 
antennis pedibusque subgracilibus, breviusculis, rufo- 

Long. Corp. lin. circa If. 

Lithoeharis ftiscula, Woll. [_nec Mann.], Ins. Mad. 589 
(1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 193 (1857). Lithoeharis 
apicali s,,tz, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. ii. 715 (1858). 
Lithoeharis fiiscula, WoW., Col. Atl. 505 (1865). Litho- 
eharis apicalis, Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend. 384 

Hah. — Maderenses {Mad.) ; sub quisquiliis in cultis 
inferioribus praecipue degens ; etiam in hortis ipsis Fun- 
chalensibus interdum abundat. 

Ohs. — Species L.fusctda, Mann., paulo min or, gracilior, 
multo subtilius (densissime) punctulata et densius griseo- 
pubescens, capite minore, nigrescentiore, elytris plus 
minus inajqualiter nebulosis (sc. postice, necnon inter- 
dum in regione scutellari, gradatim obscuratis) , antennis 
pedibusque paulo brevioribus, gracilioribus, clarioribus. 

L. ripicola, Kr., subminor, subgracilior, subopacior, 
paulo densius pubescens, ac sensim minutius (prassertim 
in capite quadratiore, minore) punctulata, prothorace 
paululum obscuriore et magis quadrato {i. e. postice 
minus evidenter angustato), elytris postice plus minus 
nebuloso-obscuratis, necnon antennis pedibusque vix 

(Sp. 1400) Lithoeharis tricolor. 

Mr. Crotch, in his list of Azorean Coleoptera, has 
mentioned {Proc. Zool. Soc. Jjond. 384; 1867) that 
Marsham^s name "tricolor" cannot be retained for this 
Lithoeharis, seeing that there was already a StaphyUnus 
tricolor published by Fabricius in 1787, and which applied 
moreover to a totally different insect — the well-known 
European Xajitholinus . Hence there appears to be no 
title for this common species (that of " melanocephalus" 
pertaining to the cognate form with more abbreviated 
elytra) until we come to Kxaiditz'^ " ruficolUs;" so that 
the corrected synonymy will have to stand thus : — 

Atlantic Coleaptera. 309 

Ldthocharis ruficollis. 

StaphyUnus tricolor, Mslim. [wee Fab. 1787], Ent. 
Brit. 516 (1802). Lithocharis melanocephala, Woll. [nee 
Fab.], Ins. Mad. 591 (1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 194 
(1857). Lithocharis ruficollis, Kraatz, Nat. der Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 717 (1858). Lithocharis melanocephala, 
Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 588 (1864). Lithocharis tricolor, 
Id., Col. Atl. 507 (1865). Lithocharis ruficollis, Crotch, 
Proc. Zool Lond. 384 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses (in Ilheo Chdo sola hand observata) , 
et Canarienses (ins. omncs) ; sub lapidibus quisquiliisque 

p. 508 (genus Sunius) . 
(Sp. 1405) Sunius angustatus. 

This common European Sunius, so widely spread over 
the Madeiran archipelago, but which has not yet been 
observed at the Canaries, is cited by Mr. Crotch, in his 
list of Azorean Coleoptera, under the title " gracilis, 
Payk.," — accompanied by the remark that " PaykulPs 
name angustatus having been pre-occupied, we should 
use the one he subsequently proposed for it.'' The 
species, therefore, must be entered thus: — 

Sunius gracilis. 

StaphyUnus angustatus, Payk. \_nec Fourc. 1785], Mon. 
Staph. Suec. 36 (1789). StaphyUnus gracilis. Id., Ibid. 
38 (1789). Sunius angustatus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 593 
(1854); Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 195 (1857); Id., Col. Atl. 
509 (1865). Sunius gracilis. Crotch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond. 384 (1867). 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad., P to. Sto., Bugio); hinc inde 
sub lapidibus necnon inter quisquilias, praecipue in inter- 

p. 511 (genus Stenus). 

(Sp. 1415) Stenus fulvescens. 

According to the late Catalogue of Gemminger and 
Harold, a Stenus (from India) was published, by Mots- 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. PART II. (mAY.) Y 

310 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

choulsky {Bull. Mosc. iv. 515), under the name oifulves- 
cens, in 1857 — the very same year in which my own 
species was brought out bearing the same title; so that, 
manifestly, it is necessary that either one or the other of 
them should be re-named. Without stating his reasons 
for the selection, the Baron Harold has consequently pro- 
posed for the Madeiran species the title " Wollastoni;" 
and its corrected synonymy, therefore, will stand as fol- 
lows: — 

8tenus Wollastoni. 

Stenus Heeri, var. /3, Well., Ins. Mad. 600 (1854). 
Stenus fulvescens, Id. [nee Mots. 1857], Cat. Mad. Col. 
198 (1857); Id., Col. Atl. 513 (1865). Ste^i^is Wollastoni, 
Har., Cat. 641 (1868). 

Hah. — Maderenses (Mad.); in sylvaticis humidis edi- 
tioribus, sub foliis quisquiliisque parce latens. 

p. 514 (genus Bledius) . 

(Sp. 1418) Bledius januvianus. 

As stated in my ' Coleoptera Hesperidum,' this large 
Bledius, which I met with in Lanzarote of the Canarian 
archipelago (and subsequently, also, in S. Vicente of the 
Cape Verdes), has been identified by M. Fauvel with 
Erichson's B. vitulus — a species recorded from Arabia. 
Not possessing a type of Erichson's species from which 
to form an independent opinion, I have no means of test- 
ing M. Fauvel's determination; but assuming it to be 
correct, the following change in the synonymy wiU have 
to be made : — 

Bledius vitulus. 

Bledius vitulus, Erich., Gen. et Spec. Staph. 761 (1839). 
Bledixis januvianus. Well., Cat. Can. Col. 593 (1864); 
Id., Col. Atl. 514 (1865). Bledius vitulus. Id., Col. 
Hesp. 253 et 280 (1867). 

Hah. — Canarienses (Lanz.); ad margines lacus ejus 
salini " Januvio " dicti a meipso parce deprehensus. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 311 

p. 518 (genus Trogophl(eus) . 
(Sp. 1434) Trogophloeus exilis. 

This little Trogophlceus, found both in the Madeiran 
and Canarian archipelagos, is said by Fauvel {L'Aheille, 
vi. 152) to be conspecific with the European T. pusiJlus, 
Grav. ; and I think perhaps that this conclusion may be 
accepted as probable. Assuming, therefore, M. Fauvel's 
identification to be correct, the synonymy of the species 
must stand thus : — 

Trogophlceus pusillus. 

Aleochara pusiUus, Grav., Col. Micropt. 78 (1802). 
Trogo phloems pusillus, Kr., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. ii. 880 
(1858). Trogophlceus exilis, Y( oW.., .knn. Nat. Hist. vi. 
105 (1860); id.. Col. Atl. 519 et Append. 75 (1865). 

Hah. — Maderenses(ilfa(^.),et Canarienses {Ten., Oom.); 
liinc inde in humidis. 

p. 522 (genus Homalium) . 

(Sp. 1440 ( Homalium sculpticolle. 

In the Appendix to my ' Coleoptera Hesperidum^ I men- 
tioned that this Canarian Homalium had been identified 
by M. Fauvel with the European H. Allardii of Fairmaire. 
There was clearly however some mistake in Fauvel's 
determination, for the H. Allardii is in reality more akin 
to the Madeiran and Canarian H. ocellatum, and has 
scarcely anything in common with the scidpticolle. The 
latter, as stated elsewhere, finds very much nearer allies 
in the common H. riparium and fossulatum of more 
northern latitudes. Hence, the note (above alluded to) 
in the Appendix of the ' Coleoptera Hesperidum' must 
be cancelled. 

(Sp. 1441) Homalium ocellatum. 

After what I have just mentioned under the preceding 
species, it will be seen that it is the H. ocellatum (not 
the sculpticolle as asserted by Fauvel) which so nearly 
resembles the European H. Allardii; nevertheless it 
would appear that even the ocellatum cannot be abso- 


312 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on 

lately referred to the latter; for Mr. Rye, alluding to 
the double mistake of Fauvel, and after a very careful 
inspection of my type of the ocellatum (now in the British 
Museum), adds that the H. ocellaium, when compared 
with the Allardii, " appears to be lighter, shorter, and 
broader, with bright yellow ocelli and clear testaceous 
legs, and with a more transverse thorax — of which the 
sides are more rounded and more contracted behind, and 
the hinder angles more prominent (the fovea there being 
deeper), with rather shorter and less parallel elytra, 
which are less strongly and scarcely rugosely punctured, 
and with the abdomen not so duill, but with evident 
scattered punctuation.^' And Mr. Eye then goes on to 
observe that " if, nevertheless, in spite of these discre- 
pancies, Mr. Wollaston's insect is to be considered 
identical with the H. Allardii, it will not disturb any 
references, — for the ocellatum was described in the ' In- 
secta Maderensia' in 1854, and Fairmaire's species in the 
French 'Annales' for 1859." [Fic^e Ent. Month. Mag. 
iv. 236.] 

(Sp. 1443) Homalium clavicorne. 

This very distinct Madeiran Homalium, although so 
greatly attached to the rotten wood of the decaying 
Euphorbias, does not appear to be (as I had supposed) 
peculiar to that singular race of plants ; for during our 
residence at " the Mount" (about 170U feet above Fun- 
chal), in the winter and spring of 1870, I took it in 
tolerable profusion out of the soft putrid stems of the 
fragrant Cestrum vespertiinmi, known as the " Bellas- 
noites " by the Portuguese inhabitants of the island. 
Still, I believe it to be normally a Euphorhia-m^esimg 
species — for the " Bellas-noites " is not indigenous in 
Madeira, and it is likewise reported by Mr. Crotch (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond. 385 ; 1867) to have been met with 
abundantly " in Euphorhia-steins in Flores," the most 
western island of the Azorean archipelago. 

After species 1444, add the following : — 
Homalium concinnum. 

H. elongatum, subdepressum, nitidum, (abdomine 
excepto) minutissime vix pubescens; capite (triangulari. 

Atlantic Coleoptera. 313 

nigro) prothoraceque (omnino, sed prsesertim in limbo, 
dilutiore) rugose punctatis ; elytris inaequaliter piceo-tes- 
taceis, rugose punctatis (punctis obsolete longitudinaliter, 
quasi in strigis irregularibus, dispositis) ; abdomine 
multo subtilius punctulato, sed grossius pubescente; 
antennis (brevibus) pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1^. 

Variat colore plus minus obscuriore, corpore interdum 
omnino piceo-nigro. 

StaphyUnus concinnus, Mshva., ^nt. Brit. 510 (1802). 
Omalmm concinnum, Erich., Gen. et Spec. Staph. 886 
(1839); Kraatz, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. ii. 991 (1858). 

Hab. — Maderenses {Mad.); in granariis ad S. Antonio 
da Serra parce lectum. 

A few examples of this European Homalium were taken 
by my wife in a granary at S. Antonio da Serra, during 
our sojourn at Madeira in the spring of 1870, as also by 
sifting rubbish in an old outhouse adjoining it. I have 
little doubt therefore that the species (which was found 
in company with various Cryptophagi, Latridii, and other 
insects of like habits) has been introduced into the island 
from more northern latitudes. And this seems the more 
probable, since I have captured the H. concinnnm under 
somewhat similar circumstances (namely amongst the 
refuse around the base of hay and corn-stacks) in En- 
gland. It is very closely allied to the (equally European) 
H. deplanatum, but is, inter alia, a little brighter (being 
less appreciably pubescent) and more coarsely punctured, 
with its antennae and elytra a trifle shorter, — the punc- 
tures of the latter having a tendency, moreover, to arrange 
themselves in irregular longitudinal strigae. 

p. 524 (genus Megaethrus) . 

(Sp. 1446) Megarthrus longicornis. 

Although so universal throughout the Canarian Group, 
I had until lately considered this Megarthrus as some- 
what scarce at Madeira. But during our late sojourn in 
that island we met with it abundantly at ''the Mount" 
(from about 1700 to 1900 feet above Funchal), by sifting 
fallen leaves and rubbish, and likewise, though in less 
profusion, at S. Antonio da Serra. It would perhaps 

314 Mr. T. Vernon Wollaston on Atlantic Coleoptera. 

have been more correct if, in the ' Coleoptera Atlanti- 
dum/ I had compared it with the European M. denticolUs. 
Indeed Mr. Rye, who a short time ago had the kindness 
to give it a very careful examination, remarks "Not so 
near to the ' M. smuaticollis' as to the denticollis ; but its 
long thin antennte, very remote punctation, and weak 
superficial male characters (as regards the legs) readily 
separate it from that species. There are certainly no 
European members of the genus in De Marseul's last 
Catalogue that will suit it." 

( 315 ) 

VIII. On a new genus and species of Coleoptera belong- 
ing to the family Lucanidae, /rom ilie Sandwich 
Islands. By Chas. 0. Waterhouse. 

[Read 20th March, 1871.] 

Among some insects lately sent to the British Museum 
from Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, by Mr. Harper Pease, 
were two specimens of a small, dull-black coleopterous 
insect belonging to the family Lucanidce which was new 
to the collection, and is apparently new to science. 

The species is interesting not only from its somewhat 
peculiar form, but from the isolated locality from which 
it comes ; Honolulu being 2081 miles from the nearest 
continent, that is, from San Francisco in California. 
The insect is, however, evidently most closely allied to 
Sclerostomus Bacchus, which comes from Chili, distant 
from Honolulu 5902 miles. 

Its short broad form, and much rounded elytra, together 
with the extreme brevity of the metasternum, and the 
absence of spines from all the tibiae, except the interme- 
diate pair in the male, will at once separate it from all 
the Lucanidce hitherto known. 

I propose to call it ApterocycVas. 

Apterocyclus, gen. nov. 

Mandibles in both sexes short, very slightly curved, 
furnished with a single tooth on the inner-side close to 
the base ; clypeus very wide, with the front margin very 
nearly straight ; mentum semicircular ; second and third 
joints of the antennae subquadrate, of nearly equal size, 
the fourth to seventh joints gradually becoming shorter, 
the three apical joints spongy, and forming a slight club ; 
eyes in part divided by the can thus ; all the tibiae unarmed, 
except the intermediate pair in the male, which are fur- 
nished with a single minute submedial tooth; metaster- 
num extremely short. 

Apterocyclus Honoluluensis, sp. nov. 

Brevis, suhdepressus, ater ; capite lato, antice truncato ; 
mandibulis par vis, unidentatis, punctatis; thorace capite 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART II. (MAY.) 

316 Mr. Chas. 0. Waterhouse on Apterocyelus. 

latiore, postice omiiino rotundato ; scutello parvo; elytris 
subrohindatis (c?) vel rotundatis (?); metasterno hrevis- 
simo, nitido; tibiis anticis posticisque inermis, intermediis 
unidenticulatis ( S) vel inermis ( ? )• 

c?. Long. lin. 7 ; lat. elytrorum lin. 3|. 

$ . Long. lin. 8; lat. elytrorum lin. 4^. 

Short, somewhat depressed, sooty- 
black; the head broad, slightly angu- jt ^/^v^ j^ 
lar at the sides, above very minutely 
granular, sparingly and indistinctly 
punctured about the eyes, more dis- 
tinctly punctured towards the front 
margin; can thus slender; clypeus 
wide, nearly straight in front, only 
very slightly produced in the centre 
in the male ; there is a tendency to a reddish colour at the 
base of the mandibles, and on the canthus. The thorax is 
distinctly broader than the head, the front margin bi- 
sinuate ; the sides are very little rounded, the whole of the 
posterior part of the thorax is semicircular ; the upper 
surface is very minutely granular, sparingly and indis- 
tinctly punctured. Elytra in the male a trifle nar- 
rower than the thorax, narrowest at the base, gradually 
becoming broader to the apical two-thirds, the apex 
completely rounded ; each elytron presents two indistinct 
longitudinal impressions ; the suture near the base is 
rather less opaque than the other portions of the elytra, 
and is sparingly and minutely punctured ; in the female 
the elytra are a little broader than the thorax, and much 
more rounded at the sides. The anterior tibiae are 
elongate-triangular, unarmed; the intermediate tibias are 
sub-cylindrical, simple in the female, and furnished with 
a minute sub-medial tooth on the outside in the male, 
the apices on the outer-side in both sexes simple ; the 
posterior tibiee are sub- cylindrical, unarmed, bowed out- 
wards in the female, nearly straight in the male. The 
metasternum is polished ; extremely short, so that the 
bases of the intermediate and posterior pairs of legs are 
scarcely further apart than the posterior legs are from 
each other. 

Hab. — Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. 

Sent to the British Museum by Harper Pease, Esq., 
with the note " Mountains of Kanoi ; only two found.^' 

( 317 ) 

IX. A7i Examination of the arrangement of Macro-Lepi- 
doptera introduced in England by Mr, Doubleday, 
and a suggestion as to its origin; zuith some 
strictures upon synonymic lists. By W. Arnold 

[Eeacl 3rd April, 1871.] 

This paper is concerned with the Macro- Lepidoptera . Its 
object is to investigate the order of the groups ; or (more 
accurately) to examine what is found upon the order of 
the groups in the entomological publications now usually 
consulted. Incidentally to this inquiry, a few reflections 
will suggest themselves upon the essentials of scientific 
authorship ; and some observations will be offered upon 
the degrees of respect to be conceded to writers on ento- 
mological science. 

The Macro- Lepidoptera are, according to the arrange- 
ment as I believe in general use in this country, divided 
into ten groups ; the names and order of the groups as 
usually recognized being as follows: — 1st, Diurni; 2nd, 
Nocturni; ord, Geometrce; 4th, Drcpamdce ; 5th, Pseudo- 
Bomhyces; 6th, Noctiuvj 7th, Delto'ides ; 8th, Aventice; 
9th, Pyrales ; 10th, Crambi. I say this is the order 
usually adopted in this country, because, though I am 
not acquainted with any of the leading collections, yet 
all those which have come to the hammer of recent 
years (and many of them had the sanction of well-known 
names,) have been so arranged. Moreover, all the ex- 
change lists printed for use by the active collectors 
adopt this order, as do the lists of captures, etc., in the 
entomological Journals. We shall almost immediately 
have to trace, to some extent, the steps by which this 
arrangement came to be introduced : but it will be well 
to state concisely in what particulars it most conspi- 
cuously differs from its predecessors. It differs mainly 
in having no group Sphinges, and no group Bombyces, 
but in place of those having a group Nocturni, and a 
group Tseudo-Bombyces only. It difJ'ers also in the loca- 
tion of the groups Geometrce and Noctuce, whose place in 
the order is wholly altered, and in the erection of a 
family into a separate group Drepanulce. I hope to 
discuss presently these different points; but I wish at 


318 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

once to suggest a question : Is there anywhere in print a 
justification or explanation of this order of arrangement ? 
And as developments of this question, a few others : Has 
the group Nocturni ever had even characters assigned 
it ? Has the position of the Geometrce and the Pseudo- 
Bomhyces been ever explained ? Is the arrangement of 
the Noctuce consonant with the position of that group ? 
Have the names ISocturni, Drepanulce, Pseudo-Bomhyces, 
as applied to these insects, any sanction ? Upon these 
questions, and others which arise, I shall endeavour, in 
turn, to throw a little light. 

It will, however, be best to observe here, that one 
aim I principally have in this paper, is to sift the history 
of the so-called group Pseudo-Bombyces ; against which 
I charge that it is not a group at all ; that if a group its 
position in the order is erroneous ; that its name is 
wrong ; and, that the group owes its creation to certain 
exigencies of a fortuitous kind. In particular, and 
finally, I charge as a grave offence to science, that no 
justification of the group, nor of its name or position, was 
ever offered by its authors, and that it has been intro- 
duced sub silentio in a mere labelling list. 

It is necessary to prepare the ground for our inquiry 
into the present arrangement of the Lepidoptera, by 
noticing briefly the system in use before its introduc- 
tion. This can be done shortly, because I am primarily 
concerned with the order of arrangement alone; the 
points at which authors have drawn the line between 
group and group not being especially important at this 
stage; and the internal classification of each having 
nothing to do, at present, with the matter. 

The order of Linn^us is the basis of every system save 
the one I am to examine to-nigl^t ; and, without any 
serious deviation, it was (so far as I am aware) followed 
by all the world until the year 1859, when this new 
order saw the light. The Linnasan divisions of the Lepi- 
doptera are familiar to everyone, but it is necessary 
to notice them here once for all. His three primary 
sections, then, are Papilio, Sphinx, and Phalcena : and 
his divisions of the section Phalcena (which correspond 
to our groups) are as follows: 1st, Attacus, and 2nd, 
Bombyx ; 3rd, Noctua; 4th, Geometra; 5th, Pyralis. 
Attacus being now classed as a part of Bombyx, and 
not interfering with the order in any way, it is accu- 

Groups of the Lepidoptcra. 319 

rate to state shortly, that the Linnoean order was Boin- 
hyx, Noctua, Geometra, Fi/ralis. I need not state what 
descriptions of species composed each Linnaean group; 
but it may be worth while to mention that the species 
of the so-called Pseudo-Bomhyces known to Linnasus, are 
described in the " Systema Naturae '^ as Bombyces, and 
placed with the rest of that group between Sphinx and 
Noctua. The Linntean order is completely intelligible ; 
so intelligible indeed that, I believe, almost anyone 
would, without a book at all, of his own accord, arrange 
the Lepidoptera in this order. The largest species, the 
Sphinges, were put first; after them the largest moths 
that were left, Attacus and Bomhyx, the smaller division 
coming second. Next all the remaining moths with 
stout bodies, Noctua ; after these, the slender bodies in 
their order of size, viz., Geometra first, then Fyralis. As 
I have said, this order was the simplest imaginable. It 
is the most matter of course thing in the world to put 
the biggest moth at the head of your collection, and the 
little ones at the end. Linnaeus placed the largest group 
at the head of his arrangement, and the smaller groups 
in their order of size after it. I should be very sorry to 
be understood as placing the Linneean arrangement on a 
low ground. It is, I think, a natural arrangement, to 
place the group containing the largest species first, and 
those containing the smallest species last, and, unless 
some close aSinities are outraged, it is, I think, a natural 
arrangement to place all the groups, from the first to the 
last, in the order of size of the species. It is certainly the 
most striking of the objections to the new arrangement, that 
it takes you straight from the largest Bomhyces into the 
Geometroe, from those slender insects back again into the 
large Bomhyces, and then after another spell of stout- 
bodied moths, drops you finally into the small ones. The 
Linnaean groups with the Linn?ean names, and in the 
Linneean order, were adopted almost universally, down 
to the year 1840, a date from which their uniform accu- 
racy seems, as we shall find, to have been occasionally 
canvassed. Fabricius followed the Linnaean order, and 
used the Linntean groups ; so did the famous authors of 
the Vienna Catalogue ; and so have followed Hiibner, 
Haworth, Ochsenheimer, Treitschke, Duponchel, Ste- 
phens, and, with special exceptions, Latreille ; and so in 
recent times, Boisduval, Herrich-Schiiffer, Westwood, 
Horsfield, Lederer, Staudinger, and even Doubleday. 


320 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

All this array of authors of first-rate repute followed 
the order whichj by the new arrangement of 1859^ it was 
sought to re-model. The works of a few of the number 
must receive a brief consideration ; but I will first and 
once for all present this view, which must occur to 
anyone who reflects much on the subject. The names 
of the Lepidopterists just mentioned at least equal in 
respectability any known in entomology. Those authors 
of different times and nationalities, with minds of dif- 
ferent bents, as zealous for science as at least their suc- 
cessors, have proceeded to their conclusions by diS'erent 
and original methods ; and their concurrence in one order 
of arrangement must be accepted as most notable. I 
will not enlarge on this view, because it is one which 
everybody can appreciate the moment it is presented, but 
I will merely recall here some facts showing its perti- 
nence. It is a common-place to say that the classification 
of genera may depend on a great variety of details; all 
entomologists know that a genus may be defined by the 
characters of its larva, pupa, or imago, and by (1) the 
structure, or (2) the habits of either of the three. The 
difi'erential characters in the perfect insect for instance, 
may be found in the palpi, in the neuration of the wings, 
in the legs or in the antennae, &c. ; and a variety of 
systems have been devised for classifying insects from 
some one or more of these characters. Thus Linneeus him- 
self, after the wings, considered the antennae of chief 
importance, and the order which he originated was 
arrived at from those characters ; the Vienna Catalogue 
was founded entirely on the diS'erences of the pre- 
paratory states, and that arrangement again is the same 
as that arrived at by Linneeus. Fabricius used as the 
basis of his classification the characters of the mouth- 
parts; he also agrees in the Linnsean order. Latreille 
lastly with the '^ eclectic" system which he devised, also 
agreed in that order, though with a variation presently 
to be mentioned. Therefore, I repeat, the concurrence 
among these and the other first-rate writers is a very 
significant fact. There is no such thing in my mind as 
a suggestion, that these authors may 7iot all have been 
wrong ; but the fact of their concurrence would prompt 
anyone to examine narrowly a proposal of radical changes, 
and, one would have hoped, would stimulate the proposers 
of changes to submit their reasons for them to our judg- 

Groups oj the Lepidoptera. 321 

Denis and Scliiffermiller, and some others of the authors 
named, supply some materials which it is as well to use 
up before leaving our consideration of their system. 
First, then, in the Vienna Catalogue the groups Sphinx, 
Bomhyx, Noctua, and Geometra are regularly arranged in 
sub-divisions, which are very serviceable as illustrating 
the connection (in the view of the authors) of each group 
with its predecessor or successor in order. The affinity 
of Bomhyx to S^p/wna; is illustrated in this way; Bomhyx 
has for its fii"st section Sphingiformes : while the same 
relation is illustrated in like manner, thus : — Noctua begins 
with Bomhyciformes and concludes with Semi-Geometrce, 
the Gcometrce again beginning with Send-Nocttuiles . This 
illustration of the affinity of each group to its predecessor, 
bears out very satisfactorily the correctness of the Linntean 
order ; and we shall find shortly that several later authors 
have seen the affinities in the same light. 

It is necessary to examine with some particularity the 
arrangement of Latreille, not only because he is the 
greatest systematist who has revised the Linnffian ari-ange- 
ment, and was the first to propose any deviation from 
it; but also because he did sub-divide the Bombyces, and 
did in one of his works apply to one of his sub-divisions 
the name Pseudo-Bomhyces. Latreille^s " Genera Crus- 
taceorum et Insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in 
familias disposita,'^ was concluded in 1809. The arrange- 
ment followed here he adhered to with variations in his 
other works. He divided all the Lepidoptera into Diurna, 
Crepuscularia, and Nocturna, which divisions exactly 
corresponded with the Linnsean divisions Papilio, Sphinx, 
Phalcena. His first family (corresponding to our group) 
of the Nocturna is Bomhycites, including the present 
genera Hepialus, Zenzera, Saturnia, Lasiocampa, Bomhyx, 
Cerura, Laria, Limacodes, Psyche. Of the Bomhycites, 
however, he classes a number of genera under a sub- 
heading as " Bomhycites Legitimce ; les vraies Bombycites," 
namely, Bomhyx, Lasiocampa, etc., and (what is important) 
Cerura, Pygcera, and Clostera. In order to show the 
bearing of this circumstance, I may mention here, that 
these very three genera, Cerura, Pygcera, and Clostera 
"vraies Bomhycites '' of Latreille, are (with others) now, 
by the new classification, separated from the group, and 
called in terms " Pseud o-" or " false " Bombyces. Latreille's 
first group of Nocturna being the Bomhycites, his next is 

322 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

Noetuo-Bomhycites , including Arctia with its allies, Lithosra 
with its allies, and all the Tinece ; and his third group is 
Noctucelitce. His fourth group following on the Noctune- 
litce is Phalcenites, being all the Geometrce. After the 
Phalcenites come the PyraUtes. Now this arrangement 
of Latreille's follows closely the Linnsean arrangement, 
except only in placing the Tinece between Bombyx and 
Nochia. The names and order of his groups, remark, 
are Bomhycites, Noctuo-Bomhy cites, Noctucelitce, Phalcenites, 
PyraUtes. This shows no deviation at all from the Lin- 
nsean arrangement ; but it is the fact, that on examina- 
tion we find the group Noctuo-Bomby cites to include the 
Tinece. In his " Considerations generales sur I'ordre 
naturel,^^ etc. (published in 1810) Latreille observes 
almost identical divisions, and in the introductory portion 
(p. 81) he states that the Lithosice are the connecting 
link between Bombyx and Noctua, and he places the Tinece 
with the Lithosice on account of their aflBnity to them. 

In his volume of Cuvier's " Families naturelles du Regne 
Animal," (edition 1825), Latreille's first group of iVoc^ttnio, 
is Bomby cites. His second takes the name Pseudo-Bombyces 
(against which in a parenthesis the name " Noctuo-Bom- 
hy cites" is printed, apparently as a synonym). Third 
come the Tineites ; fourth again the Noctucelites ; but fifth 
here, the Tortrices (including Pyrales) ; then sixth, the 
Phalcenites ; seventh, Grambites. The thing chiefly notice- 
able in these arrangements of Latreille is, so far as our 
inquiry is concerned, that throughout, his order of the 
groups we are discussing, is Sphinx, Bombyx, Noctua, 
Geometra. There is no suggestion that it was proper 
to bring Geometra next to Bombyx ; nor to separate the 
species of Bombyx by placing Geometra between them ; 
nor to place Geometra before Noctua; nor indeed to 
deviate at all, so far as these groups are concerned, 
from the Linneean order. We do find, however, that 
Latreille used the greatest freedom in altering the posi- 
tion of the groups where that appeared desirable, and 
moved about at his pleasure the Pyralides, Tortrices, and 

We must now turn to the group Pseudo-Bomhyces, 
first used by Latreille in his last work, the ' Regne Ani- 
mal.' His Pseudo-Bomhyces include Cossus and Zenzera, 
Dicranura, Platypteryx, Notodonta, Orgyia, Limacodes, 
CalUmorpha, Arctia, Chelonia, or in fact by far the 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 323 

greater number of species in the original Bomhyces. 
It is important not to overlook this fact, that here 
we have Dicranura and Notodonta, which are included 
in the Pseudo-Bombyces of the new arrangement, also 
included in a group of Latreille bearing the same 
name. This is, I think, the nearest approach to a 
justification of the new arrangement which has appeared 
in print, and it is, therefore, important to allow it its full 
influence. How slender a justification it in truth proves 
we shall very shortly find. 

The new group Pseudo-Bombyces takes away twenty- 
seven species, and separates them from all the other 
Bombyces. They are placed so far away from all the 
other Bombyces, that we are bound to believe the authors 
of the arrangement discover in those species a complete 
difference of structure, or other striking dissimilarity, 
from the remainder of the Bombyciform genera. That 
should be, of course, the sole rationale of the creation of 
the group. 

Now, that being the case, what justification or support 
does the new division of the Bouibyces receive from the 
fact, that Latreille had before efi:ected a subdivision of 
the group ? Latreille's group, Pseudo-Bombyces, so far 
from isolating at a distance from the Bombyces only 
twenty-seven species, itself includes the bulk of the Bom- 
hyces ; and, what is most important, groups together, as 
allied with the separated genera, many others from which 
the new arrangement takes them away. Latreille does 
call Dicranura and Notodonta Pseudo-Bombyces ; but he 
also calls Pseudo-Bombyces the genera Gossus, Arctia, 
Orgyia, and many more, considering all these to bear to 
the true Bombyces the same relation as is borne by Dicra- 
nura and Notodonta, and presenting them in close 
relationship with Dicranura and Notodonta in the same 
subdivision. Latreille^s arrangement of the species in fact 
strengthens the case against the new group Pseudo-Bom- 
hyces ; and though he called some genera by that name, 
they were not placed as the new group is placed, nor are 
they, as a group, distinguished by the same characters. 
But, in truth, Latreille, in his last work, divided the 
Bombyces on a very simple plan, which is found stated at 
p. 472 of his vol. of the " Regno Animal." His group 
Bombycites is confined to those species " dont les ailes 
inferieures n'ont point de frein," and that is the dis- 
tinction by which he was guided. 

324 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

There remains his placing of the Pyrales (in this last 
work) next after the Noctuce and before the Geometrce. 
This is clearly a step in the direction of the new arrange- 
ment, and it remains as some testimony in its favour; 
but Latreille considered Fyralis as a division of Tortrix; 
and Cramhus, which he admitted to be separate, he 
placed ofter Geometra (as in the Linneean order), away 
from Fyralis altogether : so the new arrangement Noctna, 
the Deltoides, Fyralis, Cramhus, Tortrix, obtains very small 
countenance from Latreille. 

I now leave this author, whose various classifications, the 
work of a vigorous and intrepid systematist, all strongly 
favour the coherency of the Bombyciform genera ; and 
the order of arrangement. Sphinx, Bombyx, Noctua, 

Hiibner's arrangement also affords a contrast in the 
classification of the Bomhyces, to the new one now in 
vogue. One of his three sections is termed "Ferce" 
(or "the true"); and this section includes Clostera and 
JDiloha, two genera of the new " Fseudo-" Bomhyces. 
The remainder of the species of this so-called group 
Hiibner classes under the name SpMngoides , and places 
at the head of the Bomhyces following the Sphinges. 
Now, anything in the same class of natural objects more 
dissimilar than Sphinx and Geometra I have never read of. 
Hiibner considered Notodonta as allied to Sphinx : the 
promoters of the new arrangement appear to consider it 
allied to Geometra. Hiibner, also like the authors of the 
Vienna Catalogue, illustrates the affinities between the 
groups by using appropriate names ; thus, besides the 
Bomhyces commencing with the Sphingoides, he makes the 
Noctuce commence with Bomhycoides, and end with Semi- 
Geometrce, etc. 

There are but two other writers before 1840, whose 
works it is necessary to notice (one of them an English- 
man), Dr. Horsfield and M. Guenee. A very few words 
will express all that need here be said about both. 

Dr. Horsfield plans out the Macro-Lepidoptera, follow- 
ing- the Linntean order without the smallest deviation. 
His Bomhycidce include, of course, Fygcera, Cerura, 
Notodonta. He has no group Fseudo-Bomhyces. The 
fifth and last section of his Noctuidce is Semi-Geometrw 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 325 

(as in the Vienna Catalogue and Hiibner's "Verzeich- 
niss''). The first of his sections of Fhalcenidce is also 
Semi-Noduales. His order is Bomhycidce, Noduidce, 
Phalcenidce, Pyralidce. 

M. Guenee, in 1837, contributed to the Annals of the 
En torn. Soc. of France, the first of a series of papers on 
the classification of the Noctuelides; and as everyone 
would expect, he makes the group, if I may use the 
expression, "face towards" the Bomhyces at the begin- 
ning, and towards the GeomctrcB at the end. He places 
first the tribe Bombyco'idi to illustrate the afiinity to 
Bonihyx, and last the tribe Noctuo-Thalcenidi to illustrate 
the affinity to Geometra (or Phalcena) , both names being 
the names of Dr. Boisduval— an arrangement which in 
1841, indeed, when he contributed a revision of his 
classifications, M. Guenee confirmed and re-published. 

Thus up to the year 1840, at all events, we have found 
no trace of a disposition to alter the place of the Bomhyces, 
Nodiice, or Geometrce. On the contrary, all the writers 
have preserved the three groups in their original order, 
and we have found German, English, and French authors 
fortifying this arrangement, and supplying in their 
nomenclature additional illusti'ations of its propriety. 
Two authors also, as if to secure by anticipation the 
recognition of certain species as Bomhyces, have named 
those Bomhyces *' verce " and " legitimce," which it is now 
sought to call " Pseudo-" Bomhyces. 

We shall still find (starting from the year 1840) that 
no matter where the divisions were made, the order 
observed was, for some time, substantially the same. 

One of the best known methodical lists is BoisduvaPs 
" Genera et Index Methodicus Europaeorum Lepidopte- 
rorum." The second edition of this work was published 
in 1840. His arrangement is very simple, and his division 
of the Lepidoptera into Rhopalocera and Heterocera is 
known everywhere. Boisduval sepai'ates the three first 
groups of the Heterocera into tribes, and it is in his 
arrangement that we first miss the use of the appellations 
Sphinx and Bomhyx as the names of groups, a feature 
which distinguishes also the new arrangement. To the 
families constituting these groups he gives, it seems, no 
collective name, merely heading the division " Larvae 

326 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

progressoriae " (seep. 39). This is the only important 
change introduced by BoisduvaFs Index. In all other 
respects it closely follows the Linnsean arrangement. 
The Micro-Lepidoptera were the subject of a continuation 
of the ''Index" undertaken by M. Guenee. The notice- 
able feature of that arrangement is the insertion of the 
Pyrales and Oramhi, after Tortrix and before Tinea, an 
arrangement which has now, it seems, no apologists. 

In the year 1840, appeared Mr. Newman's "Familiar 
Introduction to the History of Insects; being a new 
edition of the grammar of Entomology," one book of 
which is devoted entirely to an exposition of the author's 
views upon classification (Classif. Lepidop. pp. 209-215). 
His order is — including remark. Butterflies and Moths all 
in one: — 1st, "Hawk -moths or Sphingites," including all 
the Sphingina, except the genus Trochilium of Stainton, 
the small clearwings : 2nd, " Skippers, or Hesperides ; " 
3rd, " Butterflies ; " 4th, " Loopers, slender-bodies, or 
Geometrites ; " 5th, " Half-loopers, or Phytometrites/' Plu- 
sia, Acontia, Erastria, Phytometra, and the rest ; 6th, 
"Full-bodied moths, or Noctuites;" 7th, "Millers, or 
Arctiites/' Acronycta, SpiJosoma, Arctia, Hypercompa, 
Lithosia, Hypogymna, Laria, Orgyia; 8th, " Eggars, 
or Bomhycites," JEriogaster, Odonestis, Gastropacha, Lasio- 
campa; 9th, "Emperor-moths, or Phaloenites," Saturnia 
carpini alone; 10th, "Prominents, or Notodontides ," 
End.romis , {\) Cerura, Stauropus, Platypteryx, Cilix, Noto- 
donta, Pygcera, Clostera; 11th, "Wood-eaters, or Xyleu- 
tites," Hepialus, Xyleutes, Zenzera; 12th, "Clearwings, 
or ^geriites" uEgeria ; 13th, " Burnet-moths, or Glau- 
copites," Zygcena, Ino ; 14th, " Pearl-moths, or Pyralites ; " 
15th, " Veener-moths, or Grambites." 

In the preface (p. ix) Mr. Newman gives his own view 
of his own arrangement. " The Fourth Book, entitled 
Classification of Insects, may be charged with being too 
original; it may be said that the author should have 
given the views and arrangements of others in preference 
to his own. He would ask, whose system was he to select ? 
That his own is the most simple, and the most readily 
understood, no one will deny;'' and he adds (two pages 
later) " it would be false modesty for the author to pre- 
tend blindness to the fact, that the humble efforts of his 
pen and pencil have been unusually successful," &c. It 

Grouiys of the Lepidoptera. 327 

rather takes away one's breath to be told this strange 
looking arrangement is "the most simple," but as it is 
not accompanied by a word of reason, we may suppose 
Mr. Newman really thought it was. It is unfortunate 
that this particular '^ effort" was not so successful as to 
prevent its being abandoned by its author j for it seems 
to be the case that, neither he nor any other entomologist 
ever followed the scheme. 

One remarks in this arrangement that, though the 
Sphinges are cut up and separated widely, the Bomhyces, 
Noctuce, and Geometrce are all kept together, and, while 
the arrangement is chiefly noticeable for its eccentric treat- 
ment of the Sphinges, it is in other respects nearly the 
Linnaean arrangement read backwards. In particular, Mr. 
Newman, like Denis and Schifiermiller, Hiibner, and Hors- 
field, connects Noctua with Geonietra by means of Flusia 
and its allies ; and like Hiibner, he places Notodonta as 
far away from Geonietra as it could well be. No one, so 
far, has connected Geonietra with Noctua by means of 
Notodonta, the great feat of the new arrangement. 

Also in 1840, was published Professor Westwood^s 
'^ Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects," 
a work (if I may be allowed to say so) characterized by 
wide learning and very close study. The author pro- 
fesses his inability to ofl'er a satisfactory classification of 
the Lepidoptera in main tribes or groups, but, using 
only large family divisions, he adopts exactly the Lin- 
nsean order, following Latreille and Stephens in making 
Lithosia the connecting link between Bomhyx and Noctua. 

Mr. Westwood's book supplies numerous expressions 
of opinion, and various reasons, in favour of the Linnaean 
arrangement, of which I will reproduce a few in his own 
words. He speaks of "the transition from the Noctuidce 
to the Geonietridoe, so beautifully effected by Catocala, 
Plusia, and other half-loopers, as their larvae are termed, 
and Ophiusa, Erastria, &c." (Westw. Introd. ii. p. 363.) 
Again (p. 370), " there appears to be but little relation in 
the imago state (between jEgeria and Zenzera) , either in 
respect of their habits or structure, so that it may be ques- 
tioned how far the relation is more than one of analogy ; 
at all events, I hesitate as to the propriety of placing the 
JEgerice in the same natural group with Hepialus and 
Cossus." I need hardly remind Lepidopterists that one 

328 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

of the features of the new arrangement is to place next 
together those two genera in the group called Nocturni. 
Again (p. 385), "I find it impossible to draw a line 
between the types which form Stephens' two families, 
Notodontidce and Arctiidce. The structure of the mouth 
will not assist in the inquiry, because Pygcera, Cerura, 
&c., amongst the Notodontidce have the maxillaa, and even 
the maxillary palpi, developed as strongly as in Spilosoma 
and Aretia, whilst there is as great a variation in the 
transformations of the genera of either group as there 
is between the respective species of the two groups ; 
hence I have followed Latreille in keeping them under 
one family." Those genera which Mr. Westwood felt 
constrained to include in one family are now, by the new 
arrangement, sepai-ated by hundreds of species, includ- 
ing the whole group of Geometrce. And again (p. 363), 
''It seems unquestionable that Sphinx (or the hawk- 
moths), Bomhyx (or the feather-hornec^ full bodies), &c., 
are, as Linnteus considered them, amongst the primary 
types.'' Neither Sphinx nor Bomhyx is, in the new 
arrangement, acknowledged as a type at all. 

But to proceed. Not long after Mr. Westwood's book 
was written, came Mr. Doubleday's first '' Synonymic 
List," proposing the first instalment of the great changes 
which were at hand. The first pages (1-8) were 
published in October, 1847, and they went as far as the 
genus Tceniocampa (in the Noctuce) , proceeding in the 
Linnajan order through Bhojjalocera (so called in the 
List) , Sphinges (so called) , and Bomhyces (so called) . In 
the following month (November, 1847) some more pages 
(9-16) came out, carrying the list through the remainder 
of the Noctuce well on into the Geometrce. Thus Mr. 
Doubleday, like all who preceded him, adopted the 
old order, leaving no doubt that (1) Sphinx, (2) Bomhyx, 
(3) Noctua, (4) Geometra, was then, according to his 
view, the correct arrangement. In August, 1849, there 
was a complete re-issue of pp. 9-16, apparently for the 
express purpose of taking in the Pyrales between the 
Noctuce and Geometrce. This order, at all events, was 
observed on pp. 13, 14, and 15 of the re-issue; and, 
accordingly, Mr. Doubleday's first list, when concluded 
at the close of 1849, showed the following order : Bhopa- 
locera, Sphinges, Bomhyces, Noctuce, Pyrales, Geometrce. 
At this time, therefore, the change was not very great or 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 329 

startling, for Latreille had before (as we have seen) tried 
the Pyrales in difierent positions without leaving them 
very satisfactorily placed. But this alteration in the 
Linnfean order by Doubleday was, nevertheless, openly 
dissented from by Mr. Stephens, and it did not obtain, 
I believe, the adhesion of entomologists. 

Next, in 1852, was published the first vol. of M. 
Guenee's " Noctuelites," and on p, 2 of that work, we 
find his ideas on classification. He says, " The Noctuce can 
be placed indifferently after Bomhijx or after Geometra. 
They unite with the former by the Nochw-Bomhycides 
and Botnhycoides, and with the latter by the Antlwphilides , 
Erastrides, and Phalcenoides. If this last disposition were 
adopted, it would be necessary to attach Geometra to 
BoMBTX by the genera Amphidasys, Ntssia, ^"c, and to the 
NocTU^ by the families just mentioned " {namely Antho- 
PHiLiDEs, Erastrides, Phal^noibes) . This, I think, is a 
most important passage ; and then follows this sentence : 
''But up to this time, all the authors have placed the 
Noctuce immediately after Bomhyx, and when I reflect 
that the bouleversement of that order adopted for such a 
long time, would have nearly as many inconveniences as 
advantages, I feel little disposed to make an innovation .-"^ 
Now here we have a candid suggestion by M. Guenee, 
of a plan for placing the Geometrce betiveen Bombyx and 
Noctua; and he says that if this be done, the Noctuce 
must begin with Erastria and AnthopJiil a, which, would re- 
quire a complete re-arrangement of the group. Not a 
word, remark, is here said by the author of the new S3^stem 
about dividing the Bombyces, and placing the GeometroR 
between the sections. The whole passage tends directly 
to this, that if effect is to be given to the affinity of Bom- 
by.v and Geometra, it must be by placing Geometra next to 
Bombyx, and then securing the transition from Geometra 
to Noctua, by a re-arrangement of the latter group. Too 
much weight can hardly be given to this opinion. 

M. Guenee, therefore, having decided in 1852 not to 
disturb the arrangement, described the " Noctuelites " in 
the old order, that is, beginning with the Bombyciformes, 
and having the Geometriform families at the end. When 
his work had proceeded as far as the Geometrce, M. Guenee 
(in the ' Generalites,' vol. 9, p. x) returned to the subject. 
He says, " you can attach the Fhalcenites to nearly all the 
other divisions of the Noctiirna. Thus, the Noctuce give 

330 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

us as a transition, the Erastrides, Catocalides, Brephos, 
and all the family of the Thermesides ; the Pyrales present 
to us a crowd of species with large and slender wings, 
which the old authors have confounded with the Geome- 
trce ; the Deltoides approach thein still more ; lastly the 
Bomhyces include, in nearly all their principal sections, 
families which border upon them " — naming with others, 
EucJielia, Platypteryx, Saturyiia, Lithosia. Thus M. 
Guenee in 1857. 

The first volume of Stainton's Manual was completed 
in the same year ; and the order there observed is, every- 
one knows, the Liunasan order. A writer in the " Natu- 
ral History Review," attacked Mr. Stainton on the subject 
of his arrangement, and in particular for departing, for- 
sooth, from that introduced in Mr. Doubleday^s list of 
synonyms. The " Substitute," in a later article (Sub- 
stitute, 1856-1857; p. 14, Art. "Change of names") 
took occasion to correct the first-named writer, and 
inform him that a list without descriptions or characters 
was "no authority at all for quotation," a dictum in 
which I venture to express my strong concurrence. 

In the year 1858-59, Mr. Doubleday was getting ready 
a new catalogue, and the authors of the then shortly 
forthcoming " Accentuated List" were favoured, we 
were told, with a sight of it. They straightway copied 
the new list out of hand, and the first knowledge ento- 
mologists in general had of the mercies in store for 
them, was obtained on the appearance of the " Accen- 
tuated List." The " Intelligencer" of that date published 
some comments on the new arrangement, and, in parti- 
cular, protested against the Geometrce " being placed 
sandwich-like in the midst of the Bomhyces." (Intel, 
vol. V. p. 169, Art. "Practicability.") The arrangement 
of the new list was, however, almost universally followed, 
notwithstanding the discouraging fact that there was no 
descriptive work which followed that order, and the 
actual nomenclature diflFered, in numerous cases, from all 
the existing English descriptive works in use. This 
great change was completely unsupported by any state- 
ment of the reasons supposed to render it advisable. 
The cause of the silence was not that the reasons were 
obvious, or that the changes explained themselves. How 
many owners of large collections would, if sitting down 
to-day to arrange them " out of their heads," hit upon 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 331 

the arrangement of Mr. Doubleday? I suppose it is 
quite certain that not one would place the species in 
anything approaching to that oi-der. Ever since the 
publication of this second List* of Mr. Doubleday, we in 
England have been subjected to the discomfort of having 
to acknowledge two rival systems, the advocates of either 
of which take the smallest recognition of the other. The 
rights and wrongs of the matter have never been fought 
out in consequence; a thing, perhaps, not difficult to ac- 
count for, when we consider that the one party have never 
shown, or professed to show, any reasons for their scheme. 
Meanwhile, in 1866, Mr. Doubloday's list saw another 
edition. In 1867, Mr, Stainton published another book 
on Butterflies and Moths, and a considerable portion of 
it is concerned with classification. It takes no notice 
whatever of the new oi"der, and reproduces that of the 
Manual. At the same time, Mr. Newman brings out his 
descriptive work, the " Natural History of British 
Moths," in which he follows Mr. Doubleday. Lastly, in 
1870, Dr. Knaggs prints a new list on the side of Mr. 
Stainton ; and Dr. Staudinger only this year has brought 
to the side of the Linnsean order another edition of his 
elaborate Catalogue, which has indeed reached our hands 
in England only within the last few days. 

The alteration in the position of the Geometrce, sug- 
gested by M. Guenee as an alternative scheme of arrange- 
ment, had not, until the year 1859, attracted much 
attention ; but the primary idea of Mr, Doubleday's List 
was, it seems to have been considered, the carrying out 
of that idea. At the same time, other and startling 
variations in our arrangement were introduced ; the 
Sphinges and Bomhyces were then rolled into one group ; 
and a family of Bomhyces, the Notodontidce, being detached 
and separated by the whole group of Geometrce from the 
main body, was erected into a group by itself ; the 
family Platypterygidce was erected into a principal group, 
and inserted next after the Geometrce, and before the 
detached Notodontidce. The revolution was signalized, 
as in the Year One of the French Republic, by things 
being named anew. 

* It would be invidious to push comment on this head much further ; 
but, if any course more than another be calculated to invite hostile 
criticism of this publication, the rhapsodical eulogy of it by its authors' 
friends is certainly that one. 

332 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

The Butterflies were no longer Rhopalocera, but were 
named Dmnii ; the heterogeneous collection of ^p/tin^es 
and part of the Bombyces was named^ with a pugnacious 
disregard of tradition, TNTochtnw (the nsuvae Nociiirna being 
already well-known as designating, in Latreille's arrange- 
ment, all the moths outside the Sphingidce) , The family 
Platypterygidce, not increased or reduced by a single 
species, was now termed Drepamdce ; and, greatest 
defiance of all, the separated Notodontidce, being all the 
species included in that family by Stainton, and all save 
one originally so named by Stephens, were termed 
Pseudo- Bombyces. 

The names introduced hy the revolutionists are all, I 
venture to think, unfounded and unsustainable. 

They term the Butterflies Diiirni; and no doubt would 
say in justification, that in doing so they merely revived 
the name given by Latreille. Latreille's name was a 
completely good name according to Latreille's system ; 
for that system established three leading groups desig- 
nated according to their time of flight. Latreille's But- 
terflies were Diurna, but his Sphinges were also Crepus- 
cularia, and all the other Lepidopterous insects he termed 
Nocturna. The division by times of flight has long been 
abandoned, for many reasons ; the most simple being that 
the names conveyed a wholly erroneous notion of the 
actual habits of the species, since a crowd of insects 
besides the Diurna are known to fly by day. In the face 
of this history of the name, it was surely an error to 
revive it; the name Bhopalocera for the butterflies had 
been fully accepted by entomologists, and the change was 
altogether gratuitous. 

But what of the name Nocturni for Sphinges and Bom- 
hyces together, — even putting aside for the present, the 
absurd union of these groups, which has been discounte- 
nanced even by the followers of the new arrangement? 
This name Nocturni is also, we have seen, completely 
understood by entomologists as designating one of 
Latreille's three great divisions, the distinction between 
Nocturna and Nocturni not being, I suppose, a matter of 
which any nomenclator Avould make very much. The 
use of those divisions is not continued at the present 
day, but the name has its history in entomology, as indi- 
cating a different group of insects from that to which it 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 333 

is now sought to apply it. Tliere is surely no justification 
for it here, and indeed the more it is examined, the more 
uncalled for it seems to be. 

First, the name would appear to suggest a fictitious 
antithesis, or contrast with the Diurni immediately pre- 
ceding. * 

Secondly, this name could not be accepted unless the 
group comprised all night-flying species, and the Lepi- 
doptera has again to be classed according to their time 
of flight. 

Thirdly, the pretended group comprises very few of 
the true night-flying species at all ; and does include a 
large number of species which fly only in the sunshine, 
c. g., MacrogJossa, Sesia, Procris, Zygcena. 

Fourthly, the pretended group includes the Sphinges, 
which, if they are to be classed according to their time 
of flight at all, must be called by the earlier name Cre- 

Next, DrepanuJce. Since when has it become allow- 
able to supplant the received name of a family by a new 
one ? It is notorious that this cannot be done in the 
case of a species or genus. The so-called " JJrepanulai" 
(termed Drepanulidoe, without authority given, by Dr. 
Knaggs) are, species for species, the Platijpteriees of 
Hiibner, the Tlatyptericidce of Stephens' Illustrations, the 
Platypterygidoi of Stainton's Manual; the name, without 
any alteration^ of the constituent parts of the family, is 
sought to be altered to Drepanidce, on the erection of 
the family into a petty group. Without wishing to 
impute a shabby motive, I protest I can find no reason 
for this alteration, except that before hinted at, viz., the 
passion for a new coinage and new nomenclature for 
evei'ything, which has in every age, been the weakness 
of innovators. 

Now, Pseudo-Bomhyces. This name is very flagrant. 
First, because it is an old name used by more than one 
author to express different assortments of species, neither 
of them the same as that to which it is now applied ; 
secondly, because the genera forming this supposed 
group have a prior name completely recognised ; thirdly, 
because of the illogical relation of the name to the other 
names in the same scheme of classification. 


334 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

The name " Pseudo-Bomhyces" was, it appears, first 
used by Haworth, who in his " Lepidoptera Britannica/^ 
thus designates a variety of Noctuce having pectinate an- 
tennge. The species classed together by Haworth under 
this name are mostly now included in our genus Agrotis. 
Next, Latreiile in the "Regne Animal'^ uses the same 
name, as we have found, for one of his sections of the 
Nochirna, there grouping under that name the Arctiidce, 
Notodontidce, and Lithosidce. Thus the name Pseudo- 
Bomhyces has already a historic meaning. If Haworth's 
name passed for nothing, Latreille's classification at least 
was the work of a great systematist; and surely the 
name which he gave to a certain group of genera cannot 
be now applied with propriety to another. If such a 
practice were generally allowed, endless confusion would 
be caused. Timid writers would take care to get favour 
for new arrangements by using old names ; and we 
should soon have the Pseudo-Bomhyces of Haworth, of 
Latreiile, of Guenee, and of this, that, and the other 
writer, all meaning different things. A confusion of 
this kind is very easily guarded against. A general law, 
that no group distinguished by characters different from 
those of the original group, shall bear the name of the 
original group, meets the difficulty — and, perhaps, only 
expresses what has been the practice of accurate authors. 

Stephens, in his " Illustrations," unites all the so-called 
Pseudo-Bomhyces into one family, which he names Noto- 
dontidce; and Stainton, in his Manual, describes them 
species for species, under the same name. On this 
ground the name Pseudo- Bo7nhyces cannot, I assume, be 

But the reason which at once disestablishes the name 
Pseudo-Bomhyces for this so-called group is founded on 
its own illogical position. The authors Haworth and 
Latreiile each recognized a group Bomhyces, and there- 
fore for them to call another group Pseudo-Bomhyces was 
not improper or ridiculous. To ignore the existence of 
the Bomhyces as a natural group, and yet to exalt into a 
natural group genera, whose common characteristic is a 
certain definite unlikeness to the Boynhyces, is a per- 
formance in all respects worthy of a writer who, without 
giving any reasons, interferes with the work of other 
men. The blunder is of the same character as would be 
a proposal to tax, according to its wheat produce, a 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 335 

country in which cereals did not grow ; or to express in 
dry measure the standard height for our recruits ! 

One point on the subject we have just left^ it may, 
perhaps, be desirable very shortly to notice, as it might 
be considered I had overlooked it. It may be urged 
that the names Flati/pterygidce and Notodontldce terminat- 
ing in -ida'., are the names of families and not groups, 
and that therefore when a group was to be expressed, it 
was necessary a name with a different termination should 
be used. The reasoning put forward must be either that — 

(1.) The name of a group has a fixed termination 
other than -id(je j or, that — 

(2.) The termination -idee is exclusively used to indi- 
cate some other distinction. 

And neither of these contentions is true. Mr. Stainton, 
for instance, in the Manual, uses a uniform termination 
for the names of the groups, viz., -ina ; " Sphingina," 
" Bombycina," and the rest ; but there is no sort of uni- 
formity among the authors. Linnaeus uses the nominative 
singular, "Phaleena;^' and the same for the genera, our 
groups ; " Attacks," " Noctua," " Tortrz'a;.^^ Latreille's 
three groups end in " -a/' the neuter plural ; but his 
primary sections have any termination at hap-hazard, 
thus: ''Aposura,'' "Tortrices," '' Deltoit^es,'' "Tineites." 
The list now in vogue, following the new arrangement 
uses, as did Hiibner in his " Verzeichniss,^^ the simple 
form " NoctuEe," " Pyralides," " Crambi,^^ — a practice 
actually objectionable, because those plurals also indicate 
(in modern usage) the species of the genera Noctua, 
Pyral'is, Crantbus. There is certainly no sanction for a 
contention that the names of groups must be of uniform 

Neither is it true that the termination -idee is exclu- 
sively used to indicate the name of any other division. 
Families in the modern books usually have that termina- 
tion e. g. again, those of Stainton in his Manual. But 
Guenee uses the same termination for his two leading 
sections of the Noctuelites, Trijidre and Quadrijidce ; and 
without looking further afield. Dr. Horsfield, as well as 
Mr. Stephens (see the Introduction to his " Systematic 
Catalogue ") , have used the termination -idee to indicate 
the very thing we are upon, the name of a group. 

A A 2 

336 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

Besides (to return) it would seem that if the authors of 
the new names felt a difficulty of this kind, they should, 
according to their own plan have named their groups 
'' Platyptery^es " and '"'Notodonte/' and there was no 
sort of necessity to invent new titles. 

With reference to the species constituting the new 
group Pseudo-Bovibyces, we have already seen that some 
were before considered so closely akin to certain Bomhyces, 
that they were placed in the same family with them. On 
the other hand, the species now collected were by Latreille 
considered so dissimilar among themselves, that he placed 
them three of his families apart, the species of the genus 
Notodonta being classed with the Noctuce, in Gen. Crust. 
&c., vol. iv. 

The new grouping places twenty-seven Bombyciform 
moths a long distance away from their allies, between 
these and the main body, being the whole of the 
very distinct group Geometrce. That arrangement could 
only be supported by showing that the Geometrce na- 
turally connect the Bomhyces with the Pseudo-Bombyces ; 
but there is not the slightest reason for saying that the 
last-mentioned, or, if you please, ''aberrant" Bomhyces 
are connected with the other Bomhyces through, or hy 
means of the Geometrce. No author who has written 
with reasons has ever suggested, remark, the possibility 
of such an arrangement. The relationship of the " aber- 
rant" to the "true" Bomhyces (I use these terms 
strictly under protest) is direct; some families of the 
latter pass gradually into the separated family Notodon- 
tidce, so plainly, that one learned author refused, as we 
have seen, to consider the Notodontidce anything but a 
part of the Arctiidce (Westw. Introd. ii. p. 385) ; and 
Latreille also classes them in one family. The Notodon- 
tidce may, nevertheless, present such differences from the 
typical Bo'inhyx, that they should not be classed in the 
same group. But their position even then should be 
7iext to Bombyx. 

On leaving the so-called Nocturni, we leave several 
families of moths characterised by their strong and thick 
wings, robust bodies, and antennge pectinate in the males; 
whose wings in repose meet roof-like over the abdomen, 
whose larva has sixteen legs, and walks without looping. 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 337 

We are next taken through the Geometrce, and there 
find numerous families of moths whose wings are thin 
and weak, whose bodies are slender, whose antennee are 
simple or filiform in the males, whose wings in repose 
are extended, or put up vertically, whose larva has ten 
legs, and cannot walk without looping*. We are then 
again brought back to an isolated set of twentj-seven 
moths agreeing with the families from which we first 
started, having strong and thick wings, robust bodies, 
pectinate antennae, wings in repose meeting roof-like, 
whose larva has sixteen legs. 

The reasons for this startling arrangement, if I am at 
liberty to guess them, centre in this, that between the 
Geometrce and the twenty-seven Bombyces, a connection 
can be made by means of Flatypteri/x. In other words, 
we are taken from the Bombyces by a leap into the Geo- 
tnetrce, in order to be shown by what easy stages we can 
be brought from the Geometrce back to the Bombyces 
again ! The fiict that Platypteryx joins Geometra and 
Bombyx is thus made the most of; but, even so, the new 
order has, as it were, a rough edge, because the junction 
of the true Bombyces (or Nocturni) with Geometra is not 
effected by closely related species. 

Now, let me endeavour to account for this extraordi- 
nary group Pseudo-Bombyces. No one has vouchsafed a 
line of explanation, and it is not my fault if I am all 

The arrangement of the Noctiice, in the different books, 
had been conceived with a view to the position of the 
group between the Bombyces at the one end, and the 
Geometrce at the. other. The species least akin to the 
Geometrce had been put furthest away from the Geometrce ; 
the species least akin to the Bombyces furthest away from 
the Bombyces. In the year 1852, M. Guenee — who in 
1841, as we have seen, followed the same arrangement^ — 
described or catalogued the Noctuce in this, the old order, 
beginning with the species akin to Bombyx. M. Guenee's 
work has taken its place as the chief work upon the 
Noctuce ; and the author of it would not, it may be ex- 
pected, be inclined, shortly after the book's completion, 
to favour a new arrangement, which would render it less 
an authority. 

The affinity between the Geometrce and the Bombyces 
seems in, or just before 1859, to have struck M. Guenee 
as of greater importance than he had before considered 

338 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

it; and in that year (as it is well understood, at his sug- 
gestion) Mr. Doubleday's second List introduced the new 
arrangement. Let us bear in mind the important consi- 
deration that, in Mr. Doubleday^s List, the order of 
ari-angement of the Noctu^ was not changed. That 
remained the same as when the group followed next after 
the Bomhyces, and the Geometrce came at the end. Bom- 
byciformes is still the first section (including the families 
Noctuo-BomhycidcB and Bomhyco'idm) ; and at the end 
come the various Quadrijidce with their half-looping larvas 
(including the species acknowledged as Noctuo-Phalcenidi 
by M. Guenee himself in 1841). 

It appears to me that this fact controlled the rest of 
the arrangement. The order of the Noctuce begs the 
question of the group's position ; and it was, therefore, 
necessary to start the Noctuce from somethimg Bomby- 
ciform. The new arrangement was introduced to give 
effect to the affinity between the Geometroe and the Bom- 
hyces, and this was carried out by placing the two groups 
in juxta-position. Now, if the Geometrce had only 
been brought up and placed next to the Bomhyces, the 
Noctuce making way for them, would have had to folloio 
the Geometrce. The complete re-arrangement of the 
Noctuce would then have become necessary in view of 
their changed location. But there were weighty reasons 
against proposing a re-arrangement of the Noctuce. Not 
only had this group been long described in the books, in 
the order which it would be necessary to abandon ; but 
M. Guenee himself had, within a very few years, com- 
pleted an exhaustive work, whose order of ai-rangement 
would also have become obsolete. M. Guenee would of 
course be disposed to see advantage in a plan, which, 
while giving full play to the affinity between Geometra 
and Bomhyx, at the same time preserved and vindicated 
his own previous arrangement of the Noctuce. And here 
I think we find the reason of the existing order. 

It was necessary in the first place to join the Geometrce 
to the Bomhyces, in order to exhibit what in the new 
view was the natural relationship between these groups. 
But, to preserve the union of the Noctuce with the Bom- 
hyces was equally necessary, if the existing arrangement 
of the former was to be upheld. These two objects 
were accomplished in the only way possible ; and the 
steps by which they were accomplished were the natural 
ones for that purpose. 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 339 

The only way in which it was possible to join on to the 
Bonthyces, both Geoiuetnv and Noetuce, was to divide the 
first-named group, and fasten the Geometrce to one part, 
the Noetuce to the other. M. Guenee had even more 
recently been engaged upon the Geometrce, and no re- 
arrangement of this group was likely to be proposed by 
him. On the arrangement of the Bomhyces, however, he 
was unfettered, having published no views upon the order 
of that group. 

This measure of dividing the Bomhyces once determined 
on, all the details were, it seems to me, matters of ne- 
cessity. The PI atypteryg idee have affinities both with the 
Bomhyces and Geometrce; and that family, therefore, would 
not occupy an unnatural position, if made a connecting 
link between the two groups. This happy invention of 
the PlatypterygidcE, was the only thing wanted. Every 
one knows to which family of Bomhyces the Platyp- 
terygidce have always been considered akin. Their larva 
was described by Linnteus himself, as " Vimdce affinis" 
(Syst. Nat. vol. 2; p. 860); and Prof. Westwood suc- 
cinctly expresses the relationship of the groups, when 
he says (Westw. Intr. ii, p. 362) , " Platypteryx agrees with 
Geometra in the habit of the imago, but in its transforma- . 
tions it is much nearer to Gerura, amongst the Bomhyci- 
dce." Therefore the Notodontidce (the family including 
Gerura) came naturally to be the separated section. Thus 
we have our new order worked out. 

Although this arrangement secures its objects, I ven- 
ture to think that it effects them in an empirical fashion ; 
and also fails in effecting what an arrangement of the 
Lepidoptera should secure. 

In the front of my objection, I of course place this 
starting of the Noctxlce from a few Bomhyces, in order to 
preserve the order of the former group. But that has 
been sufficiently discussed. The erection of the family 
Platypterygidce into a group, I confess appears to me a 
strong step. No author has yet described the Pla- 
typterygidai as a separate group, not even Mr. Newman, 
who has faithfully followed the new order. He joins this 
family to the Pseudo-Bomhyces, and calls both together 
" Cuspidates," a name he however explains is not a very 
good one (Brit. Moths, p. 204) . The erection of the 
insect A venti a flexida into a separate group is also a very 
strong proceeding, and I much question whether both 

340 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

that group " Aventke," and its neighbour Deltoldes, 
were not both constituted primary groups, in order to 
keep the two essential ones Drepanuhe and Pseudo-Bom- 
byces in countenance. 

The new order shirks the affinity between Geometra 
and the Deltoides, and Geometra and Pyralis, of which M. 
Guenee spoke so strongly (in his Gencralites, vol. 9) ; 
as well, of course, as shirking the necessity for re- 
arrangement of the Noctuce ; for, at present, the order 
of that group leads one (according to M. Guenee's own 
expressions) to expect more Geometrce to come at the end ! 

The union of Sphinx and Bomhyx in one group I will 
not discuss. I say with all humility, that the proposition 
is, in my view, the result of an extreme disregard for 
the opinion of entomologists, no one of whom has been 
found to say a good word for the arrangement. The 
" group '^ Nocturni is properly stigmatised by Mr. New- 
man as "heterogeneous, and far too comprehensive" 
(Brit. Moths, pref. vi.). 

It stands to reason, that the arrangement of families, 
made with a view to their proximity to certain other 
families, must require alteration when these last are no 
longer in proximity, and their place is taken by species 
totally different. But the feat to be accomplished by the 
apostles of the new arrangement was this, that though 
this reform was to be made, and the relations of the 
neighbouring families altered, yet no change was to be 
made in their order of arrangement. It was done, and 
the result is the group Pseudo- Bomb yces — a creation in 
which, from its wonderful audacity, men are almost fain 
to see some merit. 

Observe one way in which {if it was necessary to strain 
a point) the affinity of Geometra and Bomhyx might be 
exemplified. At the end of Bomhyx, place Platypteryx ; 
then begin Geometra, taking the group as at present 
arranged, backwai-ds ; end Geo'iuetra with Metrocamioa ; 
then begin Noctua with Erastria and Plusia, etc, ; there 
you have Geometra next to Bomhyx, — the affinity victori- 
ous, and no outrage on common sense, such as an eruption 
of Bomhyces, eight hundred species out place. Or again, 
place Geometra hefore Bomhyx, end Geometra with Aiuphi- 
dasys, &c. (termed "Bombyciformes " by Hiibner); then 
take the Bomhyces, and go on from them to the Noctuce; 
either by the Bomhycoidce, or by Gonoptera as Latreille 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 341 

But of course it does not rest with me, or any follower 
of the Linnajan order, to show M. Guenue how he may 
gratify his taste for tactical movements. M. Guenee had, 
before the new arrangement came out, done his best to 
condemn it by anticipation ; for he had stated in the 
language I have quoted, that to place Geometra next to 
Boiuhyx would require a re-arrangement of the Noctuce, 
though he has since fathered the proposition to carry out 
the innovation, and yet leave the Noctuce as they were. 

So much for the new arrangement. It was introduced 
in a List intended to catalogue synonyms, and the pro- 
mulgation of it seems to have been considered a minor 
object, even by its authors. In England alone does it 
appear to have taken root. No writer on the Continent 
follows the plan; and the Americans do not so much as 
recognise its existence. In Dr. Packard^s " Guide to 
the Study of Insects," one of the best entomological 
books ever written, the order of the Lepidoptera given is 
that of Linneeus, and the work contains numerous pas- 
sages in support of that arrangement (see pp. 283-284, 
293, 302, 318, &c.) . In the preface (p. iv.) we read that 
this succession of the families of the Lepidoptera is " that 
now generally agreed upon by entomologists." It seems 
that lists without reasons are not accounted anything 
by the great nation beyond the Atlantic. 

One word before we come to the "Lists," upon the 
principle on which changes in names are to be made. 
It is continually being discovered that, after an insect 
has been called by one name for, say, fifty years, it really 
ought to be called something else, because that name 
was "earlier.'^ I leave out of the question the doubt 
which attends so many of these earlier names, arising 
from variable characters, imperfect condition of a speci- 
men, from mis- coloration of a figure, or lack of descriptive 
acumen in the author, — all matters affecting the fidelity 
of a reference. But, supposing a prior name to be dis- 
covered clearly meant for the insect which has always 
been misnamed ; is it always desirable to discard the 
wrong name ? It is a maxim of law, which might with 
advantage govern scientific nomenclature, that Com- 
munis error facit jus ; and, when the entomological 
world is startled by receiving orders to call all the old 
insects by new names, I think a craving for some good 
rule of this kind must be experienced by many. It 

342 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

will always, to the majority, appear unreasonable, to 
require all people, nations, and languages, to give up a 
name on which the world is agreed, for some other no 
one living has before heard of. We have been only 
lately a good deal startled by receiving orders to call our 
Butterflies by names which are very new to us, and if 
our authors had shown a reasonable deference to the 
maxim Communis error facit jus, we might have been 
spared some disagreeables. The mode, however, of 
introducing changes in names — wholly unsatisfactory as 
it is — has effectually prevented any rule of this kind 
being even proposed, as we shall, I think, presently find. 

In last years Transactions, appear some learned papers 
by Mr. Crotch, on the genera of Goleo'ptera,'^ showing how 
much confusion there has been in them ; and the President 
in his address this year, suggests that it may be necessary 
to take some concerted action with a view to settlement. 
The concerted action will, I think I may prophesy, take 
this form, that all that is will be declared right, and the 
forgotten, if accurate, distinctions will be remitted to the 
oblivion from which they were dragged. It is too much 
to be told, as Mr. Dunning remarked was its effect, when 
the paper was read here, that " all the names by which we 
have been calling our beetles are wrong," and, when the 
information comes thus in a lump, the change is resisted. 
In principle, there is no difference between that case and 
the case of our Butterflies ; everyone has agreed to call 
Linea Linea, and it is too much because some one else 
once called it by a different name, to ask the whole scien- 
tific world to abandon that and call the species Thaumas. 

The mode, however, of introducing changes of names 
(in the English synonymic lists at least) is very unsatis- 
factory, and tells the reader nothing; and it is by no 
means surprising, that the changes themselves are there- 
fore so unacceptable. One reason why they are so, is 
because they are unexplained. It is no explanation at all 
to scratch out the old name and write in the new one. At 
that rate, any one could make a very startling and real- 
looking list with a Latin dictionary and a list of abbrevi- 
ations. Nor is it any explanation to write in the new 
name, leaving the old name underneath. That only 
shows what the erasure shows just as well — which name 
it is that is superseded. 

* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. for 1870, pp. 41, 213. 

Ch'oups of the Lepidoptera. 343 

To demonstrate that the practice followed furnishes 
no explanation is very easy. Either of two very substan- 
tial reasons at the least, very widely different in kind, 
may be the ground of a change in name. The first is, 
that the new name is found to have been published 
earlier than the old. The second is, that the old one 
is found to refer to another species. Now, no indication 
at all is given, by the English lists, which of these two 
reasons has caused the change of name. It may well be 
a very nice question (in the latter case) to what species 
the old name does refer, and unless a reference, at the 
very least, is given, each reader must do all the author's 
work again. The effect of the present fashion here is 
often to pass off, as the work of one of the old entomolo- 
gists, the wholly inaccurate deduction of the modern 

In the case of a change of name, when the old name 
has been discovered to refer to a different insect, there 
may be circumstances of especial interest which make 
the author's omission to give references or extracts parti- 
cularly unfortunate. Thus, where a name Tantalus is 
found, some fine day, supplanted in our lists by a 
new one (say) Ixion, the name Tantalus referring to 
another insect, it may well be that the true Tantalus has 
at some time or other occurred in England, that being, 
indeed, the most probable cause of the confusion. Here 
you have an interesting point raised directly, involving, 
perhaps, some curious question of geographical distribu- 
tion. Such a discovery is impeded by the pi'actice of 
the English list-makers to withhold reasons and re- 

It is out of the question that all our entomologists 
should be equally well acquainted with the works of 
foreign authors, or should enjoy equal opportunities for 
deliberate study. If, indeed, they were so circum- 
stanced, it is not for the interest of science that each 
should pursue his investigations for himself; but the 
acknowledged fact is, that access to foreign works, or 
old English works, is the privilege of a very few. 
Therefore, the giving of mere references to works that 
cannot be consulted is not a sufiicient help to the 
reader ; extracts and a commentary are both necessary. 

Last year, a new '' Cabinet List " appeared " printed 
on one side only," with the name of Dr. Knaggs as 

344 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

editor. This list follows the "Manual/^ with many 
emendations of nomenclature, and a few suggestions for 
alteration of the order. Perhaps it may be considered 
that it did not lie with Dr. Knaggs, reproducing another 
man^s work, to justify it; but at all events, the new things 
in the "Cabinet List" demanded some explanation. 

The Nolidce are included by Stainton (in the Manual) 
among the Pyralidina. Doubleday puts them with the 
Nocturni; Dr. Knaggs gives up the Nolidce, oji^ "recom- 
mends" their insertion amongst the Bomhyces (Cabinet 
List, pp. 3, 11). He is careful not to state any reason 
at all, for the conveyance of this family across the 
dead bodies of seven hundred species, and the unlearned 
entomologist is left to think himself very stupid that he 
does not see it all quite clearly. Now, if the " Manual^' 
order is so good, that it is proper to produce it anew 
after a lapse of twelve years, what obvious and crying 
error was made iji the classification of Nolidce, that Mr. 
Stainton's readers must blush to observe his arrangement 
any longer? The Nolidce are by Westwood (Introd. to 
Mod. Class, vol. ii. p. 401) also classed with the Fyrales, 
but said to be allied to the Tortrices, and reasons for the 
opinion are given, drawn from the wings of the imago, 
and the cocoon. They are also classed with the Py rales 
by Haworth, by Stephens, and by Curtis, the last-named 
of whom also notices their affinity to Tortrix. But 
Doubleday's List places the Nolidce in. the Nocturni, and 
Dr. Staudinger^s also (in the family LithosidcB) . No 
reasons are given, and Dr. Knaggs politely " advises " 
that this should be their position. 

It is of importance to recollect that Dr. Knaggs' List 
is published as a labelling list ; and of the new practice of 
"advising" and "recommending" changes in a publica- 
tion of this class, I shall have a few words to say before 
the conclusion of this paper. 

Dr. Knaggs' List gives some other pieces of advice. 
It "recommends" that Aventia be placed in the Noctuce 
after Toxocampa, and that the Pterophori come after Nom- 
ophila in the Pyrales ! As to Aventia, I suppose anyone 
may express an opinion without its doing much harm, as 
the genus has long been treated as an outcast. The new 
arrangement makes it, as we have seen, a group by itself 
(placed between the Deltoidcs s^ndPyralis) an enterprising 
course at all events ; Staudinger (another list writer) 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 345 

places it in the Noctme already, and in the same position 
which Dr. Knaggs ''recommends/^ Stainton had placed 
it in the Geometrce, following Hiibner, Stephens, and 
others who had also done so. Here is a change in which 
surely the list-writers might spare us a few sentences in 
a foot-note. 

But Dr. Knaggs also ''advises" us to place the Ptero- 
phori among the Pyrales ; and if a change of this sort is 
to be brought about thus in a labelling list, it is a waste 
of time ever to write a book. 

In Dr. Knaggs^ List, a rule to bo observed in the con- 
struction of synonymic Lists is laid down, and a reason 
for it is given. The rule (expressed * by the way, in 
eccentric English) is that where the two sexes of a species 
have been named simultaneously, the name given to the 
female should be preferred. I am not concerned now 
with the reason ; it is a great thing to have some reason 
advanced. But as to the author's confidence in his own 
rule, it is instructive to examine his treatment of a few 
well-known cases. 

Linnaeus "named simultaneously" the two sexes of the 
Meadow-brown Butterfly, terming the male Janira, and 
the female Jurtina ; and Haworth actually did term the 
Butterfly Jurtina alone, which according to Dr. Knaggs 
was the only right name. Dr. Staudinger also suggests 
that Jurtina may be the better name, because it is given 
before Janira, in order. Dr. Knaggs, however, writes 
the species down Janira, in defiance of his own regulation. 
There are several other instances. Sihylla is, it is now 
admitted, the male name for our White Admiral But- 
terfly, and Camilla the female, both names being given 
by Linngeus ; Camilla for a long time was the name in 
use in England, Haworth, Stephens, and Curtis (the two 
latter with emphasis) stating that Camilla is the name 
of our insect. Dr. Knaggs has Sihylla in his list. Tro- 
cliilium Cynipiformis appears to be in a similar case, 
the female name being GEstriJorniis, Rottemburg. And 
to take one other instance, exceedingly easy to be veri- 

* The following is Dr. Kuaggs' " Note." — " Should the sexes of a species 
have been named simultuncouslj, that of the female is adopted, for the 
reason, that, while the <? is alone utterly incapable of perpetuating its 
species, the luiimpregnated $ $ of several insects have the power of 
reproducing their like, and may therefore be considered to be of the higher 
organism." [I am responsible for all italics.] 

346 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

fied ; our own Haworth '' named simultaneously " the 
two sexes of Miana arcuosa, the name arcuosa being 
given to the male. No one terms the species anything 
else than arcuosa, and Dr. Knaggs does not suggest that, 
according to his canon, the name minima (given to the 
female) must be accepted instead. 

The reason he does not is, perhaps, the same which 
would control the action of any adventurous writer. A 
principle can be stated, and supported as a principle, 
without encountering any vigorous opposition. Entomo- 
logists at large do not know enough to see its effect, and 
choose not to quarrel with a learned writer till he makes 
an overt attack. Dr. Knaggs avoids encountering the 
displeasure of the collectors, but he does so at the cost 
of acknowledging that Communis error facit jus. 

But do not the English entomologists demand better 
worh than this ? Theory and practice are not on speak- 
ing terms in Dr. Knaggs' list. Let us hope a list of 
labels will never again assume to introduce changes, or 
lay down a law. 

Mr, Newman's " Natural History of British Moths " is 
a work extensively used by collectors of the unscientific 
class. The sort of practical joke, by which the later 
English writers carry off — I speak without ofience — their 
autocratic manner, is played more than once in this book. 
The joke is almost de rigueur with authors on Lepidop- 
terology. It consists in an assumption on the part of the 
writer, that he is addressing children, and a continual 
reference to his readers' youthfulness and inexperience. 
No one writes on the Lepidoptera for grown people ! It 
is a very remarkable thing that the books now are always 
published for "the young collector." This is very 
pleasant for the authors, because they are saved a great 
deal of trouble. You do not give the reasons for things 
to children; they are satisfied without; and in a book 
written ostensibly for children, no one looks for anything 
very thorough or deep. It would be a pity, however, 
that an author should carry even this joke too far, be- 
cause it might unjustly be imputed that he bid for the 
approval of the unscientific. I am beginning to fear 
that we shall not have any more English books that are 
not addressed to the school-room ; and I have no expec- 
tation but that the title-page of the forthcoming work 

Groups of the Lepidojatem. 347 

by Dr. Knaggs will state, that it is " The Synonymy of 
the Lepidoptera of Great Britain and Ireland; expur- 
gated for the young collector." 

Mr. Newman's " Natural History/' I venture to sug- 
gest, contains several passages, which are exceedingly 
objectionable to an independent mind. The passage 
which I mention is only quoted here, because it is neces- 
sary to take some instance in order to illustrate the views, 
which I respectfully urge in this paper. I take one in- 
stance and only one. 

After describing the Leucanice and Nonagrice and their 
allies, in whose names and order some changes are intro- 
duced, Mr. Newman prints an " observation " as follows : 
" In concluding the family oi Lencanidce, it seems desirable 
to allude to the changes which it has been deemed right 
to make in the names : " — This commencement gave me 
great pleasure ; it is very desirable indeed, I think, not 
only to allude to, but also to discuss and explain all 
changes, whether in names or in arrangement. The pas- 
sage continues: ^^But I believe I may state, that where 
I have departed from the names and arrangement of Mr. 
Doubleday's List, it has been luith the entire approval of 
that lepidopterist" (Newm. Brit. Moths, p. 276). And 
so, it is enough, is it, to say that ? An author is to chop 
and change the arrangement of the Macro- Lepidoptera, 
without a scratch of the pen for reason, and unblushingly 
present to us the results of the operation, stamped with 
someone else's " entire approval ! " After carefully 
spreading the cloth, this is the stale crust Mr. Newman 
flings us to stay our starving capacities ! What ento- 
mologists want is, not that changes should come to 
them ''approved of" by this or that leading man, but 
that each author who proposes an alteration in clas- 
sification or nomenclature for their adoption, should 
fi^rst state all his reasons, and then leave the '' approval " 
to them. Haworth himself, whose follower Mr. Newman 
claims to be, ti'ied to carry things through by other 
men's ''approbation," and had to abandon summarily 
the very plan which he presented with such a flourish. 
I refer to Haworth's plan of uniform terminations for the 
names of all the Lepidoptera, which had, as he boasted, 
"the full and individual approbation of all the members 
of the Aurelian Society" (Haw. Lep. Brit.; pref. xix. ; 
and pp. 139, 588) . 

348 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

Lists are, I suppose, divided into synonymic lists and 
labelling lists. Eestricted to their proper objects, sy- 
nonymic lists are very useful things ; and while entomo- 
logists continue to label their collections, printed labelling 
lists will always play a useful, if a humble, part in the 
world of science. 

A list is a list all the world over, and cannot be a 
treatise. To make a list answer the purpose of a treatise 
is at all events a very slovenly proceeding. But there 
are some functions which a list cannot perform. I am 
concerned only with one. A bare list cannot state rea- 
sons for results ; it can only catalogue the results them- 
selves. Now, was it ever designed in the institution of 
synonymic lists, that they should be an authority upon 
classification, or the medium for introducing important 
changes in arrangement ? Classification is the highest 
incident of scientific study, which requires, if anything 
requires it, a full statement of reasons jwo and con., 
research, deliberation, careful discrimination between 
published conclusions. An opinion on a system of 
arrangement, formed without such preparation, would be 
absolutely worthless in a scientific point of view, fey 
whomsoever it might be expressed. A list such as Mr. 
Doubleday's makes no pretence of affording any guide 
for the formation of a judgment, even on the propriety 
of the names ; and as to theiu, rests entirely for its 
acceptability on the reputation of its author. But can it 
be tolerated, that a bare array of names, shaken into a 
certain order, shall be accepted as any authority that that 
order is natural or proper ? Surely no list has or can 
have such authority, and there would be a stultification 
of science if it had. When we desire authorities upon 
System, we go to books, written by entomologists, who 
have given reasons for their plan. It has not been 
thought beneath the attention of the men most reverenced 
in science, to devote a studious lifetime to the perfecting 
of systems ^of classification. The works of those men 
remain, and will remain, the great authorities, though 
stacks of" synonymic lists" may leave our printing-offices 
year by year. 

A mere list is not of any value even as corroborating 
or adopting an existing arrangement. An arrangement 
of insects depends for its acceptability on its own merits, 
and is no better if a hundred synonymic lists, without 

Groups of the Lepidoptera. 349 

reasons^ are published following the same order. But 
what respect is such a list to receive, when it seeks to 
change and subvert an arrangement previously adopted ? 
How completely absurd it is to accept as any authority 
a list, which, as if by its author's ipse dixi, supersedes 
the work of an entomologist who has given his reasons ! 
Worse ignominy awaits us in the spectacle of our system 
re-organised by labelling lists ! If the label writer keeps 
his place, people will buy his labels in the covirse of business, 
and his publisher's account may be expected to show a 
moderately satisfactory return. But if the label writer 
assumes too much, and pretends to be a systematist, we 
shall probably choose to deal somewhere else. When we 
buy a labelling list, it is generally with the confidence 
that if we do not secure a learned, we at least have a 
useful commodity. But if a label writer takes to tinker- 
ing the lists on his own account, not only is his new 
labour thrown away, but his own proper work is rendered 
untrustworthy. I have no hesitation in saying, that I 
regard the introduction of changes in arrangement in a 
list intended for labelling as an affront to science ; and, 
if such a course is not considered to fix a stigma on the 
scientific reputation of an author, it is only because the 
ignorant and unreflecting collectors are so numerous 
that they constitute the majority and direct opinion. 

I gladly dismiss this subject (on which, as will have 
been gathered, I hold a strong view) by suggesting a 
consideration which I think should weigh with any 
author, having pretensions to be a man of science. To 
publish changes in a labelling list for the first time, is to 
obtain a sanction for new views by adventitions means 
— a thing to be deprecated by all. I leave these gentle- 
men and their followers to the scourge of M. Guenee's 
trenchant sarcasm where, speaking of improper changes, 
he says they " tendent a se vulgariser chez nous par les 
nombreux entomologistes - amateurs qui ne possedent, 
pour toute bibliothcque, qu'un catalogue qu'ils suivent 
aveuglement" (Lepidopt., vol. 9, p. xxxiii.) . 

An entomological book ought to fulfil the conditions 
requii'ed of all good books, according to its kind. If an 
entomological book seek to introduce alterations, an 
entomological book like any other book, ought to su])port 
those alterations by facts and reasoning. If it bo sup- 


350 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on 

posed (and I am reduced to believing that it is supposed) , 
that entomology is a subject by itself^ in which it is 
easy to be a great man, it is necessary to say that 
such a creed is a mistake. It may be the case that a 
writer of pre-eminent position, who has earned universal 
respect on a special subject, is allowed to transgress the 
ordinary rules, and his opinions alone cairy weight with- 
out the reasons for them being stated. But there is 
certainly no living entomologist who stands in this posi- 
tion towards his fellow-students, and I am strongly inclined 
to believe that of all the sciences, this very one of ours 
is the one among whose votaries there is the greatest 
evenness of knowledge, and capacity for judgment, cceteris 
2)arihus, the men being matched in other respects. I 
have long entertained the opinion, that entomology is a 
science in which any student can obtain considerable 
proficiency, and that authors who treat of it ought to 
unbend to their readers, because their readers are often 
as clever as themselves. To publish conclusions without 
reasons, is not only not to unbend, but is a highly self- 
sufficient action ; and in any other walk of literature 
would augur an exaggerated self-esteem and consider- 
able disregard of other persons' judgment. 

A good scientific book, then, I humbly contend, should 
state all the reasons for every opinion advanced, or 
scheme propounded, and should quote and discuss pre- 
vious authorities bearing on the subject in hand. In 
fact, the book should submit everything , — reasons, autho- 
rities, conclusions — to the judgment of the reader. 

First of all, is it an author's duty to absolve himself 
from the suspicion of chicanery. I candidly confess, the 
very first idea which crosses my mind when I take up a 
list or catalogue whose contents are not supported by 
reasons (published either in the book or elsewhere) , is ; 
to what extent is the writer of this a quack ? 

Mr. Doubleday and Dr. Knaggs treat me no better 
than does the dealer, at whose shop I may purchase to- 
morrow a little book professing to contain " Gardner's 
Arrangement." I have procured a copy of this publica- 
tion, and I can assure the Society that it alters the order 
of the species, chops and changes the genera, and in all 
things enacts to the life the part of a thorough-bred 
" list." It is supported by no reasons of any sort, of 
course, but it is no worse in this than are the others. 

Groups of the Lepidnptera. 351 

Respect for the quarter of its origin does not prevent 
my deriding it as fanciful, and stigmatising its changes 
of the order as unmeaning; but am I quite sure it has 
not as good authority as the Cabinet Eist, 'Sprinted 
on one side only"? I do not follow the order of 
arrangement given in this dealer's list, because he shows 
me no reason why I should do so. What reason, pray, 
is offered me for following Mr. Doubleday's? 

Surely I need not press further the imperative urgency 
there is for entomological writers to absolve their work 
from all appearance of chicanery. Next, it is (as I have 
already urged) an entomological writer's duty to furnish 
his readers with the matei'ials for forming an independent 
judgment. For upon this, in great measure, depends 
whether or not his performance is worth our study. The 
English lists, as now published, afford no materials at 
all for estimating the writers' trustworthiness, and it is 
impossible, without doing the author's work over again 
for ourselves, to determine whether or not we shall avail 
ourselves of his labours. Indeed, a list of species, such 
as the English list- makers offer, is an absurd composition 
in every view — a list of names merely, with abbreviations 
of the nomenclators' names appended. No quotations, 
no references even, are supplied, much less foot-notes 
explaining the causes of this or that alteration in name 
or position. 

An aim which I had in this paper was, that by asking 
the attention of scientific men to the method of intro- 
ducing changes in arrangement, I might draw from them 
some expressions of disapproval of the existing fashion, 
such as may, perhaps, have the effect of establishing a 
better practice. The promulgation of important changes, 
by mere lists as barren as those I have slightly noticed, 
seems likely to become the rule, unless the opinion of 
entomologists is very decidedly expressed. The bewil- 
derment continually felt (outside the publishing coterie) 
as to the reasons for the frequent changes is just now 
very general. Any understanding now arrived at would 
be most opportune, and have a good effect in removing 
feelings even of annoyance, which 1 think are not con- 
fined to a few. It is high time something were done. 

I challenge any Lepidopterist to say, that he can look 
vnth. complacency upon the development of entomolo- 
gical science in England for the last twelve years, in 

B B 2 

352 Mr. W. Arnold Lewis on Lepidoptera. 

which his fellow-students have been so unreasonably led, 
and have so unreasonably followed. The pi^esent condi- 
tion of entomological literature in England is, so far as 
concerns the 'Lepidoptera, utterly unequal to the needs 
and below the capacities of the students of that Order. 

( 353 ) 

X. Descriptions of some new exotic species of Lucanidae. 
By J. 0. Westwood, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

[Bead 1st May, 1871.] 

By the kindness of Dr. Howitt of Melbourne, and Major 
F. J. Parry, I am enabled to offer to the Entomological 
Society, descriptions and figures of a number of new 
species of this interesting family, by way of further sup- 
plement to the different articles which have appeared, 
from time to time, in the Society's Transactions, upon 
these insects. 

The great additions which have been made, to our 
knowledge of this group during the last twenty years, 
have rendered necessary the breaking up of the old 
genera Lucanus and Dorcus into minor groups, or sub- 
genera, and the most interesting species to be described 
in this communication is sufficiently distinct from pre- 
viously separated groups, as to render necessary the 
proposal of another, with the name : — 

Rh^tulus (Parry, MS.). 

Corpus oblongum, subdepressum. Caput et pronotum 
sub lente granulata subopaca; elytra parum nitida punc- 
tatissima. Labrum porrectum transversum, in medio 
marginis antici paullo angulato-productum ; mandibular 
magnae, curvatse, contortae ; antennas longas, clava 3-arti- 
culata. Pedes longi, tibiee 4 posticae in medio 1-calcaratae. 
Prothorax lateribus crenatis hand spinosis. 

Species unica, RniETULus crenatds, mas, 
(Plate VIII. fig. 4.) 

Piceo-niger, elytris magis castaneo-nigris ; mandibulis 
capite duplo longioribus, valde curvatis, et in medio ele- 
vatis, apicibus depressis fortiter bifidis, margine antico 
vel supero basin versus dento pai'vo conico erecto, et in 
medio denticulis numerosis obtusis, armato ; pedibus 
antennisque nigris, tibiis anticis denticulis circiter 14 in- 

Long, coi'p. lin. 15; mandib. lin. 6^. 

Hab. — In Insula Formosa. In Mus. Parry. 


354 Prof. WestwooJ on 

This insect, to which Major Parry has given the name 
above employed, is most nearly allied to Rhadus Wesf- 
woodii, from which it is sufficiently (subgenerically) 
distinct, by the smaller size of the head (which in that 
insect is as large as the prothorax) , by the upper surface 
of the head and prothorax being entirely covered with 
minute granulations, rendering them subopaque (instead 
of being polished) ; by the elytra also being covered with 
minute punctures, scarcely visible, except under a lens, 
but giving them a less brilliant appearance than they 
have in Rhcetus ; in the anterior tibife being denticulated 
throughout their outer edge, in the two posterior tibige 
being armed with a small tooth on the middle of the 
outer edge (as well as the two middle tibiee), one of 
which, indeed, exhibits trace of a second rudimental 
tooth ; in the regular crenation of the sides of the pro- 
thorax, destitute of the two teeth on each side visible in 
Rhcetus; in the disc of the head wanting the two elevated 
spaces between the eyes, which leave the centre de- 
pressed in Rhcetus, and lastly, in the smaller size of the 

The head is transverse, with a small raised tubercle in 
front of each eye ; the anterior lateral angles being 
oblique, punctate, andslightly emarginate. The labrum 
is porrected, transverse, the lateral anterior angles acute, 
and the middle of the fore-margin moderately produced 
into an angle. It is similarly granulose with the re- 
mainder of the upper-side of the head. The antennas 
have the seventh joint produced into an acute spine, the 
sixth being also larger than the fifth. The maxillee are 
elongate, the outer lobe long, and strongly setose. The 
mentum is broad at the base, the sides very oblique, and 
the middle of the anterior margin very slightly emargi- 
nate ; it is not only granulate, but marked with large 
round shallow punctures. The labium is bi-partite, 
moderately setose, and the labial palpi have the basal 
joint elongated. The prothorax is transversely quad- 
rate, with the anterior and posterior lateral angles 
oblique, the lateral margins finely crenated, the disc 
convex, and marked close to the middle of the anterior 
margin with a small polished space. The sides and 
hinder margin are distinctly elevated into a slender 
margin ; the suture of the elytra is polished, and the 
sides and apex of the elytra are margined. The anterior 

Lucanidce. 355 

tibi« are arraed tlirougliout the whole length of the 
outer edge with about fourteen teeth, those next the base 
gradually diminishing in size, the larger ones being 
wider apart, with minute crenations between them. The 
middle tibii>3 are armed with one spine in the middle of 
the outer edge, behind which is to be perceived the very- 
minute rudiment of the second spine. The two hind 
tibias have only a single spine on the same situation. The 
under-surface of the body is moderately glossy and black, 
the presternum is grooved down its centre between the 
anterior coxse, and the mesosternum is quite simple. 

In Major Parry's collection is preserved a female 
specimen brought from Formosa by Mr. Swinhoe, which 
may possibly be the other sex of Bhcptiihis crenatus, but 
which it would be rash, without further information, to 
describe as such at present. It is eleven lines long, black 
and polished, the head small and rugose, the sides of the 
head in front of the eyes very oblique, forming a large 
canthus extending over two-thirds of the length of those 
organs. The labrum is small, rugose, as well as the man- 
dibles, which are armed with a small tooth in the middle, 
and when shut close at rest, forming a triangle, advanced 
in front of the head scarcely more than half its length ; 
the prothorax and elytra are minutely punctured, the 
punctures at the sides and along the hind margin of the 
prothorax more strongly and thickly disposed. The 
sides of the prothorax are margined and crenated ; one 
tooth, opposite the humeral angle of the elytra, being 
slightly more prominent than the rest. The anterior 
tibiae are crenated with about ten stronger teeth on the 
outer margin ; the middle tibiee are armed with a central 
spine in the middle of their outer edge, which is deli- 
cately crenated, and they have a very minute rudimental 
spine in front of the large middle one. The two hind 
tibiae are armed only with a single central spine. 

Note on Rh^tus Westwoodii. 

The precise habitat of the ox'iginal specimen o? Ehcvhis 
Weshvoodii was unknown, but Major Parry has recently 
obtained a second individual from the Himalayas. Hence 
he is induced to consider it probable, that the Himalayan 

356 Prof. Westwood on 

female Dorcus derelichis y"^ may be the opposite sex of Bhce- 
tus, whilst at the same time he entertains the opinion that 
Dorcus riif^is^ Westw.^is the female of the insect described 
below, under the name of Dorcus ratiocinativus. I have 
entered into the consideration of this opinion, in the 
observations upon D. ruclis, given in a subsequent page. 

In his original description of D. derelictus, Major Parry 
was so struck with the " utterly anomalous slender anterior 
and unarmed posterior tibias/^ and other characters, as 
to doubt whether the specimen were really a female, or a 
male with short ill-developed mandibles, and whether 
the insect ought not to be removed to the genus Eury- 
trachelus; whilst in his memoir, in 1870, he considered 
it nearer to Cladognathus and Odontolahis. The speci- 
men having been dissected by Mr. C. Waterhouse, has 
proved to be a female, as confirmed by a subsequent 
examination of the mouth-organs, which I have been 
enabled to make by the kindness of Major Parry, and 
which are noticed in my observations on the sexual 
relations of D. rudis. 


(Plate VIII. fig. 2, male.) 

Niger, prothorace et elytris paruni castaneo-tinctis, 
capite opaco pone oculos subangulato, mandibulis capitis 
longitudine, falcatis dente medio suberecto armatis, pro- 
thorace transverse quadrate, lateribus subparallelis, angu- 
lis posticis lateralibus truncatis, denticulo parvo uti'inque 
instructis, pronoto et elytris subnitidis et sublaevibus. 

Long. corp. lin. 11; mand. fere lin. 2. 

Hah. — Himalaya. In Mus. Parry. 

This small species is of a narrow oblong form, the 
thorax being scarcely broader either than the head or 

* Dorcus derelictus, Parry. 

Proe. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1862, p. 112 ; Trans. Ent. Soc. 3rd, s. v. 2, 
pp. 50, 90 ; 1870, p. 92, pi. xi. f. 3. 

D. elongatxis niger nitidns, capite inter oculos bituberculato ; mandibulis 
obsolete unidentatis ; elytris lasvissimis subparallelis ; tibiis posterioribus 
extus subcurvatis, iuermibiis, iutermediis unidentatis. 

Long. Corp. (mand. incl.) unc. 1, Un. 5. 

Hob, — lud., or Himalayas. Coll. Parry. 

Liicanidce. 357 

elytra, it is subcon vex ; the head is broad, nearly flat above, 
and subopaque, being seen, with a strong lens, to be en- 
tirely covered with very minute granules, placed closely 
together; the sides behind the eyes are slightly angulate, 
the canthus extends half the length of the eyes ; the 
anterior lateral angles in front of the canthus being 
obliquely truncate, and slightly emarginate ; the labruni 
is short and transverse, with the fore-margin straight, and 
fringed with short fulvous hairs ; the mandibles are about 
the length of the head, sickle-shaped, and acute at the 
tips; the basal portion is concave, the outer angle (in 
front of the eyes) being dilated, in the middle they are 
armed with a strong- nearly erect spine. The maxilla 
are moderately long, the lobes clothed with long hairs, 
the inner lobe being simple ; the mentum has the lateral 
anterior angles rounded, and the fore-margin nearly 
straight. The prothorax is transverse, with a slender 
raised margin all round its circumference ; it has the sides 
nearly parallel, terminating behind in a small tooth, 
behind which the lateral angles are obliquely truncate, 
the anterior margin is rounded towards the head ; the 
disc is convex and polished, with the outer angles finely 
punctured. The elytra are oblong, convex and polished, 
and, seen under a lens, covered with very minute punctures. 

The anterior tibiae are armed with seven small teeth 
on the outer edge, and the four hind tibiae have a small 
spine in the middle of each. 

Major Parry is inclined to believe that this insect is 
the male of D. rudis, next described. 


(Plate VIII. fig. 3.) 

$ . Totus niger, rude punctatus; elytris costatis in- 
terstitiis punctatissimis, capitis angulis anticis lateralibus 
obliquis, oculis septo dimidiatim incisis ; prothoracis an- 
gulis posticis oblique emarginatis ; elytris angulo hume- 
rali prominenti notatis. 

Long. corp. (cum mandibulis) lin. 10. 

Hah. — India vel Insulis Indicis? In Mus. D. Parry. 

Dorcus {Prosopocoilus 7) rudis, Westw., Trans. Ent. 
Soc, ser. 3, vol. ii. p. 35 (1864). 

358 Prof. Westwood on 

CladognatJms rudis, Parry^ loc. cit., p. 35. 

Dorcus rudis, Parry, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 112, 

The original female type of this species is here more 
carefully re-figured, in order to afford comparison with 
the male Dorcus ratiocinativus (Plate VIII. fig. 2) 
which Major Parry is inclined to regard as its genuine 
male. The precise habitat of this female specimen is, 
unfortunately, not known, and it is from analogy only 
that Major Parry has been led to the supposition of its 
being the female of the Himalayan insect. Should Major 
Parry's suggestion that Dorcus derelictus is the female of 
Rhoetus Westwoodii prove to be correct, we shall, I think, 
be scarcely wai-ranted in adopting his view as to the 
sexual relationship of the two former insects, since the 
great difference between the two females far outweighs 
the close affinity existing between the two males. 

Thus, although the structure of the mouth organs, 
especially the hooked inner lobe of the maxillae, mentum, 
and labium, with its palpi, are quite alike in the two 
females; the mandibles of D. derelictus are straighter, 
and curved, with two teeth on the inner edge ; the head 
is bicornute, and but slightly punctured, the prothorax 
being almost impunctate, with the lateral margins regu- 
larly rounded; the elytra also impunctate, except at the 
sides ; the fore tibiae very slender, and with about seven 
very small denticulations on the outer margin, the middle 
tibiae with a single spine in the middle, and the hind 
tibi» unarmed in the middle; differing in all these 
respects from D. rudis, the male of which will, no doubt, 
prove to be a very distinct creature from the genuine 
male of Dorcus derelictus. 

DoECUs suTURALis, n. sp. 
(Plate VIII. fig. 5.) 

Obscure niger, elytris subopacis, regione scutellari et 
suturali glabrata, capite • transverse, labro brevissimo, 
transverse, antice eraarginato ; mandibulis capite duplo 
longioribus, falcatis ; dente crasso submedio antice parum 
porrecto armatis, mento lato, cicatricoso. 

Long. Corp. lin. 16^ ; mandibul. lin. 5. 

Hah. — Pungi, Himalaya. In Mus. Parry. 

Lucanidw. 359 

The head is transverse, with the sides, including the 
lateral can thus of the eyes, nearly parallel ; the hinder 
angles behind the eyes rounded; the canthus extends 
backwards half the length of the eyes, in front of each of 
which is a lateral depression. The labrura is vei"y short, 
transverse, broad, with the fore-margin moderately emar- 
ginate. The mentum is broad, with the lateral anterior 
angles rounded, the disc marked ^\^th shallow cicatricose 
punctures. The mandibles are sickle-shaped, twice the 
length of the head, with a large, nearly central, tooth 
arising on the upper edge, and slightly porrectod. The 
prothorax is transverse, with the front rather wider 
than the head, having the anterior angles slightly dilated 
and rounded, and the hind ones oblique ; the disc is 
entirely even, without sulci or impressions, the whole, 
like the head, being opaque, and, when seen with a strong- 
lens, entirely covered with exceedingly minute granula- 
tions. The elytra are oblong, slightly wider in the 
middle, where they are equal in breadth to the middle 
of the prothorax; they also are opaque, except along 
the sides of the suture and about the scutellura, where 
they (as well as the scutellum itself) are polished ; the 
humeral angles are elevated. The disc is destitute of 
costas or sulci. The fore legs have the tibia3 rather 
narrow, and armed with about eight teeth on the outer 
margin. The four hind tibiee are also rather slender, 
with a spine on the middle of each on the outer edge. 


(Plate YIII. fig. 6.) 

Niger, subopacus, elytris glabris, capite prothorace 
minori, ante oculos parum dilatato, labrobrevi, transverse, 
margine antico recto, mandibulis capitis longitudine, dente 
forte conico medio, denticulisque duobus inter hunc et 
apicem armatis, prothoracis lateribus antice rotundato- 
dilatatis, angulis postieis obliquis ; elytris prothorace 
angustioribus, costis nonnullis, valde indistinctis, notatis ; 

Long. Corp. lin. 15; mand. lin. oh. 

Hah. — In India oriental!, Kasyah Hills. In Mus. Parry. 

This insect is about equal in size to the preceding, but 
the mandibles are shorter, and the polished elytra, marked 
with several very indistinct costis, distinguish it fi-ora 
that species. The head is transverse, narrower than the 

360 Prof. Westwood 07i 

prothorax, with a slight obtuse angle on each side behind 
the eyes; the can thus extends about half through the 
eyes, and is but slightly dilated in front of them. The 
labrum is short, transverse, with the fore-margin nearly 
straight, the antei'ior lateral angles prominent and acute. 
The mandibles are about the length of the head, they are 
falcate, acute at the tips, with a large triangular flattened 
tooth in the middle of the inner edge, beyond which, or 
rather arising on the anterior edge of the tooth itself, 
is a very minute tooth, and there is another equally 
minute and erect on the upper edge near the tip, and so 
placed that it is not visible when seen vertically. The 
mentum is very broad, with the anterior lateral angles 
rounded, the fore margin nearly straight, and the disc 
(like the remainder of the head, except the jugulum) 
covered with very minute granulations when seen with 
a lens, and marked with lai-ge shallow cicatricose punc- 
tures. The upper surface of the head is almost flat and 
even, with a very slight trace of a depression in the mid- 
dle near the prothorax. The prothorax is wider than the 
head, but very slightly convex on the disc, the centre of 
which exhibits a very faint longitudinal depression ; the 
anterior half of the lateral margin is dilated and rounded, 
and the hinder angles are oblique ; the whole of the 
lateral and posterior sides have a slender, but distinct, 
margin ; the upper surface is very delicately granulated 
like the head. The elytra are narrower than the pro- 
thorax, moderately convex, polished, but when seen with 
a lens they are delicately punctured ; the humeral angles 
are prominent, and the disc of each is marked with 
several very indistinct raised longitudinal lines, scarcely 
visible beyond the middle. The anterior tibi« are mo- 
derately slender, finely crenulated on the outer edge with 
six marginal teeth; the four hind legs are moderately 
slender, with a spur in the middle of the outer edge of 
each of the four posterior tibias ; the presternum is rather 
wide, with a groove between the base of the fore-legs ; 
the metasternum and abdomen are polished, and delicately 

NiGiDius Pakryi, Bates. 

(Plate VIII. fig. 1, male.) 

" Oblongus, niger, nitidus ; capite quam thorax paulo 
angustioro, lateribus ante oculos rotundato-dilatato haud 

Liicanidce. 361 

angulato, fronte depressa sparsim minus grosse punc- 
tata; mandibulis maris poiTectis, apice recurvatis, supra 
rugoso-punctatis, absque dente erectOj intus obtuse den- 
tatis; thorace angulis anticis obtusis^ margine laterali 
antice incrassato^ medio valde emarginato^ angulis posticis 
late rotundatisj supra Itevi, nitido^ sulco dorsali abbre- 
viato rugoso, plaga parva utrinque laterali punctata; 
elytris late punctato-sulcatis." 

Long. mand. excl. 11^ lin.; mand. 1^ lin. Mas. 

Nifjidius Parryi, Bates, in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 

Hah. — In Insula Formosa. In Mus. Parry. 

" A more elongated insect than the other two conti- 
nental Asiatic species {N. cornutas and N. ohesus) , and 
differing from all the allied species in wanting the erect 
tooth, or horn-shaped dorsal apophysis of the mandibles. 
The sides of the head are rounded before the eyes, and 
not produced into a point ; the thorax has the lateral 
margin excavated in the middle. The sulci of the elytra 
are wide and deep, and have a chain of foveae, but are 
destitute of the lines of fine punctures seen in N. hevi- 
collis; the interstices are narrow, polished, and impunc- 

In addition to the above character given by Mr. 
Bates, it is to be noticed that the clypeus is produced in 
front into an obtuse point, the disc of the head is fur- 
nished with a central impression, deepest behind. The 
eyes are completely divided by the canthus ; the maxillae 
have the inner lobe armed with a strong horny tooth, 
which leads me to suppose that the specimen described 
by Mr. Bates and the one here figured, are females. The 
mentum is very deeply emarginate in front, and widely 
punctured; the anterior margin of the pronotum is 
narrowly depressed, strongly punctate, behind which the 
disc is raised on each side, with a sharp small central 
raised tubercle. The striae of the elytra, near the suture, 
are slightly curved, and not parallel therewith ; the an- 
»terior tibiae have seven or eight teeth on the outer 
margin, and the four hind tibiae have a rather strong 
central spine, preceded, in the middle pair by three, and 
in the hind pair by two, more minute spines. 

362 Prof. Westwood on 


(Plate IX. fig. 3.) 

Niger, punctatissimus ; ely tris magis cicatricosis ; pro- 
tliorace maris transverse quadrate, lateribus rectis ; capita 
latissimo ad angulos anticos tuberculo elevate instructo ; 
mandibulis maris magnis, furcatis, furcis gequalibus, interna 
sub-porrecta subconica, apicali conica erecta; protboracis 
dorse leviter canaliculate ; ely tris dimidiatim cestatis. 

Long. corp. cJ lin. 6^-7^ ; mand. lin. 1 : ? lin. 7. 

Hab. — In Alpibus "Victorias Australasia. D. Hewitt, 
(J $ . In Mus. Oxonite. 

This species is well distinguished by the transversely 
quadrate prothorax, and furcate mandibles of the male, 
the two branches of the furcation being of nearly equal 
size. The head of the male is transverse, regularly sloped 
from the crown to the front ; the sides rather square, the 
anterior angles truncate, with each end of the truncature 
rounded ; the lateral angle behind the eye is also rounded, 
in front of each eye is an elevated obtuse tubercle ; the 
disc of the head is strongly punctured ; the labrum is very 
shortly and slightly trilobed and setose; the mandibles 
of the male are about the length of the head, strong and 
much cui"ved, they have a minute angular internal pro- 
jection at the base, and they are deeply cleft in the 
middle, into two large nearly equal sized obtuse teeth, of 
which the inner is horizontal, and exhibits traces of one 
or two notches below the apex ; the outer or upper tooth 
is somewhat vertically elevated. The men turn is trans- 
verse, with the anterior lateral angles rounded off; it is 
strongly punctured, with the anterior margin setose, and 
conceals the maxillge and labium; the former have the 
terminal lobes moderately setose, the inner one being 
rather longer than the outer, and produced into a straight 
point in the male, but in the female (fig. 3e) it forms a 
strong acute hook. The labium is somewhat vase shaped, 
strongly setose in front, and the labial palpi have the basal 
joint slender and slightly curved, the second joint short, 
and the third somewhat clavate and curved. (In figure 
3c, the labium and palpi are represented as detached 
from the inner surface of the mentum, in front of which 
they are placed separately, to show their relative size and 
form.) The prothorax in the male is much shorter than 
"wide, being slightly wider than the head, with the lateral 

Lticanidcc. 363 

margins nearly straight and parallel, with a slender lateral 
slightly crenulated edge. The disc is not so rudely punc- 
tured as the head, the punctures placed irregularly, so as 
to leave various small polished spaces ; the disc has a slight 
central impression, widest across the centre, and a smaller 
one on each side ; the hinder angles are rounded, and the 
middle of the hind margin straight. The scutellum is very 
small and triangular. The elytra are narrower than the 
prothorax in the male, with the sides nearly parallel ; they 
are rugosely and irregularly punctured, and cicatricose, 
with the suture a little elevated ; they have two ill-defined 
costas on the disc, extending from the base to beyond the 
middle; the apex of the elytra is regularly rounded. 
The legs are rather slender ; the anterior tibise with seven 
or eight small teeth on the outer edge, and the four pos- 
terior tibiae with a small central spine on the outer edge. 

The female is smaller than the male, and elongate 
ovate, with the head small, and destitute of the tubercles 
of the male; the mandibles small and curved, with a 
central tooth on the inner edge. The prothorax has the 
lateral margins rounded, somewhat narrowed towards 
the head, and crenulated with a slight central depression, 
and a small smooth space on each side. The elytra are 
more ovate, quite as broad as the prothorax, the whole 
upper surface is more thickly punctured than in the 
male ; the legs are slender, the outer edge of the fore 
tibia9 with only five teeth. The mentum in this sex is 
wider in front than behind, and strongly punctured. 

I am indebted to Dr. Howitt for both sexes of this species, 
obtained by him from the Alps of Victoria, about sixty 
miles north-east from Melbourne, the female being very 
rare : and have adopted the manuscript name proposed 
by him for the species. I also purchased a specimen of 
the male from Mr. Du Boulay's collection, but was unable 
to ascertain whether he had collected it himself, at Swan 
River, or had obtained it from some other collector in 


(Plate IX. fig. 4.) 

Mas. Niger, punctatissimus, capitis angulis anticis 
oblique subtruncatis, canthi oculorum angulo postico 
rotundato, mandibulis fere capitis longitudine, curvatis, 

364 Prof. Westwood on 

apice obtusOj intus basin versus dente maximo quadrato 
armatis ; prothoracis lateribus subrotundatis. 

Long. Corp. fere lin. 7 ; mand. fere lin. 1. 

Hah. — In Insula Maria et littora versus Tasmaniae. 
D. Howitt. In Mus. Oxonise. 

The singularly robust tootli near the base of the inner 
edge of the mandibles, the oblique anterior angles of the 
head, and the rounded lateral margins of the prothorax, 
distinguish the males of this species. 

The whole surface is strongly and closely punctured, 
the punctures of the elytra being more elongated and 
occasionally confluent ; the head is narrower than the 
prothorax, with a slightly prominent tubercle on each 
side at the base ; the anterior angles of the head are 
obliquely rounded oS", the posterior portion of this 
lateral margin being thin, and forming the canthus of 
the eye. The labrum is small, and very slightly pro- 
duced ; the mandibles are about as long as the head, 
strongly curved and sickle-shaped, the tip obtuse, and 
the inner edge furnished with a large, nearly square and 
flattened tooth, emarginate on its inner edge, as though 
it were formed of two obtuse teeth which had become 
confluent ; beneath, this broad tooth is convex, and finely 
punctured. The mentum is transverse, with the anterior 
angles rounded and the surface punctured ; the protho- 
rax is transverse, wider than the head, and as wide in 
the middle as the widest part of the elytra (which are 
represented in figure 4 as rather too wide across the 
middle) ; the disc of the prothorax has a slight longitu- 
dinal central depressed line, and there is a small rounded 
impression between the middle and the lateral margin ; 
the posterior part of the lateral margins of the prothorax 
are rounded ofi", but the hinder angle itself, on each side, 
is very slightly produced opposite the humeral angles of 
the elytra. The scutellum is minute, and on each side 
of the suture of the elytra is an impressed longitudinal 
line, formed by a series of confluent punctures, of which 
also there are several others on each elytron, which do 
not extend beyond two-thirds of their length. The legs 
are moderately slender, the anterior tibiae with five or 
six obtuse teeth on the outer margin, and the four pos- 
terior tibia3 with a small spine in the middle of their 
outer edge. 

Lucanidce. 365 

Dr. Howitt kindly sent mo a specimen of the male of 
this species, of which sex he had seen five specimens; the 
individual forwarded to me not being much more than 
half the size of one of his examples. They are from 
Maria island, and the east coast of Tasmania. 

The female is unknown. 

LissoTES Launcestoni, n. sp. 
(Plate IX. fig. 1.) 

Gracilis, subdepressus, niger punctatissimus, mandi- 
bulis maris curvatis, apice subporrectis, intus ultra medium 
dente subovato composite, armatis ; prothorace transverse 
caput versus paullo angustiori. 

Long. corp. lin. 6; mand. lin. 1. 

Hab. — Launceston, Tasmania; mense Martis. D. 
Howitt. In Mus. Oxoniae. 

I am indebted to Dr. Howitt for a specimen of the male 
of this species, which, as he remarks, is " much like 
L. ohtusatus, but narrower in form, with the mandibles 
more long and slender. I have never seen a specimen 
of this form from the south of Tasmania ; the female is 
equally elongate with the males.'' It differs, moreover, 
in its depressed elytra, and in the much more strongly 
punctured upper surface of the body, especially of the 

The head is narrower than the prothorax, with the 
front part semicircularly sloping down to the labrum, 
which is minute and conical, with a small slightly raised 
tubercle on each side, near the base of the mandibles ; 
the lateral margins of the head, in front of the eyes, are 
obliquely truncate and thin, the hind part forming an 
obtuse can thus of each eye. The mandibles are about 
the same length as the head, each with a small triangular 
tooth near the base of the inner margin, the apex por- 
rected and obtuse, with a somewhat oval tooth, or dilata- 
tion, on the inner edge of the mandible, beyond the 
middle, on which are the obtuse- rudiments of tubercles. 

The prothorax is transversely subquadrate, the lateral 
margins slightly inclining towards the head, the centre 
of the disc being slightly impressed with a longitudinal 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — rAllT III. (AUGUST.) C C 

366 Prof. Westwood on 

channel ; the elytra are of equal width with the protho- 
rax, and are more thickly produced than the other parts 
of the body ; they have the lateral margins nearly 
parallel^ the disc marked with several very faint longitu- 
dinal carinpe, and the sutural portion is flattened. 

The legs are moderately slender, the anterior tibite 
with a few small irregular teeth, and the four hind ones 
with a small spine in the middle of their outer edge. 

This species is destitute of wings. 


(Plate IX. fig. 2.) 

Piceo-niger, brevis, punctatus, subconvexus, labro 
conico porrecto, mandibulis maris falcatis ; apicibus parum 
Cochleatis, sub bi-vel tridentatis, lateribus capitis ante 
oculos obliquis et attenuatis, lateribus prothoracis obli- 
quis, fere rectis et tenuiter marginatis et crenulatis, 
angulis posticis rotundatis, disco vix longitudinaliter in 
medio impresso ; elytris brevibus subovatis et subcon- 
X^exis punctatissimis ; tibiis anticis dentibus 5 extus 

Long. Corp. c? (cum mandibulis) lin. 6 (^ unc); long, 
elytror. lin. 3. 

Hab. — Tasmania. Mus. Oxon. (?),et Parry (c?). 

This species is nearly allied to L. crenatus, but differs 
from it in the narrower and much less convex form of 
the male, which has a much smaller head and smaller 
mandibles; it has also the upper surface of the body 
(especially of the head and prothorax) much more 
strongly and closely punctured ; the labrum, conically 
produced, is also smaller, and the mandibles are less 
strongly toothed at the apex. It is distinguished from 
the male of L. ohtusatiis, and its allies, both by its shorter 
form and differently constructed mandibles. The head 
is transverse ; the anterior portion forming a large 
semicircular depressed space, extending from the outer 
angles of the base of the mandibles nearly to the hind mar- 
gin of the head; the front of this space is nearly smooth, 
but the hind part is covered with widely dispersed circular 
punctures ; the lateral margins of the head in front of the 
eyes are oblique and thin, rounded off to the front incision 

Liicanidcc. 3(37 

of the eyes ; the labrum is conical, and advanced as far as 
inner produced base of the mandibles, which are. sickle- 
shaped, dilated at the apex into a somewhat spoon-shaped 
extremity, the right mandible terminating in two obtuse 
unequal teeth, whilst the left mandible is obliquely trun- 
cate at the tip, with two or three slight incisions, forming 
a broad obtuse compound tooth. The prothorax in the 
male is transverse, convex, smooth, with moderately 
large round punctures, which are almost obsolete towards 
the anterior margin ; the lateral margins are slightly 
crenated and oblique, but nearly straight; the antei-ior 
angle not acute, and the posterior angles rounded off. 
The elytra are short, subovate, convex, covered with 
small oval punctures, with two or three very slightly 
marked longitudinal carin^e on each, one towards the 
suture being the most distinct. 

The anterior tibias are 5-dentate on the outer edge, 
the two teeth at the apex being the largest. 

LissoTES PORCiPULA, fcm. ? 

(Plate IX. fig. 6a, b.) 

In the Hopeian Collection is preserved a small female 
specimen of a Lucanideous species, which Major Parry is 
inclined to regard as the female of the above described 
L.forcipula. Until, however, we are able to obtain more 
decisive evidence of its identity, it will be advisable 
simply to record its existence. It is rather more than 
five lines long; black, glossy, and thickly punctured. 
The head is small, nearly flat in the middle of the anterior 
portion, with a small round tubercle on each side, near 
the base of the mandibles ; the punctures of the head are 
larger and more distinct than those of the prothorax ; 
the labrum is transverse, with the middle of the front 
margin porrected into a conical point ; the prothorax is 
much wider than the head, with the lateral margins nar- 
rowly curved towards the head, and finely crenulated ; the 
posterior margin rounded, with the posterior lateral 
angles rounded oft". The elytra are much shorter than 
those of L. oMusatus, fein.; they aro subovate, widest 
across the middle, each shoulder forming a sharp angle. 
The disc is covered with small oblong punctures, and the 
apical half finely rugulose; the punctures on the disc 

c ( 2 

368 Prof. Westwood on 

form two or three almost indistinct longitudinal striae, 
in consequence of their being more or less confluent ; the 
anterior tibise have five teeth on their outer edge, of 
which the second is by far the strongest. 

Plate IX. fig. 6a, represents the head and prothorax of 
this female insect; and fig. 6b, the anterior tibia. 

There is no locality attached to the specimen, but I 
believe I received it from Tasmania. 


(Plate IX. fig. 5a, b.) 

Piceo-niger nitidus punctatissimus, labro transverse, 
antice vix bisinuato, lateribus capitis ante oculos oblique 
truncatis, lateribus prothoracis subrotundatis, angulo 
postico laterali parum prominulo. 

Long. corp. lin. 4^ (9 mill.) . 

Hah. — Tasmania. In Mus. Parry. 

I am only acquainted with a single female of this in- 
sect, which difiers so much from the females of the other 
known species of the genus, that I am reluctantly com- 
pelled to describe it as distinct, in the absence of its 

It is considerably smaller than the L. crenatus, female ; 
the head and pronotum are much more numerously 
and closely punctured, the disc of the head is flat, and 
gradually slanting ; the sides, between the eyes and the 
outside of the base of the mandibles, are obliquely trun- 
cate and depressed, so as to leave a slight longitudinal 
carina on either side running backwards from the man- 
dibles ; the anterior canthus of the eyes is rounded ofi". 
The labrum is transverse, with the lateral angles rounded 
oS", and the fore-margin very slightly bisinuate, the 
central portion formed by this bisinuation not more pro- 
minent than the side portions. The mandibles are small, 
curved, dilated inwards at the base, the apex of each 
forming a strong conical tooth, below which is a second 
smaller tooth, unequal both in size and position, in the 
two piandibles; the prothorax is transverse and convex, 
the anterior lateral angles slightly rounded; the disc 
with a slight central longitudinal channel ; the sides are 
regularly curved and subserrate, the widest part being 

Lucanlda:. 3G9 

boyoud the middle, the posterior lateral angles are slightly 
prominent. The elytra are subovate, convex, setose, 
covered with oval punctures, considerably smaller than 
those of the pronotum, with two or three very slightly 
marked slender costfe on each. The anterior tibia) are 
very broad, and bidentate at the tips, with two smaller 
teeth on the middle of the outer edge. 


(Plate IX. fig. 7a, b, c, d.) 

Dr. Howitt having been so kind as to send me speci- 
mens of both sexes, of this very remarkable species, from 
the alps of Victoria, I am enabled to supply the omissions 
in my original descripiion, by giving the characters of 
the female, and illustrating the parts of the mouth of both 

The female is as large as the male, being one inch and 
two lines long ; glossy black ; the head is much smaller 
than that of the male, and much narrower than the pro- 
thorax, it is strongly swollen on each side behind the 
eyes, the upper and under portions of which are entirely 
separated by the canthus (as in the male) ; the front of 
the head slopes down gradually, forming a large semi- 

* Dorcus Howittanus, Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd ser., vol. 1, 
pi. 21, fig. 1. Lissotes (Sect. II.) Howittanus, Parry, Trans. Eut. Soc, 
3rd ser., vol. 2, pp. 90, 97. Lisswptenis Howittanus (DejToUe) Parry, Trans. 
Ent. Soc, 1870, p. 114. 

The genus Lissapterus of Deyrolle, to which this insect is assigned by 
Major Parry in his last Catalogiie of the family, must be unpublished, 
since I am luiable to find any such, either in his Memoir in the ' Arm. de 
la Soc. Ent. France,' for 1861; or in the 'Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige,' for 1865, 
vol. ix. From the name, it may be inferred that, the apterous condition 
of D. Howittanus had induced its generic separation, but, both sexes 
of L. ohtusatus, and as we have seen above, the male of L, Launcestoni 
(which cannot be separated from the other AustraUan species) are desti- 
tute of wings. A more important character, namely the unarmed condi- 
tion of the inner lobe of the maxilla; of both sexes of D. Howittanus, as 
well as the singular cucuUated head of the male, might suflice for the 
establishment ol a separate generic group, but they seem outweighed by 
the identity in the general characteristics of the species. The inner lobe 
of the maxilla is also destitute of a hook in L. crenatihs (see Trans. Ent. 
Soc, u. s., vol. 3, pi. xii. f. 3b). 

370 Prof. Westwood on 

circular depression, with a tubercle on each side near the 
base of the mandibles. The latter are short, subtriangular, 
with two teeth on the inner edge. 

Plate IX. fig. 7a, represents the head of the male (re- 
duced in size in comparison with fig. 7c, which represents 
the head of the female) . The broad tooth on the inner 
edge of each of the mandibles of the males, is more con- 
spicuous in some individuals than in others ; thus, in my 
figure of the male above referred to, it is scarcely per- 

The maxilla3 in both sexes are simple, those of the 
female being destitute of the strong hook at the extremity 
of the inner lobe. Fig. 7b, represents the maxilla of the 
male ; and 7d, that of the female. 

The prothorax of the female is transverse, with the 
lateral margins rounded, the anterior portion being as 
wide as the hinder ; the disc is covered with punctures, 
those of the centre being smaller than the rest, without 
any of the smooth spaces or the rude punctures seen in 
parts of the prothorax of the male. The elytra are much 
more punctate than the male, the punctures extending 
to the extremity, and there is a broad, flat, smooth stria 
on each elytron adjoining the suture, as well as two on 
the disc of each, separated by punctures, which gradually 
disappear beyond their middle; the legs resemble those 
of the male, the anterior tibioe of the male being armed 
on the outer edge with several (three or four) minute 
teeth, which are not represented in the figure published 
in Trans. Ent. Soc. 3rd ser., vol. I. pi. xxi. f. 1. The an- 
terior tibi* of the female exactly resemble those of the 

In several of his memoirs on this family (especially in 
the Transactions of the Entomological Society for 1864 
and 1870), Major Parry has sug-gested that the unique 
insect in the British Museum from Moreton Bay, which 
I described under the name of Dorcus Pelorides (Trans. 
Ent. Soc. 3rd ser. vol. I. pi. xxi. fig. 2) may be the 
female of L. Hoivittanus . This supposition is now dis- 
proved by the discovery of the true female by Dr. Hewitt. 
The chief distinctions between these two females may be 
thus contrasted. 



D. Hoivittanus. 

Body subconvex; with i^arallel 
sides : upper sm-f ace of body strongly 

Lateral anterior angles of the 
head with a sharply defined oblique 
ridge extending towards the middle 
of the crown. 

Canthus of the eye moderate, 

Hind angles of the head mo- 

Prothorax with a depressed space 
on each side towards the anterior 
lateral angles. 

Elytra costated, costa3 flattened, 
the intei-veniug spaces strongly 

D. Pelo rides. 

Body subdepressed, of a more 
elongate ovate form : upper surface 
of body very glossy and slightly 

Lateral anterior angles of the 
head with a raised round tubercle 
near the base of the antenna. 

Canthus of the eye forming a 
rounded, flat, exserted lobe. 

Hind angles of the head strongly 

Prothorax with an impressed 
puncture towards the posterior 
lateral angles. 

Elytra not costated, nor strongly 

Note on Lissotes cancroides. 

[Lucanus cancroides , Fabr.) 

The original type specimen of this species, described 
by Fabricius and figured by Olivier, is now preserved in 
the British Museum, and does not exactly agree with any 
specimens of the genus since received from Australia. 
It is a male measuring seven lines in length, not includ- 
ing the mandibles, which are one line long ; the head has 
the crown gradually sloping to the anterior edge, not 
retuse, as it is in the specimens which have been named 
curvicornis ; the anterior lateral angles are oblique, slightly 
emarginate, their posterior part forming an obtuse can- 
thus, extending a short distance into the front of the 
eyes; the head behind the eyes is wider than the mid- 
dle, and produced into an obtuse tubercle, and there 
is a raised tubercle on each side behind the outer 
base of the mandibles, which agree with those of the 
specimens, which I have termed suh-luherculatus (Trans. 
Ent. Soc, n. s. 3, p. 215, pi. xii. f. 2). The pro- 
thorax is transversely quadrate ; the anterior margin 
bisinuate^ with a small simple (not bipartite) raised 

372 Prof. Westwood on 

tubercle in the middle^ close to the fore-margin ; the 
anterior lateral angles are slightly produced in front, and 
rounded, and the sides are slightly emarginate at about 
one third of their length from the front angles ; the pos- 
terior angles are obtuse, the junction of the lateral and 
hind-margin being indicated by a minute angular projec- 
tion ; the disc of the prothorax is nearly smooth and 
impunctate, with a central, rather strong longitudinal 
sulcus, which is deeply punctured ; the prothorax is nar- 
rower than in D. ohtusatus, with the sides much less 
strongly punctured than in D. suhtuberculatus ; the 
elytra are more elongate and narrrower than in the spe- 
cimens usually named L. cancroides and ohtusatus, and 
much less strongly setose at the sides, they are also not 
so strongly or so thickly punctured as in the allied species. 
The anterior tibiae are armed with ten teeth on the outer 
edge, those nearest the femora being very much dimin- 
ished in size. 

The description of this species given by me in the 
Entomological Magazine (vol. V. p. 267), was taken 
from the original individual, at that time in the posses- 
sion of the Linnean Society ; but in the coarse wood-cut 
several minute details were omitted, such as the frontal 
tubercle of the prothorax (which appears in my original 
drawing), the peculiar form of the canthus of the eyes, 
and posterior angles of the prothorax, &c. 

M. Boisduval has given a description, in the voyage 
of the "Astrolabe^' (p. 234), of an insect said to be from 
New Guinea, in the collection of M. Dupont, under the 
name of L. cancroides, which " diifere un peu de I'indi- 
vidu figure par Olivier." He describes the prothorax as 
marked with two impressed fovege, and the elytra as 
pubescent, covered with punctures " avec quelques cotes 
tres peu marquees. It is probably distinct from Olivier^s 

In the British Museum a female belonging to this 
genus, from Melbourne, is labelled as the female of L. 
cancroides, but I believe that identification is simply 
conjectural ; the head is strongly punctured, the angle 
of the canthus in front of the eyes strongly defined, the 
crown gradually sloping to the anterior margin, the pro- 
thorax destitute of a frontal tubercle, the surface punc- 
tured all over, but more delicately on each side of the 

Lucanidce. 373 

central sulcus ; the posterior lateral angles are obtuse, 
and slightly emarginate. It is 7$ lines long, including 
the mandibles. 

From the preceding observations it would appear, that 
these Tasmanian species may be thus distinguished, so 
far as the males are concerned. 

A. Those with the posterior lateral angles of the pro- 

thorax oblique, with a prominent angle opposite 
the shoulders of the elytra. 

a. Those with the fore-margin of the prothorax 

anteriorly produced in the middle. 
* Prothorax with a small central frontal 
polished tubercle. 1. L. cancroides. 
* * Prothorax with two small tubercles con- 
joined in middle of front margin of 
prothorax. 2. L. suhtuhercidahis. 

b. Those with the fore-margin of the prothorax 

straight ; front of head strongly retuse. 
3, L. curvicornis, Latr. 

B. Those with the posterior lateral margins of the 

prothorax rounded. 

4. L. Launcestoni. 

5. L. ohtusaius. 

6. (?) L. ohtusatus, var. dimidio minor, man- 

dibulis multo minoribus, dente apicali 
cum dente lato medio coalito. 
Mount Wellington, March, 1860. Dr. 

Explanation of Plates. 
Plate VIII. 

Fig. 1. Nigidius Parryi (slightly magnified) ; la, maxilla ; 16,meutum ; 
Ic, antenna. 

2. Dorcus ratiociyiativus, <? (nat. size) ; 2a, maxilla; 26, mentiim, 

and one of the labial palpi ; 2c, terminal joints of antenna. 

3. Dorcus rudis, ? (rather magnified) ; 3a, head, seen from above ; 

36, maxilla ; 3c, meutum ; 3cJ, labrum and labial palpi. 

374 Prof. Westwood on Lueanidce. 

Fig. 4. Bhmtidi(,s crenatus, $ (nat. size) ; 4a, underside of the head 
with basal portion of one of the mandibles, showing the jugu- 
lum, mentum, labial hairs, and terminal joint of the labial 
palpi, and end of one extremity of the second joint of the other 
maxillary palpus ; 4b, one of the eyes, seen laterally, showing 
the canthus extended into its upper part ; 4c, right mandible, 
seen laterally from within ; 4d, maxilla with its i^alpus ; 4e, 
mentum, seen within, showing the labium and labial palpi ; 
4/, one of the antennae (mis-lettered 4c, in middle of the right 
side of the plate). 

5. Dorcus suturalis. 

6. Dorcus glahripenrds. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Lissotes Launcestoni, <J ; la, head slightly magnified. 

2. Lissotes forcipula, $ ; 2a, head much magnified. 

3. Lissotes fwrcicornis, $ ; 3a, head magnified ; 36, maxilla ; 3c, 

mentum, with the labrum and palpi detached from within the 
mentum, and represented in front of the latter ; M, head and 
prothorax of $ ; 3e, maxilla of ditto ; 3/, mentum of ditto. 

4. Lissotes latridens, $ ; 4a, head much magnified. 

5. Lissotes suhcrenatus, $, head and prothorax ; 5&, anterior tibiffi. 

6. Lissotes forcipula, $ ? (see pp. 367, 368). 

7. Lissotes Howittanus (see p. 372). 

( 375 ) 

XI. Descriptions of a ne-w genus, and of hoo new species 
of Longicorn Coleoptera. By H. W. Bates, 
F.Z.S., &c. 

[Bead 1st May, 1871.] 

Genus Bolbotritus, nov. gen. 

(Sub.-fam. CeramhycincG veroe.) 

Mas. Corpus cylindricum, robustum. Caput crassura 
pone oculos haud constrictum. Antennae breves^ liumeros 
elytrorum paulo superantes ; articulo tertio maxime am- 
pliato, ovato, crasso, paulo compresso ; 4to lato in apice 
articulo tertii incluso ; articulis 5-7 brevibus ovatis ; 8-11 
linearibus lateribus sulcatis^ ultimo longiori acuminato. 
Thorax transversim quadratus, inermis. Elytra parallelo- 
grammica apice rotunda ta. Pedes breves robusti ; tibige 
compress^ ] tarsi breves, articulo 3io lobis brevibus, 
angustis, 4to caeteris conjunctis paululum breviori crasso. 
Prosternum arcuatum, mesosternum simplex; acetabula 
antica extus longe angulata. Abdomen postice vix an- 
gustatum, segmentis singulis convexis, ultimo latissimo 
at brevissimo. 

Bolhotritus Bainesi, n. sp. 

Fusco-castaneus, capite et thorace obscurioribus, crc- 
berrime punctulatis et rugulosis ; antennis articulis basali 
obscuriori rugoso, tertio punctulato, ceeteris nitidis ; ely- 
tris subtiliter coriaceis nitidis, leviter bicostatis ; pectore 
et abdomine punctulatis. 

Long. 2 unc. 

Hah. — Ad ripas fluminis Mungwe in terris Matabilio- 
rum, Africas Australis, in lat. 20°, 45' ; A viatore insigne 
Thom. Baines capto. 

This singular species belongs, without doubt, to section 
A of Lacordaire's Group Ceranibycides vrais, and to divi- 
sion I. of the same section; the lower lobe of the eyes 
not advancing beyond the antenniferous tubercles. The 
extreme shortness of the antenna) makes it an exception 
to the general character of the group, but it is clear that 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1871. — PART 111. (AUGUST.) 

376 Mr, H. W. Bates on Longicorn Coleoptera. 

their form is only an exaggeration^ or an extreme deve- 
lopment, of the well-known structure, common in the 
males of the group, in which the third to fifth joints are 
more or less swollen. In Bolhotritus the bulbous enlarge- 
ment of the third joint is enormous, encasing in its apex 
the enlarged third joint, and even to some extent, also the 
fifth, which appears only as a prominent tubercle at the 
end of the bulb ; and this excessive enlargement appears 
to have been obtained at the expense of the remaining 
joints of the antenna, which are extraordinarily short- 
ened. The insect is interesting, as an illustration of the 
tendency so wonderfully displayed by the Longicornia 
to extreme developments of any variable feature, in species 
otherwise closely allied. This tendency is carried some- 
times to such a length, that the affinities of the modified 
forms are no longer recognizable, and hence the unusual 
difficulties often complained of as attendant on their 

Mallaspis prcecellens, n. sp. 

M. Beltii affinis, multo angustior et gracilior. Ltete 
senea, nitida; capite aurato valde elongate grosse hand 
profunde subrugoso-punctato, supra late sulcato ; antennis 
corpore vix brevioribus, articulis basalibus auratis, 6-7 
violaceis, reliquis nigris, omnino linearibus, punctatis, 3-4 
paulo latioribus subplanatis, 6-7 breviter sparsim denti- 
culatis ; thorace quam in M. Beltii multo angustiori, spina 
mediana valida, antice et postice aequaliter angustato, 
supra discrete passim punctato ; scutello laete aureo- 
sericeo ; elytris elongatis postice paulo angustatis, supra 
basin ad paulo convexis creberrime subtiliter ruguloso- 
punctatis, basi multo Isevioribus nitidis ; pedibus elon- 
gatis, seneo-auratis, tarsis violaceis ; femoribus anticis 
grosse granulatis ; corpore subtus cupreo-asneo splendido. 

Long. 1 unc. 8 lin.; lat. pone humeros 6 lin. cJ . 

Hah. — Chiriqui, near Panama. 

Two specimens in the British Museum, and one in my 
own collection. The species is very distinct from all 
hitherto known. The rich intense metallic hues of its 
antennee and legs, at once distinguish it from all others 
having linear antennal joints. 

( 377 ) 

XII. Descriptions of three new species of Cicindelidee. 
By H. W. Bates, F.Z.S., &c. 

[Bead 3rd July, 1871.] 

Oxygonia alhitcenia, n. sp. 

Caput et thorax breves, angusti ; elytris duplo latiori- 
bus maxirae elongatis, apice utrinque in dente acuta 
prolongatis. Supra obscure £enea, thorace lateribus laete 
cupreis, elytris olivaceo-viridibus nitidis ; labro nigro, 
utrinque macula pallide testacea, transverse, angulis 
oblique truncatis, medio obtuse producto ; antennis ni- 
gris ; palpis gracilibus, pallidis, articulis apicalibus nigris ; 
capite thoraceque omnino subtiliter strigosis, hoc postice 
profunde transversim sulcato antice supra sulco vix 
impress©, linea longitudinali modice impressa, disco vix 
convexo, lateribus paululum rotundatis ; elytris passim 
equaliter discrete punctulatis, supra insequalibus, apice de- 
presso-explanatis ; juxta marginem vitta alba ab humeris 
usque prope apicem extensa, marginem haud attingenti, 
juxta humeros angustata, apud medium breviter dilatata ; 
corpore subtus aureo-cupreo splendido; pedibus nigro- 
seneis, femoribus viridibus, coxis et femoribus albo pilosis. 
cJ segmento sexto ventrali medio profunde emarginato. 

Long. 7 lin. cJ . 

Evidently allied to Oxygonia Sclioenherri (Mannerh.), 
from which it differs in the broad white lateral stripe 
(instead of three spots) of the elytra, and, according to 
the description, in the form of the thorax. The apex of 
the elytra is not truncate, neither is the spine sutural, but 
the whole apex is prolonged into a broad and sharp tooth. 

Hah. — New Granada. 

Oxygonia cyanosis, n. sp. 

Viridi-cyanea splendida, thorace brevi cylindrico ; ely- 
tris triple latioribus, valde elongatis, apice ( ? ) explanatis 
sinuatim truncatis, spina suturali modice elongata ; labro 
transverse, angulis rotundatis medio dente elevate armato, 
nigro, macula utrinque testaceo; palpis testaceis, maxill. 
articulis 2 ultimis, labial. 1 nigris; antennis nigris; capite 
thoraceque supra subtiliter strigosis: hoc lateribus paul- 


378 Mr. H. W. Bates on 

lulum rotundatis, sulco basali supra profundo, apicali vix 
impressOj linea dorsali modice impressa, disco utrinque 
vix convexo ; elytris inasqualibus^ passim discrete punc- 
tulatis^ utrinque maculis duabus rotundatis lateralibus 
albis, una mox pone medium, altera intra angulum ex- 
ternum apiciSj ambabus a marginem paulo distantibus ; 
corpore subtus Isete viridi-^neo, pectore pedibusque ni- 
gris; coxis et femoribus sparsim albopilosis. 

Long. 6^ lin. ? . 

nah. — New Granada. 

Apparently allied to 0. prodlga, Erichs., which differs 
in having three white spots on each elytron, and in the 
sides being cupreous. In 0. cyanopis, there is no trace 
of cupreous, the elytra being of a fine dark blue, with a 
greenish tinge in certain lights, and a trace of violet on 
the sides about the middle ; the sides and flanks of the 
thorax, like nearly the whole of the under-surface, are 
brilliant brassy-green. The description by Erichson is so 
brief and incomplete, that there is no means of knowing 
whether his insect really belongs to the genus, and the 
species would have to be set aside as indeterminable, if 
we had not an indirect redescription by Chaudoir, in his 
comparison of 0. Vuillefroyi (Rev. Mag. ZooL, Jan. 1869). 

The genus Oxygonia, comprising a small number of 
species of very great rarity in collections, has generally 
been ill-understood by authors. According to most 
authorities, its affinities are with Iresia and Euprosopus ; 
but Chaudoir, correcting his previous views, placed it 
rightly, in his '"^ Catalogue of Cicindelidas ^^ (Brussels, 
1865), in the immediate neighbourhood of Odontocheila 
and Thopeutica, an arrangement which was unnecessarily 
perverted afterwards in Harold and Gemminger's " Cata- 
logus.^^ The genus, in fact, is very closely allied to 
Phyllodroma, Odontocheila, and allies ; agreeing with 
them in the simple palpi, grooved tarsi, and slender form 
of body, and differing from Iresia and Euprosopus in the 
absence of frontal grooves, separating the middle of the 
forehead from the inner orbits of the eyes. Its pecu- 
liarities are the spined apices of the femora, and the 
nearly smooth punctulate surface of the elytra. Although 
the definite structural differences are but slight, the 
genus forms a most natural group, as manifested by 
numerous minor characters, such as the fine striation of 
the thorax, the tooth-like projections at the apex of the 

new species of Gicindelidce. 379 

elytra, the style of coloration and markings, and the 
large size of its elytra and " after-body/' compared with 
the head and thorax. Six species are now known, viz., 
five from the Andes (near the Equator) , and one of much 
smaller size from South Brazil. Although nothing is 
recorded of their habits, I have no doubt they resemble 
those of the Odontocheilce, and that they live in the 
shades of the virgin forest, flying about low bushes, 
especially on the humid margins of rivulets and mountain 

Cicindela Crespignyi, n. sp. 

Quoad labrum sectionem Calochroa pertinens, C. lacli- 
rymans (Schaum.) et G. flavovittata (Chaud.) affinis; 
forma G. Vasseletvi (Chevr.) simillima. Viridi-^nea, infra 
nitida, supra capite et thorace obscurioribus ; elytris oli- 
vaceis postice laete viridi-sericeis, aurantiaco maculatis ; 
capite subopaco, subtiliter ruguloso, prope oculos strigoso ; 
labro albo, medio producto ( ? magis S minus) triden- 
tato,dentemediana magna; palpis omnino aeneis ; antennis 
articulo 1 cupreo 2-4 viridi-eeneis ; thorace cylindrico 
subtiliter ruguloso, subopaco : sulco posteriori profunde, 
anteriori leviter, impresso ; elytris elongato-ovatis utroque 
sexu apice obtuse rotundatis, angulo suturali spinoso, 
supra punctis opacis grossis hand profundis passim 
sparsis, fascia obliqua abbreviata pone medium vittaque 
postica trianguliformi eo adnexa, aurantiacis; corpore 
subtus lateribus griseo piloso. 

Long. 6 lin. (5" 9 exempla plurima. 

Hah. — Interior of Northern Borneo; taken by Lieut. 
de Crespigny. 

The markings of the elj'^tra are unlike those of any other 
described species ; the ground-colour is opaque, greenish 
or olivaceous, with a changing light-greenish silky gloss, 
especially on the hinder half, where a deeper and bluer 
tint surrounds the orange-coloured markings; these 
latter form on each elytron a hammer-shaped figure, con- 
sisting of a broad oblique spot or fascia across the disc 
behind the middle, touching neither the suture nor the 
lateral margin, and a longitudinal stripe proceeding from 
the middle of the hind-margin of thfe fascia and extend- 
ing very near to the apex, where it is much dilated; in 
some examples it is detached from the fascia. 

( 381 ) 

XIII. Descriptions of new genera, and of some recently 
discovered species of Australian Phytophaga. 
By J. S. Baly, F.L.S. 

[Read otli Juue, 1871.] 


5 of Species. 



(n. g.) fulvipennis. 


Ditropidus fnlvus. 



iw excavatus. 












Lachnuhothra Hopei. 































Genus Dubo 

ULAIA, n. g. 

Corpus subelongatum, modice convexum, non metalli- 
cum, pube griseo adpresso dense vestitum ; caput exertum, 
modice elongatuni ; ocuUs iutega'is, granulosis, vix pro- 
minulis ; palpis maxillarihus articulo ultimo ovato, apice 
obtuso ; meyito transverso ; ligula apice bifida ; anttnnis 
corporis dimidio fere asqualibus, filiformibus. Thorax 
subcordiformis, latitudine non longior, angulis anticis 
indistiuctis ; elytra oblonga, convexa, glabra, irregulariter 
punctata ; pedes robusti ; femorihus posticis inci'assatis, 
subtus spina compressa trigonata armatis ; unguic^dis 
simplicibus ; prosternum coxis £equialtum, postice non 
prolongatum ; pygidiuvi elytris non obtectum. 

This genus must take an intermediate place between 
Meganterus and Prionesthis, with the former it agrees in 
the form of the thorax, and in the emarginate ligula, but 
difiers in the shorter head and antennae, less prominent 
eyes, and in the form of the apical joints of the maxillary 
palpi; from the latter, although agreeing in the form of 
the maxillary palpi, it difiers greatly, both in the form of 
the thorax, and also in having the hinder thighs armed 


382 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

Duhoulaia flavipennis. 

Subelongata, modice convexa, piceo-nigra, griseo- 
sericea, antennis, clypeo antice, labroque fusco-fulvis ; 
tibiis tarsisque obscure piceis; thorace crebre punctato, 
dense albo sericeo ; elytris tenuiter punctatis, obscure 
fulvis, sutura anguste picea. 

Long. 8^ lin. 

Hab. — Champion Bay, Western Australia ; collected by 
Mr. Duboulay. 

Antennae half the length of the body, fusco-fulvous ; 
front impressed with a longitudinal groove, which ex- 
tends downwards as far as the apex of the clypeus ; surface 
on either side distinctly punctured, clothed with adpressed 
white hairs ; clypeus large, pentagonal, thickly punc- 
tured; its lower edge, together with the labrum obscure 
fulvous ; thorax as broad as long, sides rounded and 
dilated in front, constricted behind the middle; above 
moderately convex, somewhat flattened on the disc, 
closely covered with small, but deep and well-defined 
punctures ; surface clothed with adpressed whitish hairs ; 
elytra much broader than the thorax, oblong, glabrous, 
shining fulvous, the suture narrowly edged with piceous ; 
whole surface faintly wrinkled, rather closely but finely 
punctured ; hinder thighs thickened, armed beneath with 
a large, flat, triangular tooth. 

Genus Carpophagus, McLeay. 
Carjpophagus excavatus. 

Anguste oblongus, piceo-niger, pube adpresso griseo 
dense vestitus ; thorace nigro, irregulariter excavate et 
foveolato., interspatiis glabris, nitidis ; elytris oblongis, 
postice paullo attenuatis, piceis, nitidis, profunde exca- 
vato-foveolatis ; foviis magnis, substriatim dispositis, 
griseo-hirsutis, interspatiis glabris, nitidis, rugulosis. 

Long. 10 lin. 

Hah. — Champion Bay, Western Australia; collected 
by Mr. Duboulay. 

Thorax longer than broad, subconic ; sides more quickly 
converging near their apex ; above subcylindrical, 
irregularly excavated, densely clothed with adpressed 
hairs ; interspaces between the excavations smooth, gla- 

Australian Fhytojphaga. 383 

brous, shining black ; on the centre of the disc these 
interspaces are small, detached, and wart-like, but on the 
sides of the thorax they are much larger and irregularly 
confluent; elytra oblong, much broader at the base than 
the thorax, slightly narrowed towards their apex ; surface 
covered with large, irregular, deeply excavated fove», 
whose surfaces are thickly clothed with short adpressed 
griseous pubescence; these foveas, which are arranged 
in about ten longitudinal rows on each elytron, cover 
nearly the whole disc, the spaces between the foveas 
being shining glabrous, coarsely wrinkled, and obscure 
rufo-piceous ; pygidium rufo-piceous. 

The specimen from which I have made the above 
description is (judging from the shorter antennae and 
from the very slight enlargement of the hinder femora) 
a $ ; the <$ probably diflers in colour from the ? , in 
the same way as in C. Banhsim ; in that species, the $ is 
obscure fulvous, whilst the ? is lead-coloured. 


Genus Elaphodes, Suffr. 
Elapliodes albo-hirsutus. 

Anguste oblongus, obscure cupreus, pube albido adpresso 
vestitus, antennarum dimidio basali, labro pedibusque 
(femoribus anterioribus dorso, posticisque totis exceptis) 
fulvis, tarsis antennarum que dimidio apicali piceis ; tho- 
race subremote punctate ; elytris tenuissime granulosis, 
minute transversim rugulosis, tenuiter et subremote 
punctatis, punctis ad latera seriatim dispositis. 

Long. 1^^ lin. 

Hab. — Western Australia, Champion Bay. 

Head thickly clothed with long white hairs ; front 
impressed with a longitudinal groove ; mouth fulvous, 
apex of jaws black ; antennas rather longer than the head 
and thorax, the six outer joints moderately dilated, black; 
thorax twice as broad as long at the base, sides nearly 
parallel behind the middle, rounded and converging in 
front; apex of the basal lobe entire, its surface very 
slightly reflexed ; scutellum broadly oblong-ovate ; elytra 
not broader than the thorax, rather more than twice its 
length, their sides parallel ; the humeral callus moderately 

I) D 2 

384 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

Genus Ditropidus, Ericlis. 

Ditropidus carbonarius. 

Subquadratus^ postice paullo attenuatus, niger, nitidus, 
anteunarum basi^labro mandibulisque (his apice exceptis) 
fulvis, femoribus anticis, tibiis apice, tarsisque obscure 
piceis ; thorace tenuiter punctate ; elytris tenuissime punc- 
tato-striatis, interstitiis planis, impunctatis, striis duabus 
ad latum subsulcatis, interstitiis lateralibus leviter con- 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hah. — Western Australia. 

Head finely but distantly punctured, nearly glabrous, 
only a few small white adpressed hairs being visible here 
and there on the surface ; eyes distant, face impressed 
with a faint longitudinal line ; antennae slightly longer 
than the head and thorax, five outer joints moderately 
dilated, black, the remaining joints fulvous ; thorax twice 
as broad at the base as long, sides rounded and converg- 
ing from base to apex ; surface finely but not very closely 
punctured, the puncturing more crowded on the sides; 
basal lobe distinctly notched, obsoletely reflexed; elytra 
broader at the base than the thorax, twice its length, 
sides slightly narrowed from the shoulders backwards; 
surface very finely punctate-striate, the interspaces flat, 
impunctate ; two outer strise subsulcate, their interspaces 
slightly convex. 

Ditropidus hirticolUs. 

Subquadratus, postice paullo attenuatus, convexus, 
niger, pube adpresso albido vestitus, antennarum basi 
labroque rufo-piceis; abdomine corporeque supra (an- 
tennis apice exceptis) cuprous ; thorace minute punctate, 
albo-hirsuto ; elytris distincte striato-punctatis, glabris, 
interstitiis planis, apicem versus leviter convexiusculis, 
ad latera convexis, subcostatis. 

Long. Ij lin. 

Hab. — Western Australia. 

Upper half of head closely clothed with adpressed 
white hairs; lower half of face glabroas; five upper 
joints of antennae moderately dilated; five basal joints 

Australian Phytophaga. 385 

obscure rufo-piceous ; labrum rufous ; thorax twice as 
broad at the base as long; sides rounded and converg- 
ing from base to apex ; surface finely and subremotely 
punctured, covered with adpressed white hairs ; basal 
lobe slightly reflexed, its apex very feebly notched ; scu- 
tellum oblong, its apex acute ; elytra slightly broader at 
the base than the thorax, regularly punctate-striate ; 
interspaces plane, smooth, slightly convex towards the 
apex of the elytra, those near the outer border raised 
and subcostate for their whole length ; lower surface of 
abdomen and pygidium closely clothed with adpressed 
white pubescence, finely rugose-punctate ; pygidium as 
broad at its base as long; on its medial line is seen a 
faint lono'itudinal ridofe. 

Ditropidus Duboulai. 

Oblongus, convexus, niger, nitidus, capite thoraceque 
cupreo-geneis, mandibulis apice, antennarum articulis sex 
basalibus subtus, femoribus anticis subtus, tibiis anticis 
apice, labroque obscure rufo-fulvis, thorace crebre sed 
tenuissime strigoso-punctato, basi linea brevi transversa 
impresso; elytris obscure viridi-teneis, subfortiter striato- 
punctatis, interstitiis leviter convexis, transversim ru- 

Long. 1 lin. 

Hah. — Champion Bay. 

Head remotely and very finely punctured, clothed with 
long griseous hairs ; six lower joints of antennae obscure 
rufous, stained above with black, the remaining joints 
entirely black ; apex of jaws also rufous ; thorax slightly 
broader than the elytra; sides rounded, nearly straight 
and parallel at the base, obliquely converging from the 
middle to the apex ; basal lobe slightly reflexed, sepa- 
rated from the disc by a slight but well-defined transverse 
groove ; disc very finely punctured, somewhat closely 
covered with faintly impressed, longitudinal stria3 ; elytra 
half as long again as the thorax, distinctly punctate- 
striate, interspaces on the inner disc obsoletely, those on 
the outer disc distinctly convex, transversely rugulose. 

Ditropidus strigosus. 

Breviter oblongus, obscure cuprous, pube adpresso 
albido dense vestitus, femoribus tibiisque fulvis, piceo 

386 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

tinctis, tarsis piceis; supra nitido-cupreus, antennis ex- 
trorsum nigrisj his basi labroque fulvis ; tliorace pube 
adpresso albido vestito, disco remote, lateribus subremote- 
punctato; elytris glabris, sat fortiter punctato-striatis, 
interspatiis fere planis ad apicem ut ad latera convexis, 
dense transversim rugulosis. 

Long. J lin. 

Hah. — Champion Bay; collected by Mr. Duboulay. 

Head clothed with adpressed white hairs ; surface 
finely but distantly punctured ; labrum and lower half of 
antennae fulvous, outer half of the latter black ; eyes 
large, reniform ; thorax as broad at the base as the elytra ; 
sides obliquely converging and slightly rounded from 
base to apex ; upper-surface clothed with adpressed white 
hairs; disc remotely, sides rather more closely, impressed 
with moderately deep punctures ; basal lobe slightly 
reflexed ; scutellum semi-ovate, rounded at the apex, its 
surface shining, impunctate ; elytra about one-half longer 
than broad, nearly parallel ; surface rather densely 
punctate-striate, interspaces nearly plane on the ante- 
rior half of the inner disc, moderately convex towards 
the apex of the latter, and also on the outer disc, their 
whole surface closely covered with fine transverse rugosi- 
ties; legs fulvous, stained with piceous; tarsi pitchy- 

Ditropidus rufocupreus. 

Subquadratus, convexus, postice paullo attenuatus, 
pallide rufo-piceus, supra rufo-cupreus, antennis extror- 
sum nigris, thorace distincte punctate; elytris striato- 
punctatis, interstitiis planis, ad latera pone medium 

Long. Ij-lf lin. 

Hab. — Western Australia, Champion Bay. 

Head clothed with adpressed whitish hairs, surface dis- 
tinctly punctured, impressed on the upper half of the face 
with a longitudinal groove; jaws black; antennge equal 
to the head and thorax in length, slender, five upper 
joints only slightly dilated, four upper joints blackish- 
piceous; thorax twice as broad at the base as long, sides 
rounded and converging from base to apex; surface 
impressed with numerous distinct but shallow punctures ; 

Australian PhytopJiaga. 387 

basal lobe distinctly notched, its surfxice on the same 
plane as the disc of the thorax ; scutellum regularly 
ovate, its apex acute; elytra slightly but distinctly 
broader at their base than the thorax, twice the length 
of the latter; surface regularly punctate-striate, inter- 
spaces plane, very minutely and distantly punctured, 
those on the hinder half of the outer disc convex, sub- 
costate ; on the upper half of the inner disc are a few very 
faint irregular rugte ; pygidium finely rugose-punctate, _ 
clothed with adpressed white hairs. 

Ditropidus Odewahnii. 

Oblongus, cuprous, nitidus, antennis extrorsum nigris, 
his basi, labro pedibusque piceo-fulvis ; thorace subremote 
punctate, lateribus substrigoso; elytris distincte punc- 
tato-striatis, interspatiis impunctatis, fere planis, apicem 
versus et ad latera leviter convexiusculis. 

Long. |-f lin. 

Mah. — South Australia. 

Head remotely punctured, sparingly clothed with ad- 
pressed griseous hairs, face impressed with a longitudinal 
groove; eyes large, slightly notched ; six lower joints of 
antenna fulvous, the five outer black ; thorax as broad 
at the base as the elytra, sides rounded and converging 
from base to apex ; upper surface remotely punctured, 
the punctures oblong, rather more crowded on the sides ; 
surface between the punctures smooth and impunctate 
on the disc, obsoletely strigose on the sides; elytra 
nearly parallel, scarcely narrowed posteriorly, regularly 
punctate-striate, punctures large but not very deeply 
impressed, oblong; interspaces smooth and shining, im- 
punctate, faintly wrinkled when seen under a strong lens ; 
on the disc nearly plane, on the inner disc near the apex, 
and on the outer disc, slightly convex. 

Ditrojndus tarsatus. 

Subquadratus, postice angustatus, ? magis oblongus, 
soi'dide fulvus, subopacus, antennis extrorsum, thoracis 
niargine basali, scutello, tarsisque nigro-piceis ; elytris 
sulcato-striatis, striis fortiter punctatis ; puncto humerali, 
sutura postice, margine apicali, maculisque tribus ante 
apicem transversim positis, pallide piceis ; abdomine fusco. 

888 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

Long, 1-1| lin. 

Hah. — Western Australia, Champion Bay. 

Head closely covered with adpressed fulvous hairs ; 
front impressed with a longitudinal groove ; outer half 
of antennae pitchy-black ; thorax as wide as, or slightly 
wider at its base, than the elytra, sides regularly rounded 
and converging from base to apex; disc closely punc- 
tured, strigose-punctate on the sides ; in the middle, 
' extending from the extreme apex of the basal lobe half- 
way across the disc is a faint longitudinal ridge, on 
either side of which, just in front of the basal margin, 
is a broad bnt shallow and ill-defined transverse exca- 
vation ; basal margin narrowly edged with black ; elytra 
subnitidous, scarcely equal in width to the base of the 
thorax, narrowed from base to apex ; disc below the 
basal margin broadly but faintly depressed ; each elytron 
with eleven rows of sulcate strife, the first short ; each 
stria impressed with a regular row of large round punc- 
tures, more or less stained with fuscous ; interspaces 
slightly raised, obsoletely convex on the inner disc, 
subcostate near the outer margin, distinctly punctured, 
here and there faintly wrinkled ; a spot on the humeral 
callus, and three large ill-defined patches placed trans- 
versely across the disc nearly half-way between its centre 
and the apex, obscure fuscous ; of these patches the 
middle one is common and transverse, the two others 
oblong, and placed one on either side on the outer disc, 
and attached to the outer border of the elytron ; the 
hinder half of the suture, the apical border of the elytra, 
and sometimes the hinder half of the lateral border, are 
narrowly edged with fuscous ; knees stained with piceous, 
tarsi pitchy-black. 

Ditropidus fulvvs. 

Oblongus, fulvus, subnitidus, thorace sat crebre punc- 
tato, substrigoso, lateribus rugoso-punctatis, margine 
basali anguste nigro-marginato ; elytris punctato-striatis, 
punctis magnis, rotundatis, leviter impressis ; interspatiis 
obsolete convexiusculis, ad apicem magis elevatis, ad 
latera subcostatis. 

Long. 1 lin. 

Hah. — Westoi'n Australia. 

Australian Phytophaga. 389 

Head deeply punctured, glabrous ; anteniiEe fulvous, 
the inner angles of the five upper joints alone being stained 
with piceous ; thorax as broad at its base as the elytra ; 
sides obliquely converging and slightly rounded from 
base to apex, surface coarsely punctured, substrigose, 
rugose-punctate on the sides ; basal lobe slightly reflexed ; 
basal margin narrowly edged with piceous ; scutellum 
pale, brownish-fulvous ; elytra broadly oblong, scarcely 
narrowed posteriorly ; surface of each elytron with eleven 
rows of large round shallow punctures, the first row short; 
interspaces smooth, nearly flat on the inner disc, convex 
towards the apex, more strongly raised and almost costate 
near the outer margin. 

This species strongly resembles Cryptocephalus minutus 
and its allies, in habit and coloration. 

Ditropldus dimidiatus. 

Subquadratus, rufus, nitidus, antennis oxtrorsum, pedi- 
bus intermediis, tarsisque anticis rufo-piceis, scutello, 
elytris, metasterno, abdomine, pedibusque posticis nigris. 

Long. 1| lin. 

Hah, — Northern Australia, Brisbane ? 

Head closely punctured, rugose-punctate between the 
eyes, the latter distant, reniform, front impressed with a 
faint longitudinal groove ; thorax as broad at its base as 
the elytra, sides rounded and converging from base to 
apex ; upper surface distinctly and somewhat closely 
punctured; elytra slightly longer than broad, slightly 
narrowed posteriorly ; surface strongly punctate-striate, 
interspaces flat, im punctate, three outer interspaces 
thickened, subcostate. 

Ditropidus hiplagiatus. 

Subquadrato-ovatus, postice paullo angustatus, niger, 
nitidus, antennis extrorsum piceis, basi labroque rufo-tes- 
taceis, thorace rufo, tenuiter nigro marginato; elytris 
tenuiter punctato-striatis, utrinque plaga magna rufa, 
discum fere amplectente, ornatis; femoribus obscure rufo- 
piceis aut nigris. 

390 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

Long. 1;^ lin. 

Hab. — Moreton Bay ; North- West Australia. 

Head broad, flat, irapressed with moderately large 
but shallow punctures ; clypeus and lower portion of 
face slightly wrinkled ; middle of face with a shallow 
longitudinal groove ; four or five outer joints of an- 
tennae piceous ; eyes distant, uniform ; thorax nearly 
as broad at the base as the elytra, sides obliquely 
narrowed from base to apex, slightly rounded near the 
apex; disc smooth, rather closely covered with shallow 
punctures ; elytra about a third longer than broad, 
slightly narrowed posteriorly, each elytron with eleven 
rows of moderately impressed oblong punctures, the first 
short; interspaces distantly and minutely punctured, 
plane on the anterior portion of the middle disc, faintly 
raised on the front half of the inner disc, slightly 
convex on the hinder half, those on the outer disc near 
the outer margin raised and convex for their whole 
length: on each elytron is a large subtrigonate rufous 
patch occupying the middle of the disc. 

Ditropidus fasciatus. 

Breviter oblongus, obscure aeneo-niger, nitidus, albo- 
sericeus, antennis basi fulvis, dorso piceis, articulis 
quinque ultimis modice dilatatis, nigris ; thorace elytris- 
que obscure cupreis, illo subfortiter punctato, albo-sericeo ; 
his glabris, tenuiter punctato-striatis, interstitiis planis, 
iis ad latera leviter convexis ; utrisque fascia lata obliqua, 
fulva, a humero fere ad suturam extensa ornatis. 

Long. H-IJ lin. 

Hab. — Champion Bay, 

Head somewhat closely punctured, vertex cupreous, 
labrum and six basal joints of antenna3 obscure fulvous, 
the latter stained above with piceous ; thorax twice as 
broad as long, sides rounded and converging from base 
to apex, slightly sinuate just before the hinder angle, 
the latter somewhat compressed, and produced slightly 
backwards; basal lobe feebly notched, obsoletely reflexed ; 
surface on either side the basal lobe and extending to 
the hinder angles distinctly depressed (this depression 
causes the disc of the thorax to appear unusually convex) ; 

Australian Phytophaga. 391 

surface distinctly punctured, the puncturing rather dis- 
tant on the disc, closer on the sides ; scutellum obovate, 
its apex obtuse ; elytra not broader at their base than 
the thorax, twice its length, finely but distinctly punc- 
tate-striate ; interspaces plane ; on the outer margin 
the two outer striae are sulcate, and their interspaces 

Genus Lachnabothra, Saunders. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., vol. iv. p. 294. 

The genus Lachnabothra was formed by Mr. W. W. 
Saunders in 1847, on a single female example in the 
cabinet of the Rev. F. W. Hope ; this insect being 
figured and described by him as Lachnabothra Hojiei; 
the Sufii-ian, who subsequently (in 1859) monographed 
Australian Cryptocephalidee, sank Lachnabothra, and 
placed Mr. Saunders' species in the fourth section of 
Erichson's genus Cadmus ; both authors appear to have 
known the ? only, but more than twenty years previously 
a (^ specimen belonging to the genus, was described 
and figured by Dr. Klug (Ent. Mon. p. 159, tab. vi. fig. 
9, 1824) under the name of Chlamys (?) braceata ; Klug, 
who was unacquainted with the locality of his insect, 
pointed out its aflinity to the Cryptocephalidas, thus 
indicating its true position. For some years' after the 
publication of Mr. Saunders' and Dr. Suflrian's works, 
the species were very rare in cabinets, but latterly, 
owing to the exertions of Messrs. Waterhouse, Wilson, 
and Odewahn, in South Australia, and of various other 
collectors in the Western, and other parts of the con- 
tinent, many specimens of both sexes of species be- 
longing to the genus have become known to us. I 
myself, possess no less than eight distinct forms (the 
descriptions of which I have given below), in my own 

The characters of the males, as distinguished from the 
females, are as follows : — 

Antennce much longer than the body ; the ultimate joint 
compressed, generally broader than the penultimate. 

Thorax more or less gibbose, the gibbosity divided into 
two distinct protuberances. 

392 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

Hinder thighs thickened; basal joint of anterior tarsus 
usually dilated. 

The other characters are as in the ? ; both sexes may 
be known from the species of the genus Cadmus, by the 
sculpture and dense metallic pubescence of the thorax; 
the sculpture of the elytra is also peculiar and constant 
in all the species known to me. 

I have not been able satisfactorily to identify Dr. King's 
insect with any of the species described below ; it is, how- 
ever, very closely allied to L. Waterhovsei, and may pos- 
sibly prove to be the same insect. 

Lachnahothra Hopei, Saunders. 

Trans. Ent, Soc. vol. iv. p. 295, pi. xv. fig. 5. 

Cadmus Hopii, Sufirian, Lin. Ent., vol. xiii. p. 85. 

Subquadrato-oblonga, pallide rufo-picea, pilis pallide 
aureis vestita, thorace dense aureo-sericeo ; elytris ru- 
gosis, apice elevato-vittatis, disco interno tuberculis 
oblongis nonnullis, disco externo cretis irregularibus, 
inter se confluentibus et rete laxum formantibus, in- 
structis; pedibus antennisque obscure fulvis. 

Mas. Thoracis disco bituberculato ; antennarum articulo 
ultimo dimidio apicali nigro, penultimo distincte latiori, 
obcuneiformi, apice ipso angulato; tarsorum anticorum 
articulo prime pauUo dilatato, oblongo, basi attenuate, 
apice truncate. 

Long. 2-2 1 lin. 

Hah. — South Australia, Melbourne, Adelaide. 

Head clothed with adpressed golden hairs ; face im- 
pressed with a longitudinal groove, which extends from 
the vertex to the apex of the clypeus ; surface of face 
deeply punctured ; clypeus transverse, triangular, sides 
of the triangle slightly convex, anterior border slightly 
concave ; hinder surface punctured, clothed with adpressed 
hairs, anterior portion smooth, impunctate, glabrous ; la- 
brum often stained with piceous ; jaws piceous; thorax as 
broad at its base as the thorax ; sides diverging at the 
base, thence obliquely converging to the apex in the (^ _, 
regularly rounded in the $ , the apex itself quickly 

Australian Phytophaga. 393 

rounded ; upper surface convex, covered with numerous 
shallow pits or excavations, anterior half of disc closely 
punctured, subrugose, hinder half finely and subremotely 
punctate ; whole surface densely clothed with silky 
golden hairs, which radiate from the excavated pits ; 
on either side the centre of the disc, in the cJ, is a 
broad obtuse protuberance; scutellum densely clothed 
with adpressed golden hairs ; elytra sparingly clothed 
with golden hairs, rugose-punctate, hinder third with 
seven or eight raised, broad, longitudinal ridges ; inner 
disc with five oblong, longitudinally placed tubercles, 
which are scattered over the anterior two-thirds of its 
surface ; outer disc coarsely rugose ; on its surface are 
several irregularly raised reticulations, which enclose 
large, ill-defined, irregular spaces; these ridges are less 
defined in the $ than in the other sex ; abdomen and 
legs clothed with pale golden hairs. 

Lachnabothra Breiveri. 

Subquadrato-oblonga, rufo-picea, clypeo nigro-piceo, 
pube adpressa aurea vestita, thorace dense aureo-sericeo ; 
elytris rugosis, disco interne tuberculis elongatis, iis prope 
apicem incrassatis, instructo, disco externi apice elevato- 
vittato, antice irregulariter elevato-reticulato. 

Mas. Thoracis disco leviter gibboso, indistincte bitu- 
berculato, antennarum articulo ultimo (basi excepta) 
nigro, penultimo latiori, a basi apicem versus dilatato, 
apice angulato, acuto ; femoribus posticis sat valde in- 
crassatis ; tarsorum anticorum articulo basali modice 

Long. 2-2^ lin- 

Hah. — Albany, King George's Sound'; Swan River. 

Thorax as wide at the base as the elytra, sides rounded 
and slightly diverging at the extreme base, thence 
rounded and obliquely converging to the apex; disc 
excavated here and there into shallow pits (about fourteen 
in number) ; surface densely clothed with golden sericeous 
hairs, which radiate from the centres of the shallow ex- 
cavations ; centre of the disc in the c? slightly gibbose, 
the gibbosity transverse, elevated on either side into a 
small illdefined tubercle ; elytra coarsely rugose-punctate. 

394 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

inner disc with a number of elongated and oblong tuber- 
osities, several of these placed near the apex are greatly- 
thickened and enlarged ; basal half of outer disc covered 
with irregular raised reticulations, the apical half elevate- 
vittate ; running down the middle of each elytron, and 
separating the inner from the outer disc, is a very irre- 
gular raised line, which here and there sends ofi" short 
spurs on either side. 

This species is closely allied to L. Hopei, and is possi- 
bly a local form of that species ; both sexes may be known 
by the much stouter and broader apical tuberosities of 
the inner disc ; the c? also has the hinder thighs more 
strongly thickened. 

Lachnahothra integra, Suffr,, MS. 

Oblongo - quadrata, rufo-picea, pilis adpressis pallide 
aureis vestita, antennis, tibiis tarsisque obscure fulvis, 
femoribus posterioribus intus nigro-piceo maculatis ; tho- 
race dense pallido aureo-sericeo ; elytris rugosis, disco 
interne tuberculis oblongis, disco exteriori lineis elevatis 
longitudinalibus, instructis. 

Mas. Thorace dorso leviter gibboso, gibbo medio lon- 
gitudinaliter sulcato; antennarum articulo ultimo (basi 
excepta) nigro, penultimo vix latiori, compresso, a basi 
apicem versus leviter arapliato, apice ipso angulato ; 
femoribus posticis modice incrassatis, tarsorum pantico- 
rum articulo basali leviter dilatato, oblongo, apice 

Long. 2-2J lin. 

Hab. — South Australia, Adelaide, Gawlertown. 

Thorax similar in form to that of L. Hopei, disc in the 
c? slightly gibbose, the gibbosity divided by a distinct 
longitudinal groove ; pubescence clothing the surface 
pale golden sericeous ; basal margin narrowly edged with 
black ; elytra rugose-punctate, inner disc with seven or 
eight oblong longitudinal protuberances, placed irregu- 
larly on the surface from base to apex ; at the base near 
the scutellum is also a longitudinal ridge, which extends 
backwards for rather more than a fourth of the elytron : 
outer disc coarsely rugose ; on its surface are two some- 
what irregular longitudinal ridges, the first commencing 
a short distance within, the second immediately without 

Australian Phytophaga. 395 

the humeral callus ; the first of these terminates at the 
commencement of the last fifth of the elytron, the second 
is slightly longer, and approaches somewhat nearer to 
the apex ; in addition, on the hinder third, are four or 
five coarse longitudinal ridges. • 

The form of the thorax will separate the 3" of the 
insect before us from the same sex of any of the hitherto 
known species. 

Lachnabothra Wilsoni, Sufir., MS. 

Subquadrato-oblonga, nigro-picea, pilis argenteo-aureis 
adpressis vestita, tibiis basi antennisque obscure fulvis; 
thorace dense argenteo-aureo sericeo ; elytris profunde 
rugoso-punctatis ; prope marginem lateralem irregulari- 
ter verrucosis, castaneis, tuberculis plurimis oblongis 
magnis, nigro-piceis, nitidis, instructis. 

Mas. Thoracis disco utrinque tuberculo nitido in- 
structo; antennarum articulo ultimo penultimo paullo 
latiori, dimidio apicali nigro; femoribus modice incras- 
satis ; tarsorum anticorum articulo basali paullo ampliato, 
oblongo-ovato, apice truncate. 

Long. 2-2i lin. 

Hab. — South Australia, Gawlertown, Mr. Odewahn ; 
Adelaide, Messrs. Wilson and Waterhouse. 

Thorax as broad at its base as the elytra, sides rounded 
at the base, thence converging to the apex in the ^, 
lateral margin slightly sinuate just before the middle; in 
the opposite sex the sides are rounded and diverging 
at the base, slightly flattened from thence to beyond the 
middle, then rounded and converging to the apex ; disc 
irregularly pitted, but less distinctly so than in L. Hopei, 
densely clothed with pale metallic sericeous hairs, which 
radiate as usual from the centres of the various depres- 
sions ; disc in the S elevated on either side of its middle 
into a distinct gibbosity, the apex of which is crowned 
with a shining tubercle ; immediately behind each gib- 
bosity is an ill-defined transverse excavation, which runs 
inwards nearly to the medial line of the thorax, leaving 
the latter only in the form of a narrow longitudinal ridge ; 
elytra castaneous, coarsely and deeply rugose-punctate, 
irregularly verrucose near the lateral margin, covered 
with large shining, oblong, nigro-piceous tuberosities ; 
those on the anterior portion of the outer disc irregular. 

396: . Mr. J. S. Baly on 

This is one of the best defined species of the genus, 
it may be at once known by the peculiar sculpturing of 
the elytra. 

Lachnahothra Waterhousei. 

Subquadrato-oblonga, pallide picea, aureo-sericea ; an- 
tennis tarsisque fulvis; thorace hie illic excavate^ dense 
aureo-sericeo ; ely tris nigro-piceis, rude rugoso-punctatis, 
basi et apice elevato-vittatis, disco intei-no tuberculis 
oblongis magnis instructo, disco externo laxe elevato- 
reticulato ; vittis tuberculisque rufo-piceis. 

Mas. Thoracis disco utrinque in gibbum validum 
subconicum elevate; antennarum articulo ultimo apice 
nigro, penultimo latiori, apice obtuse angulato ; femoribus 
posticis modice incrassatis ; tarsorum anticorum articulo 
basali non dilatato, secundo asquilato. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. — South Australia, Adelaide, 

Thorax as wide at the base as the elytra, sides rounded 
and diverging at the extreme base, nearly straight and 
parallel in the middle, thence rounded and converging 
to the apex ; surface excavated into a number of shallow 
pits, densely clothed with adpressed golden haii^s, which 
radiate from the centres of the pits; in the cJ (the only 
sex known to me) the disc is strongly elevated on either 
side into a large subconical protuberance ; elytra spar- 
ingly clothed with adpressed hairs, very coarsely rugose- 
punctate, the base with three short, but strongly raised 
longitudinal ridges, which extend backwards rather more 
than one-third the length of the elytron ; they are placed, 
one near the suture commencing Avith a thickened base, 
at the apex of the scutellum, another half-way between 
the suture and the humeral callus, and a third a short 
distance within the latter ; in the interspace between the 
first and second ridge, is seen a small tubercle, and be- 
tween the second and third is a slightly raised, ill-defined, 
longitudinal line ; on the hinder two-thirds of the inner 
disc are placed seven or eight large oblong tuberosities ; 
outer disc very irregularly and coarsely elevate-reticulate, 
its hinder portion covered with raised longitudinal vittee ; 
one of these, the second from the suture, is continued 
upwards along the disc as far as the apex of the humeral 
callus; hinder thighs moderately thickened. 

Australian Phytophaga. 397 

This species, of which I have seen three specimens (all 
males), varies like most of the others, in coloration; 
usually it is dark piceous, the raised markings on the 
elytra being pale rufo-piceous, the legs and abdomen, and 
the upper part of the head are also more or less rufous, 
and stained with dark piceous; the antennse (the apical 
joints excepted) and tarsi are pale fulvous, the basal 
joint of the latter being sometimes stained with fuscous. 

L. Waterliousei may be known by the undilated basal 
joint of the anterior tarsus, by the strongly raised 
tuberosities of the thorax, and by the moderately dilated 
hinder thighs ; these characters taken together, will at 
once separate it from its congeners. 

Lachnabothra Saundersi. 

Subquadrato-oblonga, rufo-picea, thorace basi elytris 
distincte latiori, dense aureo-sericeo, elytris pube aureo 
minus dense vestitis; rugosis, disco interiori tuberculis 
oblongis nonnullis (circa 7)instructo, disco exteriori rude 
rugoso, elevato-reticulato, ad apicem elevato-vittato. 

Mas. Thoracis disco leviter bituberculato ; antenna- 
rum articulo apicali (basi excepta) nigro, penultimo 
distincte latiori, apice oblique truncato ; feraoribus valde 
incrassatis; tarsorum anticorum articulo basali late 
ampliato, semi-ovato, lateribus inasqualibus. 

Long. 2 J lin. 

Hah. — Australia. 

Thorax distinctly broader at the base than the elytra, 
sides slightly diverging at the base, thence rounded and 
converging to the apex, hinder angles armed with a 
small obtuse tooth, lateral margin near the base irregu- 
larly crenulate ; surface finely rugose-punctate ; on either 
side the medial line in the (^ is a large but slightly 
elevated gibbosity, the apex of which is crowned by a 
small shining tubercle ; elytra rugose-punctate, whole 
surface clothed with adpressed golden hairs ; inner disc 
with a number of large oblong tubercles, placed irregu- 
larly from base to apex of the elytron ; outer disc coarsely 
rugose, the interspaces thickened and forming small 
irregular reticulations and rugosities over the whole sur- 
face; on the apical third are four or five ill-defined 
(owing to the general rugosity of the surface) raised 
longitudinal vittae. 


398 Mr. J. S. Baly on 

Lachiahothra distincta. 

Subquadrata^ oblonga, rufo-picea, supra nigro-picea, 
aureo-sericea_, antennis fulvis ; tliorace basi elytris pauUo 
latiori, dense aureo-sericeo ; disco hie illic leviter exca- 
vate ; elytris rugosis, disco interiori tuberculis nonnullis, 
disco exteriori vittis elevatis, iis ante medium irregulariter 
flexuosis^ instructis. 

Mas. Thoracis disco utrinque in gibbum validum ele- 
vate ; antennarum articulo ultimo^ a basi apicem versus 
paullo dilatato, penultimo paullo latiori^ apice rotun- 
dato, dimidio apicali nigro ; femoribus posticis sat valde 
incrassatis ; tarsorum anticorum articulo basali sat late 
dilatato, semi-ovato, lateribus insequalibus. 

Long. 2^ lin. 

Hah. — North-West Australia. 

Thorax very slightly broader at the base than the 
elytra; sides rounded at the base, thence obliquely rounded 
and converging to the apex ; hinder half of lateral border 
finely crenulate ; surface rugose-punctate, excavated here 
and there into shallow pits ; clothed with adpressed golden 
hairs, which radiate from the centres of the shallow ex- 
cavations; in tlie c? (the only sex known to me) the 
middle of the disc is raised on either side into a strong 
subconical protuberance, divided from its fellow in 
the medial line, by a longitudinal depression ; elytra 
rugose, also clothed with adpressed golden hairs ; inner 
disc with six or seven oblong tubercles, placed irregularly 
from base to apex ; outer disc coarsely rugose, subverru- 
cose near the outer border ; commencing a short distance 
within the humeral callus, is an elevated ridge, which, 
irregu.lai'ly flexuous about the middle of its course, runs 
backwards for four-fifths the length of the elytron ; im- 
mediately external to the humeral callus, and connected 
at its base to the callus itself, is a second, much shorter 
than the first ; on the hinder fifth of the outer disc, are 
placed five or six round longitudinal vittae. 

This male insect may easily be separated from the same 
sex of L. Saundersi (the $ of which is also unknown to 
me) by its more strongly raised thorax, as well as by the 
less dilated basal joint of the anterior tarsus. 

Australian Phytophaga. 399 

Lachnabothra Duhoulai. 

Subquadrato-oblonga, picea, aut rufo-picea, pube pal- 
lide argenteo-aureis vestita; an tennis, tibiis tarsisque 
fulvis ; thorace dense pallide aureo-sericeo ; elytris rugosis ; 
pilis argenteo-aureis vestitis, tuberculis elongatis et ob- 
longis disco interne positis, vittaque elevata irregulari 
hie illic ramulum emittente, a callo humerale fere ad 
apieem extensa instructis, disco exteriori apice elevato- 
vittato, antice rude et irregulariter elevato-reticulato. 

Mas. Thoracis disco utrinque leviter gibboso, gibbis 
subconicis ; antennarum articulo ultimo non dilatato, 
penultimo eequilato; femoribus posticis sat valde incras- 
satis ; tarsorum anticorum articulo basali sat dilatato, 

Long. 2i-2| lin. 

Eah. — 'Western Australia; collected by Mr. Duboulay. 

Thorax as wide at the base as the thorax, sides rounded 
and slightly diverging at the base, thence obliquely con- 
verging- and slightly rounded to the apex in the c? , more 
regularly rounded in the other sex; surface closely 
rugose, densely clothed with pale metallic adpressed 
hairs ; on either side the disc in the c? is a large, broad, 
but slightly raised obtuse protuberance ; elytra coarsely 
rugose, rather densely clothed, when freshly disclosed, 
with adpressed hairs ; inner disc with a number of 
strongly raised longitudinal tuberosities, compressed and 
linear at the base, thicker and oblong towards the apex ; 
on the middle portion of the surface of each elytron, 
separating the inner from the outer disc, is an irregular 
raised longitudinal line ; outer disc veiy coarsely elevate- 
reticulate in front, elevate-vittate on its hinder portion 
towards the apex; these vittae and protuberances are 
usually stained with black, but are more rarely conco- 
lorous with the disc of the elytron ; thighs stained ^\^th 
black, strongly dilated. 

The species before us, collected in some abundance 
by Mr. Duboulay, most closely resembles (especially 
when slightly rubbed) L. Wilsoni; both sexes may be 
separated from that species by the different sculpture of 
the elytra ; the c? may be also kno\vn by the slender 
apical joint of the antennte, as well as by the much less 
strongly elevated gibbosities of the thorax. 

E E 2 

400 Mr. J. S. Baly on Phytophaga. 


Genus Steumatophyma, n. g. 

Corpus postice attenuatum, apterum ; caput exsertum, 
breve; antennce filiformes, corpoi-e dimidio longiores; 
oculis prominulis, elongatis ; palpis maxillaribus articulo 
ultimo penultimo sequilato^ apice truncato ; thorax trans- 
versus dorso prffisertim ad latera, excavatus ; elytra 
obloDga, postice attenuata, sutura intime convexa, dorso 
tuberculata, tuberculis seriatim dispositis ; pedes sim- 
plices ; unguiculis inermibus_, basi leviter incrassatis ; 
acetahula antica incompleta. 

Type Ghalcolampra verrucosa, Clark. 

Chalcolampra undulatipennis, Clark^ from Western 
Australia, also belongs to this genus. 

Strumatophyma is separated from Chalcolampra by the 
apterous body, soldered elytra, and simple claws. 

Genus Sph^kolina, n. g. 

Corpus rotundato-ovatum, semiglobosum ; caput ex- 
sertum, breve ; antennis brevibus, capite cum thorace 
vix sequalibus, articulis quinque ultimis compressis, 
distincte dilatatis, clavam elongatam formantibus ; oculis 
elongatis, subprominulis ; palpis maxillaribus articulo 
ultimo penultimo vix Eequilato, breviter ovato, apice 
truncato ; thorax transversus ; elytra thorace multo latiora 
apice late rotundata, tumida inordinatim punctata ; pedes 
simplices ; unguiculis muticis ; acetahula antica incom- 

Type Lina Rajah, Guerin; India. 

The short antennse distinguish the present genus from 
Chrysomela; it also differs in the form of the thorax: 
from Lina it may be known by the shorter form, and by 
the swollen elytra. Lina Templetoni, Baly, must also be 
placed in this genus. 

( 401 ) 

XIV. Descriptions of Jive new species, and a new genus, 
of Diurnal Lepidoptera, from Shanghai. By A. 
G. Butler, F.L.S., &c. 

[Read 5th June, 1871.] 

The species here described were recently sent home by 
Mr. W. B. Pryer. They are very interesting ; one of them 
being a representative of an exclusively New World group 
of butterflies, and another very similar to a common British 
Argynnis ; in the same Collection is a curious little Terias, 
which I believe to be the T. mandarimis of De L'Orza; 
it may, however be new, since I have not recently had 
an opportunity of consulting his description. 


Sub.-fam. SATYEIN^, Bates. 

Pal^onympha, gen. n. 

Affinissimum Euptychice (Sect. Neonympha) diflfert alis 
dense pilosis ; anticis striga lata, opaca, masculina, obli- 
qua ; angulo antico cellulae discoidalis haud porrecto ; 
palpis articulo ultimo longiore. 

Nearly allied to Euptychia, which it much resembles 
in markings, but with the oblique male streak (not pre- 
sent in any \uo\m.Euptyclvia, but represented in E. vesta 
by a scalloped embossed line) ; the anterior angle of the 
discoidal cell obliquely cut ofi*, and therefore not project- 
ing as in E^lptych^a ; the palpi "wath the last joint longer, 
the wings clothed above with long hairs ; it differs from 
Paramecera (Mexico), with which it agrees in the last- 
mentioned character, and in the oblique male streak, in 
the different form of the front-wing cell, the shape and 
marking of the wings, and the length of the palpi. 

Typical species Pal^sgnympha opalina. 

Palceonympha opalina, sp. n. 

Alas supra fuscse, anticae ocello uno apicali albo-pupil- 
lato lineisque duabus marginalibus, nigris ; posticaa 
ocellis quatuor nigris ; prime apicali indistincto, secundo 
parvo inconspicuo, tertio magno, distincto, bipupillato. 

402 Mr. A. G. Butler on 

quarto anali parvo, inconspicuo ; alee subtus cinereae, striis 
duabus mediis sequidistantibus, nebula macular! ocellos 
ferente lineisque duabus submarginalibus^ olivaceis ; 
linea marginali tenuissima, nigra; anticas ocellis tribus 
primo apicali nigro, argenteo-bipupillato, flavo late cincto, 
aliis ovalibus geminatis argenteis ; posticee stria externa 
apud costam profunde sinuata ; ocellis quinque, primo, 
quarto et quinto nigris argenteo-pupillatis flavo-cinctis, 
aliis ovalibus argenteis geminatis olivaceo-cinctis. 

Exp. alar. unc. 2, lin. 2. 

I have called it opalina, because of the silvery-opaline 
spots on the under-surface ; these occur on a great many 
of the species Euptychia : the species is most like E. 
Antonoe of Cramer, but is much smaller. 

Genus Lethe, Hiibner. 
$ Lethe satyrina, sp. n. 

Alae ovali-triangulares, supra olivaceo-fuscaB ; margine 
albido, a stria submarginali fusca intersecto ; ciliis fuscis ; 
anticEe apice late dilutiore, ocellis duobus inconspicuis 
fuscis albo-pupillatis ; posticas ocellis quinque, secundo 
indistincto maximo, primo, quarto et quinto magnis, 
omnibus (secundo excepto) nigris flavo-albido cinctis 
albo-pupillatis. Alae subtus fere velut supra ; anticae 
stria postcellulari obliqua albida; ocellis supernis, nigris 
distinctis; postic^ ocellis sex, primo et quinto maximis, 
ultimo geminato, omnibus nigris albo-pupillatis flavo- 
cinctis, fusco circumcinctis, lilacino zonatis ; striis duabus 
mediis irregularibus lilacino-fuscosis. 

Exp. alar. unc. 2, lin, 6. 

Most nearly allied to L. Verma, and resembling the 
species of Satyrus, in the shape of the wings and distribu- 
tion of the ocelli. 

Genus Yphthima, Hiibner. 

Yphthima Zodia, sp. n. 

Alee supra fuscee, anticae ocello mediocri nigro bipu- 
pillato, flavo-cincto; posticae ocellis tribus subanalibus, 
tertio ad angulum ani minimo, nigris albo-pupillatis, 
flavo-cinctis ; alaa subtus cinereo-albidee, fusco reticulatas ; 

Diurnal Lepidoptera. 403 

anticas striis duabus mediis male conspicuis, externa cum 
stria submarginali simili continua, fuscis ; ocello superno 
majori; posticie fascia lata olivacea, undulata; ocellis sex 
minutis, duobus subapicalibus, duobus discali-analibus, 
duobus analibus contiguis^ nigris, albo-pupillatis, flavo- 

Exp. alar. unc. 1, lin. 7. 

Allied to Y. Lisandra and Y. Argus, but differing 
from all the known species, in the broad central fuscous 
band on the under-surface of the hind-wings. 

Sub-fam. NYMPH ALIN^. 

Genus Neptis. 

Neptis Pryeri, sp. n. 

Alse supra nigrae, ciliis albis ; anticae vitta discoidali 
quinque macular!, serie macularum decern bisinuata dis- 
cali et altera, a fascia media nigra intersecta, sex maculari, 
submarginali, apicem hand attingente, albis ; posticaa 
fascia media a venis interrupta; sti'ia sex-maculari discali 
transversa, albis ; corpus cinereum ; alee subtus albican- 
tibus ; anticte maculis costali-discalibus, plagisque disco- 
cellulari, apicali et marginal!, brunneis; posticee basi 
nigro-maculata ; plaga costali cellulum partim cingente, 
fascia media ad costam attingente, venis discalibus et 
area marginal! (lunulos subseptem gerente) brunneis ; 
corpus albidum. 

Exp. alar. unc. 2, lin. 5. 

Not nearly allied to any species that I have seen. 

Genus Aegynnis, Fabricius. 
Argynnis vorax, sp. n. 

Affinis A. Adippe, differt alis anticis costa multo lon- 
giore, margine externo magis arcuato, posticis margine 
interne longiore, omnibus supra maculis submarginalibus 
fulvis angustioribus ; subtus characteribus discoideis 
minus conspicuis; anticae maculis discalibus majoribus; 
posticae pallidiores, area basali viridiore ; maculis argenteis 
vix nigro marginatis ; serie ocellorum minus angulata ; 
lunulis submarginalibus viridibus. 

Exp. alar. unc. 3, lin. 2. 

Nearly allied to A. Adippe, but more like A. Paphia 
in form. 

( 405 ) 

XV. On some black species of Cantharis ivith red heads 
and filiform antennve. By Chas. 0. Waterhouse. 

[Read 3rcl July, 1871.] 

Having lately required a name for a species of black 
Cantharis, belonging to the group with the head red, 
and with filiform antenna?, I have gathered together all 
the specimens at my disposal, with a view of identifying 
them. I find among them five species, and as only one 
of these has been at all properly described, I have ven- 
tured to write out descriptions of them all. I have yet 
one or two which cannot well be placed with these five, 
but as the species are so close, I thought it better not to 
describe from single specimens. 

Cantharis nepalensis, Hope. 

Lytta Nepalensis, Hope, Gray's Zool. Miscel. p. 32. 

Ater ; capite rufo, antennis filiformibus, tihiis anticis 
non hirsutis; elytris apices versus latioribus. 

Long. 6^-1 If lin. 

Closely allied to C. rnficeps of Illiger, but is to be dis- 
tinguished from it by the deeper red colouring, and 
strong punctuation of the head, and by the elytra being 
distinctly broader towards the apex. 

The head is dull dark red, not very thickly, but some- 
what strongly, punctured ; the clypeus is almost entirely 
black, as are also the labrum and other parts of the 
mouth. The antennae are filiform, very slightly pubes- 
cent ; the first joint short, the second very short, the 
third the longest, the fourth to seventh equal, the eighth to 
tenth rather shorter, the eleventh a little longer than the 
seventh. The thorax is subquadrate (contracted in fi-ont), 
thickly and distinctly punctured, less closely and rather 
more strongly on the disc ; the fore-part is slightly im- 
pressed on each side, there is a faint longitudinal line on 
the disc, and a deep fovea in the centre of the posterior 
margin. The elytra somewhat broader towards the apex, 
where they diverge, each rounded at the apex, the whole 


406 Mr. Chas. O. Waterhouse on 

surface distinctly punctured. The underside of the insect 
is entirely black, clothed with long black pubescence ; 
legs simple ; the anterior tibiae not dilated, nor clothed 
with long hair. 

Hah. — Nepal (Hardwicke). Brit. Mus. 

C. hirtipes, sp. n. 

Very closely allied to 0. nepalensis, but larger and 
more cylindrical. The antennae are similar. The head 
is dull, dark red, with long black hairs at the back, very 
thickly and strongly punctured, with the exception of an 
ovate spot at the base of each antennae, which is smooth, 
impressed in the middle, and only sparingly punctured. 
Thorax very thickly and strongly punctured, rounded in 
front, clothed at the sides with long black hairs. Elytra 
elongate, distinctly punctured, not broader towards the 
apex, where they diverge, and somewhat acuminate, the 
extreme apex of each rounded. Underside entirely black, 
with moderately long pubescence ; the legs simple, the 
four posterior tibiae thickly clothed with somewhat long 
black pubescence. 

Long. 121-131 lin. 

Hah. — Allahabad (Bowring). Brit. Mus. 

C. tibialis, sp. n. 

Ater ; capite rujo-testaceo ; antennis Jiliformihus ; tihiis 
anticis apicem versus latioribus \_extus dense hirsutis ( c? ) ]; 
elytrorum sutura marginihusque tenuissime albo-pubescen- 

Long. 7-lH lin. 

This species most closely resembles G. rujiceps of Illiger, 
but is distinguished from it by the narrow margin of 
white pubescence to the elytra, and by the somewhat 
broad and hairy anterior tibiae in the male. 

S . The head is reddish-yellow, and (with the excep- 
tion of a smooth raised spot at the base of each antenna 
(perhaps only a male character) , somewhat sparingly and 
not very strongly punctured ; the anterior margin of the 
clypeus is fuscous, as are also the labrum and other parts 
of the mouth. The antennae are filiform, the third to 

some black species of Cantharis. 407 

sixth joints each notched for the reception of the follow- 
ing joints : the basal two joints with longish black pubes- 
cence, the second joint is a little shorter than the first, 
and more slender ; the third is about equal to the fourth 
and fifth joints together ; the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
joints are short, of nearly equal length ; the seventh to 
the eleventh gradually increasing. The thorax is sub- 
quadrate (abruptly contracted in front) , thickly, evenly, 
distinctly, but not very strongly, punctured ; the fore- 
part is slightly impressed on each side, and there is a 
large deep fovea in the centre of the posterior margin. 
The elytra are scarcely broader at the apex than at the 
base, each elytron rounded at the apex, where they 
diverge ; the apex and lateral margins fringed with 
white pubescence, the suture also very slightly so. 

The mesothoracic epimera, the sides of the metathorax, 
and the margins of the abdominal segments, are also 
more or less clothed with whitish pubescence. The an- 
terior tibiae are thickly set on the outside with long 
black hair, the innerside of the anterior femora and 
tibi^ are clothed with yellowish pubescence. 

9 . Antennae with the third to sixth joints less 
strongly notched ; the anterior tibiae destitute of long 
black hair ; the forehead without any well-defined smooth 
spot at the base of the antennae. 

^a&.— China. Brit. Mus. 

C. assamensis, sp. n. 

It is with some hesitation that I venture to give the 
insect which I have received \vith the above manuscript 
name, the place of a species. It differs, however, from 
G. tibialis in having the head distinctly more thickly 
punctured, and the mesothoracic epimera are black ( (5^). 

Long. 11 J lin. 

fl"a6.— "Assam." Brit. Mus. 

Two specimens ( $ ) from the Island Formosa, from Mr. 
Bowring^s collection, most closely resemble the above, 
but appear to have the elytra relatively longer ; the head 
more arched behind, somewhat closely punctured in 
front, but sparingly on the crown. The antennae are as 
in the ? of C. tibialis. The underside is almost entirely 
black. The legs are simple, the anterior tibite not 

F p 2 

408 Mr, Chas. 0. Waterhouse on Cantharis. 

C ruficeps, Illiger. 

? . Lytta ruficeps, 111. (Wiedmann, Archiv. I. pt. 3, 

p. 140, 1800). 

S . Lytta plutnicornis , Castelnau ? (Hist. Nat. des In- 

sectes, II. p. 274, 1840) . 

" Atra unicolor, capite solo toto rufo, antennis totis m'gris, 
elytris obtuse acuminatis." 

? . Totally black, except the head which is reddish- 
yellow ; the clypeus is yellowish, with a transverse black 
band, the labrum has a notch in the front margin which 
is yellowish, the other parts of the mouth are more or 
less fuscous. The head is polished, sparingly but dis- 
tinctly punctured. The thorax is subquadrate, slightly 
broader in front than behind, abruptly contracted and 
rounded in front, the fore-part is slightly impressed on 
each side, the whole surface is thickly and distinctly 
punctured, the disc has a lightly impressed longitudinal 
line, which runs into a deep fovea at the posterior mar- 
gin. The elytra are parallel, not narrower at the base 
than at the apex, where they diverge, and are each 
rounded. The antennae are four-fifths the length of the 
elytra, filiform, the second joint two-thirds the length of 
the first, the third a little longer than the first, the 
fourth two-thirds the length of the third ; the remaining 
joints gradually increasing in length, and tapering. Legs 
simple. Tarsi beneath, spongy, fuscous. The meta- 
sternum and abdomen clothed with short grey-black 

The c? is rather more slender than the ? ; the antennas 
are longer (very nearly as long as the elytra) , the second 
to eighth joints furnished with long hair on the lower (or 
inner) side ; the anterior tibiae are furnished with long 
black hairs ; the innerside of the femora and tibiee clothed 
with golden pubescence. 

Long. 6^-10| lin. 

Hah. — Java, Borneo, Sumatra. Brit. Mus. 

Good specimens of this insect appear in some lights to 
have a reddish-brown pubescence, but a slight alteration 
of the position makes it appear greyish. 

The male agrees with Castelnau^s description of Lytta 
plumicornis from China, and in the national collection 
there is a specimen labelled 'North China' which I can- 
not satisfactorily separate from the Javanese specimens. 

( 409 ) 

XYI. Ajper^u statistique sur les Nevropteres Odonates. 
Par le Baron E. de SELTS-LoNacHAMPS, Mem. 
Hon. Soc. Ent. Lond. 

[Lu 3me JuiUet, 1871.] 

Au moment ou je viens de publier une nouvelle partie du 
Synopsis des Odonates, celui de la sous-famille des Cor- 
dulines, je crois qu'il y a un certain interet a jeter un 
coup d'oeil statistique sur les genres et les especes connus 

Pour arriver au chiffre total j'ai recapitule : — 

1, — les especes decrites dans mes diflferents synopsis 
et leurs supplements. 

2, — les especes a aj outer aux memes groupes : les unes 
sent decrites dans differentes publications; les autres 
sont inedites, mais je possede leur signalement. 

3, — les especes des groupes que je n'ai pas encore 
publics. Ce sont les sous-families des Libellulines et 
des ^schnines, et parmi les Agrionines les deux grands 
genres Agrion, F., et Telehasis, De Selys. 

Pour ces groupes dont je n'ai pas termine I'etude, on 
comprend que les chiffres i-esultant du classement actuel 
de ma collection ne sont pas tout a fait absolus. C^est 
pour ce motif que je ne detaille les sous-genres des deux 
grands genres Agrion et Telehasis. 

La partie embarrassante est celle de la sous-famille 
des Libellulines. En 1868 M. F. Brauer de Vienne a 
publie son ' Verzeichniss der bis jetzt bekannten Neurop- 
teren im Sinne Linne 's ' , suivi de son ' Zweiter Abschnitt ', 
dans lequel les genres de Libellulines, au nombre de 40 
(ou 41 avec Zygonyx) sont caracterises, et les noms des 
especes qui y appartiennent cites au nombre de 361. 

Pour completer mon Aper^u, en ce qui concerne les 
Libellulines, le mieux m^a semble etre de ne rien changer 
a I'ordre adopte par M. Brauer, qui a rendu un grand 
service a la science en publiant ce travail. Je prends sa 
classification et ses chiffres tels qu'il les donne, en faisant 
observer bien entendu, que je me reserve d^examiner 
plus tard sa classification et ses groupes. J'ajoute que le 
nombre des especes qu'il cite est de 361, tandis que je croia 
en connaitre environ 100 de plus, parmi lesquelles le 
genre Neophlebia que j'ai decrit et figure dans le voyage 
de M. Pollen. 



Baron E. de Selys-Longchamps sur 

Dans le resume par sous-genres, que je donne plus bas, 
j^arrive aux resultats suivants. 

LiBELLULiNES . 461 especes, en 41 sous-genres. 



„ 11 



„ 39 



„ 9 



„ 31 

Ageionines . . 


„ 59 



Et nous sommes evidemment bien eloignes de con- 
naitre tous les Odonates, excepte pour les especes 
d^Europe, qui sont au nombi'e de 100, et qui ne me 
semblent guere susceptibles de recevoir une augmenta- 
tion importante. 

Dans les Synopsis et ailleurs j'ai decrit environ 600 
especes. II y en a done encore plus de 700 que je n'ai 
pas etudiees en detail, mais parmi elles se trouvent beau- 
coup d'especes dont de bonnes descriptions ont ete 
publiees par MM. Rambur, Uhler, et Brauer, et par mes 
honorables collegues et amis MM. Hagen et McLachlan. 

Sous-fam. I. Libellulina. 

Genres et sous-genres. Especes. 

1. Zyxomma, Eamb 1 

2. Tholymis, Hag 3 

3. Pantala, Hag 2 

4. Tramea, Hag 30 

5. Ehyothemis, Hag 19 

6. Diastatops, Ramb 4 

7. PalpoiileiirafHamh 11 

8. Neurotlietnis, Braner. 

(Polyneura, E.) 10 

9. C elith emi s, ' 1 

10. Perithemis, Hag, 6 

11. Leucorhinia, Brittg 12 

12. Biplax, Charp 52 

13. Mesof /lemis, Hag 9 

14. PachycUplax, Brauer 1 

15. Erythrodiplax, ^r&ner .10 

16. Erythemis, Hag 11 

17. Lepthemis, Hag 11 

18. Acisoma, Eamb 2 

19. Microthemis, Brauer 1 

20. Bracliydiplax, Brauer 4 

21. Nannodiptlax , Brauer 2 

22. Nannophya, Biamh 2 

23. Nannodythemis, Brauer 1 

Genres et sous-genres. Especes. 

24. Nannothevvis, Brauer 6 

25. Tetrathemis, Brauer 1 

26. Uracis, Eamb 8 

27. Lyriothemis, Brauer 1 

28. Agrionoptera, Brauer 4 

29. Ori/iemis, Hag 8 

30. Libellula, L., Brauer 27 

31. Lihella, Brauer 31 

32. Onychothemis, Brauer 1 

33. Diplacina, Brauer 2 

34. Dythemis, Hag 32 

35. Macrothemis, Hag 4 

36. Trith.emis, Brauer 19 

37. Brachythemis, Brauer 1 

38. Crocothemis, Brauer 4 

39. Macrodiplax, Br a.ner 2 

40. l/rot/iemis, Brauer 3 

41. ZygonyXtDeSelys 2 

Selon M. Brauer . 
En plus selon moi. 



les Nevropteres donates. 


Sous-fam. 2. Coedulina. 


Legion 1. Cordulia. 

Cordulia, Leach ■< 3. 

^ 5. 

Cordulephya, De Selys 6. 

Hemicordulia, De Selys 8 

Cordulia, Leach 16 

Epitheca, Charp., De Selys 21 

Oxygastra, De Selys 2 

Qoniphomacromia, Brauer... 4 
Cordulephya, De Selys 1 

Legion 2. Macromia. 

Idionyx, De Selys 7. 

^schnosoma (Bates), De Selys 8. 

( 9 

Macromia, Kamb < ,q' 

Synthemis, De Selys 11. 

Idionyx, De Selys 1 

Epophthalmia, Burm., Bra. 7 

Macromia, Eamb l^ 

Synthemis, De Selys 6 


FamiUe II. .ESCHNID^. 

Sous-fam. I. Gomphina. 

Legion 1. GompMis. 

1. Oomphus, Leach. 

1. Onychogomphus, De Selys... 19 

2. Ceratogomphus, De Selys.... 1 

3. Erpetogomphus, De Selys.... 8 

4. Ophiogomphus, De Selys 4 

5. Heterogomphus, De Selys — 2 

6. Epigomphus, Hag 2 

7. 3/icro(7omj3ft-Ms, De Selys 1 

8. Macrogomphus, De Selys — 4 

9. Cyclogomphus, De Selys 3 

10. Phyllogomphus, De Selys.... 1 

11. Platygowphus, De Selys 1 

12. Oomphus, Leach, De Selys. .40 

13. Austrogomphus, De Selys.... 3 

14. Hemigomphus, De Selys 3 

15. Neogomphus, Be Selys 3 

^16. Agriogomphus, De Selys 1 

Legion 2. Lindenia. 

Progomphus, De Selys 17. 


Gomphoides, De Selys < 19. 



• I 22. 

S 23. 

• i 24. 

Zonophora, De Selys . 
Hagenius, De Selys... 

Progomphus, De Selys 7 

Gomphoides, De Selys 7 

Cj/cZop7t?/Z7a, De Selys 9 

.4p%na, De Selys 6 

Diaphlehia, De Selys 2 

ZonopTiora, De Selys 3 

Hagenius, De Selys 2 

Sieboldius, De Selys 1 


Baron E. de Selys-Longchamps sur 


5. Diastatomma, Burm., De S....25. Biastatomma, B., De Selys 2 

/'26. GompMdia, De Selys 1 

rr T ■ J • T\ -a -n a )27. Ictinus, 'R&vah 11 

7. Iir,dema,DeHaan,DeS....J28. Cacus, De Selys 1 

(_29. IiOTclema, De Haan, De Selys 1 

Legion 3. Chlorogoynphus. 
8. Chlorogomphus, De Selys 30. Chlorogomjphus, De Selys.... 2 

Legion 4. Cordulegaster. 

9 CordAileaaster Leach f ^^- Thecaphora, Ch., De Selys 1 
y. vormiiegaste') , ue&cn j^^^ Cordulegaster, Le&ch. 12 

r33. Petalia, B.&g 1 

10. PetaKa, Hag 5 34. Phyllopetalia, De Selya 2 

(.35. fli/j30joefa.Ma, McLach 1 

Legion 5. PetoZurct. 

11. Petaliira, Leach , 

12. Phenes,^ 


36. Petalura, Leach 1 

Uropetala, De Selys 1 

Tachopteryx, Uhler 1 

39. P/ienes, Eamb 1 


Sous-fam. 2. ^schnina. 

4naa., Leach i ]■ ^^<=f, Leach ••-"••-IJ 

' ( 2. Cyrtosoma, Charp., De Selys 3 


2. Mschna, F 

3. Staurophlehia, Brauer. 

4. Oynaccmtha, Eamb 

GompJicBschna, De Selys 1 

Brachytron, 'Eva.ns 1 

^schna, F., De Selys 50 

6. Staurophlehia, Brauer 4 

7. NeuroBschna, De Selys 5 

8. Aniphimschna. De Selys 5 

9. Oynacantha, Eamb 22 


Pour le moment je m'abstiens de reunir les sous-genres 
par categories de grands genres d^une maniere definitive ; 
les quatre coupes que je propose sont provisoires. 

Je reserve le nom de Cyrtosoma pour les especes 
d'Anax du groupe de Vephippigerus, Burm. {mediterra- 
neus, De Selys) . 

les Nevropieres Odonates. 


Le sous-genre Gomphceschna est cree pour recevoir la 
Gynacantha quadrifida de Rambur, dont les caracteres 
sont mentionncs dans sa description de Fespece. 

Le sous-genre Amphiceschna comprend, entre autres, 
V^schna ampla, Ramb., V^schna Irene, Fonscolombe, 
et la Gynacantha idee, Brauer. II se distingue de Gyna- 
cantha par I'espace basilaire reticulee, et de Neurceschna 
parce que la nervure sous-costale s'arrete au nodus. 


Sous-fam. 1. CAiiOPTERyoiNA. 

Legion 1. Calopteryx. 

1. Calopteryx, Leach 

2. Echo, De Selys , 

3. Fhaon, De Selys. 

4. Vestalis, Hag 11. 


5. Hetoerina, Hag. 


Sylp'his,'H.&g 2 

Calopteryx, Leach 13 

Matrona, tie Selys 1 

Cleis, De Selys 1 

SapliOfBe Selys 4 

3fnais, De Selys 5 

Echo, De Selys 1 

Psofodesmws, McLach 1 

Phaon, De Selys 1 

Neu/roba^is, De Selys 3 

Fesfalis, De Selys 4 

Lais, Hag 9 

Hetcerina, Hag 30 

Legion 2. Euphcea. 

14. Caliphcea, Hag 1 

/"IS. .(4msopZewra, De Selys 1 

7. Euphcea,i)e Selys j }^; |^S''D?£fyVv;::;:::::::i6 

(.18. Dysphaea, De Selys 3 

(■19. Dictertas, De Selys 1 

■■■(20. ffeZtoc/ians, De Selys 3 

6. Caliphoea, Hag. 

8. Bicterias, De Selys . 

9. Anisoneura, I>e Selys 21. ^nisonewra, De Selys 1 

Legion 3. Amphipteryx. 

10. Amphipteryx, De Selys. 


Tetrcmeura, De Selys 1 

Amphipteryx, De Selys 1 

Diphlehia, De S. {Dinewra, 
(De Selys, o7im) 1 

Legion 4. Libellago. 

n T -L n T^ o 1 (25. Rhiuocypha, 'Romh 21 

11. Ltbellago, De Selys [gG. LtbeJfago, De Selys 5 

12. Micro mer us , TA&mb 27. Micr omer us, B^amh. 9 


Baron E. de Selys-Longchamps sur 

13. Thore, Hag. 

Legion 5. Thore. 


/'28. Com, De Selys 5 

3 29. Euthore, De Selys 4 

isO. T/iore, Hag 8 

(_31. Chalcopteryx, De Selya 2 









Sous-fam. 2. Agbionina. 
Legion 1. Fseudostigma. 

Megaloprepus, Eamb [ 2_ Microstigma, ] 

2. Measfosrasfer, Eamb. 

Eamb 1 

Eamb 3 

Fseudostigma, De Selys 2 

Mecistogaster, Eamb 7 

Legion 2. Lestes. 



3. Lestes, Leach -J 8. 

I 9. 
I 10. 


JlfegraZestes, De Selys 1 

Hypolestes, De Selys 1 

^rcTi/iJesfes, De Selys 2 

Melanolestes, De Selys 1 

Lestes, Leach 53 

Sympycna, Charp 1 

Platylestes, De Selys 1 

Legion 3. Podagrion. 

Fwraphlehia, De Selys 12. 

Fliilogenia, De Selys 13. 

Fodagrion, De Selys 14. 

Eeteragrion, De Selys 15. 

Ferilestes, De Selys 16. 

Synlestes, De Selys 17. 

Chlorolestes, De Selys 18. 

Allolestes, De Selys 19. 

Argiolestes, De Selys 20. 

Podopteryx, De Selys 21. 

Podolestes, De Selys 22. 

Amphilestes, De Selys 23. 

Paraphlehia, De Selys 1 

Fhilogenia, De Selys 5 

Podagrion, De Selys 6 

Heteragrion, De Selys 14 

Ferilestes, Hag 1 

Synlestes, De Selys 1 

Chlorolestes, De Selys 5 

Allolestes, De Selys 1 

Argiolestes, De Selys 3 

Podopteryx, De Selys 1 

Podolestes, De Selys 1 

Amphilestes, De Selys 1 

Legion 4. Flatycnemis. 
Hemiphlehia, De Selys 24. Hemiphlehia, De Selys 

f 25 

Amphicnemis, De Selys •? o^' 

Hypocnemis, Hag 27. 


19. Flatycnemis, Charp. 

Fericnemis, Hag 1 

.^w/p/itcMemis, De Selys 1 

Hypocnemis, Hag 1 

Trichocnemis, De Selys 6 

29. Calicnemis, De Selys 1 

30. Metacnemis, Hag 2 

31. Flatycnemis, Charp 5 

32. Fsolocnemis, De Selys 7 

33. Allocnemis, De Selys 1 

les Nevropteres Odonates, 



20. Chlorocnemis, De Selys 34. Chlorocnemis, De Selys 2 

21. Argiocnemis, De Selys 35. Argiocnemis, De Belya 4 

Legion 5. Agrion. 

22. Argia, R., De Selys . 

23. Agrion, Fabr. 

24. Telebasis, De Selys ...... 


Hyponeura, De Selys 2 

Argia, R., De Selys 48 

Onychargia, De Selys 1 

Fyrrhosoma, Charp 

Erythromma, Charp 

Agrion, Fabr 

Nehalennia, De Selys 

Ischnura, Charp 

Anomalagrion, De Selys.. 

Brachybasis, De Selys ■^ 

Telebasis, De Selys L r% 

Leptobasis, De Selys ^ 

Megalobasis, De Selys. ...^ 

Legion 6. Protoneura. 

25. Platysticta, De Selys . 

26. Alloneura, De Selys . 

27. Protoneura, De Selys. 

(49. Palamnema, De Selys 3 

■ \50. Platysticta, De Selys 6 

C 51. Peristicta, Hag 1 

I 52. Disparoneura,De Selys 4 

.-j 53. Alloneura, De Selys 14 

54. Brachyneura, De Selys 1 

[55. Nososticta, Hag 1 

!56. Idioneura, De Selys 1 
57. Neoneura, De Selys 5 
58. Proioweitra, De Selys 6 
59. Microneura, De Selys 1 


Je propose le nom de Podopteryx pour nne grande espece 
de File Aru, prise par M. Wallace, deposee au British 
Museum. Ce genre est tres extraordinaire parce qu^il 
possede une troisieme nervure antecubitale (qui, il est 
vrai, n'existe qu'entre les nervures costale est sous- 
costale), ce qui rappelle en diminutif le genre Amphip- 
teryx, qui est une Calopterygine. Pour le reste des 
caracteres de la reticulation, des antennes, et des appen- 
dices anals du male, le Podopteryx est tres voisin des 
Argiolestes, qui appartiennent a la legion des Podacjrion. 
L'espece, qui je nomrae P. roseo-notata, est tres singu- 
liere par les taches d'un rose carmin qui existent au 
prothorax et sur le devant du thorax, coloration dont je 

416 Baron E. de Selys-Longchamps siir les Odonates. 

ne connais pas d'autre exemple parmi les Odonates. 
Ella se rapproche beaucoup des Podolestes par la levre 
inferieure dont les deux pointes sont distautes, mais elle 
en differe generiquement par Fespace post-costale de 
plusieurs rangs de cellules, analogue a celui des Argio- 

L'espace basilaire est traverse aux qnatre ailes par une 
nervule, ce qui est jusqu' a present une exception unique 
dans la sous-famille dea Agrionina. 

( 417 ) 

XVII. On the forms of Zygaena Trifolii, with some re- 
marks on the question of specific di^'erence, as 
opposed to local or phyiophagic variation, in 
that genus. By T. H. Bkiggs, B.A. 

[Read 6th November, 1871.] 

In the 'Zoologist' for 1861, Mr. Newman observes, 
touching another Zygcena, that " it is a dangerous thing 
to write about our British Zygcence, if anyone incline to 
take up the genus, I heartily wish him well through it." 
And yet I am about to ask aid from Lepidopterists 
generally, in working out some curious facts connected 
with this, confessedly, difficult genus — difficult, because 
of the similarity of the perfect insects themselves, more 
so by the similarity and variation of their respective larvee, 
and yet even more so by the great confusion of their 
synonymy ; the difficulties are crowned by the fact of an 
unusual and extraordinary affinity existing between the 
different so-called species, and the frequent occurrence 
of intermediate forms or hybrids — as yet, I cannot say 
which — that are found amongst them. My theory and 
proposition is, that two permanent forms of a Zygcena 
now existing in England, and confused under the special 
name Trijolii, have an egiial right icith Lonicerce to the title 
of Species. 

In the 'Entomologists Annual' for 1862, some re- 
marks by Prof. Zeller in the 'Isis' for 1840, are 
translated by Mr. Stainton, in which we find the follow- 
ing words, — '' Since that Nature, in the formation of 
species of Zygcena (productive or reproductive) is not yet 
at an end, appears to me conclusive, from the constant 
copulation of specimens of difl'erent species without con- 
straint, and. luhen in a condition of perfect liberty." 

Undoubtedly true as the fact is upon which Zeller 
bases this theory, it is somewhat difficult to follow his 

Once admit that a form has become a species, and 
Nature is at an end, so far as relates to the formation of 
that species ; the progress of Nature, then (if any) is only 
to widen the separation. The sexual union of forms 
might be of common occurrence, but the fact is, the 
examples on record are not what we consider fo/v/is, but 
xcell-clefincd species, as subsequently mentioned by Bois- 
duval. Such a union would be strongly suggestive of 


418 Mr. T. H. Briggg on 

the common origin of those Zygcence at no remote date, 
and that a union of this nature was the result of a habit 
acquired as a form, not yet being lost in the species ; 
hence the species being, so to speak, new species, it would 
be inferential to suppose forms, not yet species, existing, 
yet to become species. If we examine the result of such 
a union, would it not bear strongly upon the title of any 
'' form " to the rank of " species " ? If the eggs resulting 
were fertile, and produced moths like either parent, it 
would go far to prove the parents only " forms " of each 
other, not yet sufficiently separated to attain to the rank 
of species. If the eggs were fertile and produced hybrids, 
it would show that each parent was a species of itself, 
since they produced offspring unlihe themselves, though 
probably closely allied, and their common origin of no 
very remote date. But if the eggs were sterile, would it 
not show that the line of demarcation was already estab- 
lished between those allied species, though the difference 
might be so slight, as to baffle our efforts to define it ? 
I can find no instance on record, however, of even hybrids 
being hred from these unions, although we constantly catch, 
specimens that if they are not hybrids, what are they ? 
In his Monograph of the genus published in 1829, M. 
Boisduval observes, " Je dois dire ici qu^il m^est arrive 
quelquefois de trouver des especes differentes accouplees 
ensemble, ainsi j'ai trouve plusieurs fois la Filipendul89 
accouplee avec la Peucedani, et laTrifolii avec FHippocre- 
pidis; j^ai fait pondre les femelles pour obtenir des hy- 
brides, mais jamais je n'ai ete assez heureux j) our voir e clove 
les ceufs resultant de ces marriages adulterins, quoique les 
ceufs des Zygcenes eclosent tres facilement; il est possible, 
cependant, que quelques uns eclosent dans la nature.^' 
So far as our present knowledge goes, therefore, the genus 
seems to consist certainly of a number of closely allied 
species, many of which species 'probably have different 
forms, some of which forms 7nay be on the journey towards 
future species — the great difficulty yet remains, how to 
distinguish a local or Phytophagic 'form^ from a 'species,' 
it being impossible to apply the above test of an acci- 
dental natural union between two supposed species, 
although when that does occur, one can test species or 
forms by the result. We must therefore, in most cases, 
separate 'form' from 'species' by other means. In the 
' Entomologists Annual' for 1861, Stainton, referring to 
the allied genus Procris, says, " attention has been called 

Zygcena Trifolii. 419 

to the various forms which Procris Statices assumes in 
different localities, but still we do not feel at liberty to 
state that any new species of that genus have been added 
to our lists, further series of specimens from various 
localities are necessary ; it may be, that in an insect so 
local and so gregarious as a Procris, each little tribe or 
colony will be found to differ more or less from other 
tribes or colonies of the same species." 

These remarks apply with equal force to the ZygmncG 
but since we do allow more than one 5-spotted native 
species, it follows that whether or no Zeller's theory is 
the true one, a certain amount of constant variation 
among* these little tribes, will suffice to elevate it into a 
presumptive species. If such a constant variation were 
confined to one little tribe or colony, and not found else- 
where, I presume such a colony would be considered a 
local form of the nearest allied species, but if it can be 
shown, as I intend to endeavour to do, in the present 
paper, that an exactly similar constant variation occurs 
in numerous colonies in various parts of England, and 
that such constant variation is not confined to the imago, 
but is also found in the respective larvae, such colonies 
or tribes surely have acquired an equal right with Loni- 
cerce to appear in our lists as 'species.' 

The chief points by which we can differentiate these 
insects, are — 

(1.) The size and disposition of the red spots on the 
fore- wings. 

(2.) The black border to the hind-wings. 

(3.) The antennfB. 

(4.) The time of appearance of the perfect insect. 

(5.) The larva. 

(6.) The food- plant. 

(7.) The habitat. 

The first two of these points are in some species most 
variable, in others tolerably constant; the antennse aid 
the determination considerably, when the one sex in one 
species is compared with the saiiie sex in another, but I 
have too often seen in collections a series of males 
marked " Trifolii," and the females with their slenderer 

G G 2 

420 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

antennae labelled '' Lonicerm " ! ! I attach great import- 
ance to all the remaining points. Touching the larva, 
the usual description of "yellowish" or " greenish/' 
" with four rows of black spots," is exactly equivalent to 
describing the imago as " green, with red spots," or a 
Smerintlins caterpillar as " green, with stripes on his 
side, and a horn on his tail." I have found these spots 
on the larva3 vary in the different forms or species in 
size and shape, although the following remark will apply 
to the caterpillars equally with the imagines, viz., that 
the general type only can be described — aberrant ex- 
amples will he found in ivliich all the characteristics of 
some other type are frilly developed, but such aberrancy 
seems confined to the then stage of the insect's existence ; 
for instance, that if in a number of Lonicerce caterpillars 
we find one quite unlike the rest, and exactly resembling 
a Trifolii caterpillar, such caterpillar will not be a Trifolii 
caterpillar accidentally in company with Lonicerce, but 
will be a Lonicerce caterpillar that from some vnhioivn cause 
has assumed the marhings of Trfolii, and the moth pro- 
duced from such caterpillar will be a typical Lonicerce. 
Conversely, often when catching Trifolii, say we imagine 
we have come across a solitary example of Lonicerce. In 
most cases, such supposed Lonicerce is only Trifolii imago 
having assumed the characteristics of Lonicerce, and, in 
all probability, produced from a typical Trfolii cater- 
pillar. I have several times personally met with examples 
of this singular fact, which, if further substantiated, will 
go far to explain what many authors have remarked, the 
occasional turning up of one species in the locality of 
another. In short, that mimicry is common throughout 
the genus. 

I now proceed to differentiate my two supposed species 
— comparing them with Filipendulce and Lonicerce. 

(1.) Zygcena Filipendulce. 

Imago. Too well known for description. Antennse 
mediate in thickness between Lonicerce and the two forms 
of Trfolii, those of the ^ much thicker than those of 
the ? ; a veiy narrow black border to hind-wings in 
both sexes. 

Larva. Full description set out in the appendix to 
this paper. 

Zygcvna Trifolii. 421 

Ohs. The caterpillar varies much in difFereut indivi- 
duals, as subsequently mentioned, but apparently within 
a given range of variation : in some thousands I have 
minutely examined, I have never seen the spots in the 
shape of those of Lonicerce as described. 

(2.) Zygoina Lonicerce. 

Imago. Nearly if not quite of the same size as Z. Fill' 
2)end'u]cv. Central red spots of fore-wings nearly always 
disunited (this seems a constant character in tliis species, 
while in Trifolii it is its most variable) ; hind-wings paler 
and more pinky-red than in any other English five- 
spotted species. The antennae are much slenderer than 
those of the other species, and considerably longer than 
in Trifolii (either form), those of the c? being, as usual, 
much thicker than those of the ? ; this character 
cannot fail to distinguish it at once from either form of 
Trifolii, care being tal'en to compare the same sex; the 
difference in the thickness of the antennae between a 
<S Lonicerce and a c? of either form of Trifolii is very 
striking, but that between a S Lonicerce and a ? Trifolii 
very small. Neglect of this common precaution has 
aided the present confusion. 

Black border to hind-wings not very broad, broader in 
the S than in the $ ; in typical specimens much sinuate 
on the inner margin. 

Larva. Fully described in the appendix as Zygcena, 
No. 2. The leading characteristics which differentiate 
it from other species are — the long hairs, greener ground 
colour, more conspicuous oi'ange spot, and different 
shape of the black spots as set out in the description. 

Time of appearance of perfect insect same as Fili^en- 

Locality. Hillsides; common; often in pai*ks where 
fern grows. Never to my knoivledge in marshy places. 

(3.) Zygcena 

(Hereinafter called 'the late Trifolii.') 

Imago. Expans. alar. 1' 2" to 1' 5". Antenna3 much 
thicker and shorter than in FiUpendulce or Lonicerce, 
those of the ^ being ncuch thicker than those of the ? . 

422 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

In typical specimens the fore- wings are of a very brilliant 
green ^ with the red spots large, and generally with the 
central pair more or less united, especially in the c?. 
In the male all the spots often coalesce and form one 
band, but this rarely occurs in the ? . Hind-wings 
bright deep red, with a broad black border, slightly 
sinuate on the inner margin ; the border is broader 
in the i^ than in the ? . 

Larva fully described in the appendix to this paper as 
Zygcena, 'No. 1 {Trifolii) . 

The insect is found in marshy places ; the caterpillar 
feeds on the large sort of Trefoil that grows among the 
rushes, often attaining the height of a foot, or more. 
The insect is exceedingly local, generally being confined 
to one little spot only. 

Time of appearance of perfect insect varies from 
the second week in June to the second week in July, 
according to the season, hut always about one month later 
than the next described species ; it appears at the same 
time as Filipenduloe. 

I have never yet found this insect in company with 
Z. FiUpendulce ; it is apparently rarer than the next species. 
In most collections I have found the males of this species 
classed as curious varieties of Trifolii, or as LoniceroR 
with the spots confluent ; the females I have found nearly 
always classed as typical Lonicerce. 

It is distinguished from Trifolii usually so-called (the 
next species), by its size, its larva, its locality, its food 
plant, and especially by its time of appearance. 

(4.) Zygcena Trifolii. 

(The small form, hereinafter called ' the early Trifolii.') 

This is the insect usually known as Trifolii ; expans. 
alar. V 2" to V 3". Antennae almost as thick as in the 
last species. Head much more densely clothed with hairs. 
In typical specimens the fore-wings are of a darker green 
than in any other species, with the central spots small 
and disunited, but in some colonies the confluent spots 
are of common occurrence. Hind- wings dark red, in 
some specimens quite crimson, with a much broader black 
border than in any other British species ; with a tendency 
to no sinuation on the inner margin, but to a uniform 
breadth throughout. 

Zygiena TrifoUL 423 

Larva. I cannot say that I have yet hred the insect, 
but I subsequently adduce the evidence of others on the 

This insect is found in dry-places,^ and is widely dis- 
tributed, especially on the sea-coast. 

Time of appearance of imago, from second week in 
May to second week in June, always about one month 
earlier than the last species. 

I have nearly always found this insect in company with 
Z. Filipendulce. 

The knowledge of the existence of these two forms of 
Trifolii, as forms, is no novelty either to our English or 
Continental authors, and varieties of them, not the types, 
were described as species by the late Mr. Stephens ; the 
confusion in the synonymy almost baffles elucidation, and 
is by no means the least intricate problem in the genus. 

Fabricius in his ^Entomologia Systematica (1793) gives 
only one 5-spotted species, viz. : — 


Sphinx Loti, W. V. 
8p)hinx Lonlceroi, Esper. 

And he observes concerning it — 

" Habitat in Loto coniiculato, nimis affinis Z. Filipen- 
dulcB." As Fabricius only knew one 5-spotted species, the 
expression nimis afmis cannot be read in the same way as 
if he had our present knowledge; the most aberrant five- 
spot, to us, would probably have been niniis ajfinis to 
Fabricius. So, in fact, it is impossible to say which insect 
the Loti, Fab. was ; the probability is in favour of the 
Lonicerce of the present day. 

Haworth, following Fabricius, gives only Zygcena Loti, 
also adding '' habitat in Loto corniculato ; " evidently 
supposing his Loti to be the Loti of Fabricius ; but the 
following remark occurs in a note to Humphreys and 
Westwood's " British Moths, and their transformations.^^ 

* I do not say that the early Trifolii is exchisively confiuecl to dry 
places ; as FiJipendulm is often found in marshes, this species ought also, 
but I have never found it in marshes. — T. H. B. 

424 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

" Mr. Stephens refers the Z. Loti, of Hawortli, to the pre- 
ceding species {Loti, H. & W., Loniceroi, Hiib.), but 
having received^ however, from Mr. Haworth specimens 
of his L. Loti, I am enabled to state that they are iden- 
tical with the Trifolii of Stephens." 

Hiibner figures — 

On p. 2, fig. 7, Lonicerce, ? ; pi. 5-32, Loti, 5 , a six- 
spotted species; pi. 17-79, Trifolii, ? ; pi. 82, Loti, S , a 
small 5-spotted species, apparently Trifolii of the present 
day ; pi. 29- 133, Orohi, Trifolii with central spots disunited ; 
pi. 134 and 135, Trifolii, males of Trifolii with central 
spots more or less confluent ; pi. 35-160, Lonicerce., ^ . 

His figure of the caterpillar of Lonicerce, together with 
those of the moths, are very good representations of the 
Loyiicerce of the present day. His caterpillar of Loti is 
unlike any I have ever seen, perhaps it is the larva of the 
6-spotted species. 

Boisduval, in 1829, published a most elaborate and 
valuable monograph of the genus, and in his section of 
the genus with " cinq taches plus ou moins arrondies/' 
the following species are included. 

A. Ailes un pen transparentes. 

Corsica, Meliloti, Exulans, Cynarae^ Achillese, 
Janthina, Concinna. 

B. Ailes d'un bleu fence. 

Lonicerae, Trifolii. 

I need only mention two insects in the first section, 
Achillece yv'\\h. the fifth spot securiform (because Loti, Fab., 
is given as a synonym) and Meliloti, the origin of further 

Meliloti, Z. Meliloti, Ochs. 

Sphinx Loti (mas.), Hiibner. 
Meliloti, Esper. 

This insect has the wings most decidedly semi-trans- 
parent, nearly as much so as Z. Minos, and has not yet 
occurred here. 

Zygcena Trifolii. 425 

In the sub-section '' Ailes d'un bleu fonce/' the two 
species are thus difl'erentiated : — 

Trifolii (no synonym of Loti or Lonicerce attached) . 
Trifolii, Ochs.j Esper., Hiib., Borkh. 

M. Boisduval says of the caterpillar, " on reraarque 
en outre sous le ventre un petit point noir sur cliaque 
anneau," a character I have never seen in the larva of 
the late Trifolii, but under the name Trifolii, so far as I 
can comprehend, M. Boisduval comprised all the forms 
or varieties of Trifolii. * 

LoNiCERiE thus stands. L. Lonicerce, Ochs., Esper, 

Z. Loti, Fab. {Loti, Fab., as I have before mentioned, 
Boisduval also gives as a synonym of xichillcce) . 

M, Boisduval^s remarks, "EUe est de la taille de la fili- 
pendula3 avec laquelle elle a etc quelques fois confondue. 
La varietu a taches reunies en une seule bande irreguliere 
est assez rare;" and of the caterpillar, " On remarque 
sur chaque anneau un point jaiine place entre les deux 
bandes ;" and also its " apple-green" colour, sufficiently 
serve to identify the insect with the LonicercB of our 
present lists. 

From this time the Continental authors seem only to 
have allowed these two species, but our English authors 
did not accept this view. 

Stephens, in his illustrations, gives three 5-spotted 
species, viz. : — Meliloti, Ochs. ; Trifolii, Esper. ; and Loti, 

In describing Meliloti, he agrees with Boisduval's de- 
scription of the continental Meliloti, and his own insects 
in the British Museum do not agree with his description 
as regards the semi-transparency of the wings. Stephens' 
specimens of Meliloti in the British Museum are small, 
not typical specimens of the late Trifolii of the present 

O^ Trifolii, Mr. Stephens observes, ''alar, expans. 11"- 
1' 2"-r 3". Found abundantly in many parts of the 

* M. Boisduval observes, however, that Trifolii appears some time before 
PilipendiiZcB, whereas the late Trj/c/iu appears at the same time. — T. H. B-. 

426 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

country, at the end of May and beginning of June. It has 
generally been considered the Loti of Fabr., but that in- 
sect is considerably larger and is subsequently noticed. 
Caterpillar dusky yellow, with four rows of black spots, 
tvvo on the back, and two on each side; feeds on trefoil. ^^ 
I have examined these specimens in the British Museum, 
and they are the small early Trifolii of the present paper. 

Of Loti, Mr, Stephens says, '' Considerably larger than 
the foregoing, which it greatly resembles. Caterpillar 
pale green, with a row of black spots on the back, and 
one on each side ; the latter in the females with a bright 
yellow streak beneath.^' These specimens in the British 
Museum are small specimens of the LonicercB of the pre- 
sent day. 

Mr. Stephens' three species will therefore be as follows — 
Meliloti, Ste. = Small specimens of the late Trifolii. 
Trifolii, Ste. = Early Trifolii. 
Loti, Ste. = Lonicerce. 

Stephens' opinion is followed by Prof. Westwood in 
his " Brit. Moths, and their transformations/' where the 
three species are thus set out : — 

A. Loti. 

Loti, Fab., Don., Steph., Wood, Duncan, not Sphinx 

Loti of Hiibner and Esper. 
Lonicerce, Esper. 

A. Tkipolii. 

Trifolii, Esper, Stephens, Wood. 

Z. Loti, Haw. 

8. Lonicerce, (?) Esper. 

A. Meliloti. 

Meliloti, Esper, Och., Steph., Wood. 
8phinx Loti, Hiibner. 

The observations attached to ' Loti,' or Lonicerce as it 
is now called, '' here again varieties occur, in which the 
spots are more or less confluent;" and "Mr. Curtis 
states, that it is common in marshy places, at the beginning 
of May, and the beginning- and end of June," must be 
attributed to some other species. 

Zycjcena TrifoUL 


Mr. Humphreys expresses an opinion in Westwood 
and Humphreys' "British Moths, and their ti'ansforma- 
tions," that all the five s})ots " constitute but one species ; " 
and adds, " I have not figured the larva of A. Loti, as I 
cannot but suspect that there has been some mistake 
respecting it ; for while the species in its perfect state is 
so very similar to A. FiUpendulce, the caterpillar is 
represented as totally difterent, not only in colour, but 
also in shape, being what is termed onisciform." 

Hilbner, from whom Mr. Humphreys copied, repre- 
sents A. FiJii>enduIce larva as stretched out feeding, A. 
Loti larva as in repose; and it is only in repose that 
these larvas assume an onisciform appearance, so that 
portion of the difficulty is soon explained; as to the 
colour, Mr. Humphreys has erroneously considered Ms 
loti and Hiibner's as identical. Hiibner's loti, ? , as 
before stated, being a 6-spotted species, and his loti, c^, 
is given in the very work that Mr. Humphreys intro- 
duces this observation into as a synonym of A. Meliloti! ! 

In a note to the first edition of the same work, Mr. 
Bree observes, "The two species {Filipendulce and Loti) 
occur in this neighbourhood (near CoA^entry), but in 
different localities, Loti being found in heathy bogs, Fili- 
pendulce in low meadows and grassy woods. Occasion- 
ally I have met with specimens of each in the locality of 
the other, but this was not usual, which tended to con- 
vince me, amongst other circumstances, that they were 
distinct species I have often seen the cater- 

NoTE. In the National Collection in the British Museum, only 'Tri- 
folii ' and ' Lonicerce ' are recognized. 

Trifolii comprises : — Loniceras comi^rises : — 

(1.) Trifolii, Esper. 

(2.) Meliloti, Ste.,la,te Trifolii; 
specimens with spots not confluent. 

(3.) A fine series of typical spe- 
cimens of the marsh, or late Trifolii 
of this i^aper, queried as Trifolii. 

(4.) Three abnormal varieties of 
the late Trifolii (?). 

(5.) The early Trifolii of this 
paper, but not typical specimens. 

(6.) Typical specimens of the 
early Trifolii, labelled ' Orohi,' Hiib. 

(1.) Lonicerce, Esper. 

(2.) Loniceras, Hiibner ; both 
typical Lonicerce. 

(3.) Loti, Ste. ; small specimens 
of Lonicerce. 

In no one specimen of Lonicerce 
in the Brit. Mus. are the central 
red spots of the fore- wing confluent. 
T. H. B. 

428 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

pillars of each, and though I have never compared them 
side by side, yet I can safely say there is no very obvious 
difference between them." The Loti here mentioned as 
inhabiting heathy bogs was probably not Loti, Humphrey 
& West. {Lordcerce) , which, so far as my experience goes, 
does not inhabit marshes, but the large late TrifolU of the 
present paper. 

Now if, in all these works, all the scientific names ivere 
omitted, I think any one carefully reading the facts 
recorded, would come to the conclusion that, at least, 
three species or forms were included in the descriptions, 
even when only professing to describe two. All the 
authors (since Hiibner) recognise by " Trifolii" a small 
Zyycena occurring in May and- June, with a broad black 
border to the hind-wings. If, then, dismissing Trifolii 
from our minds, we compare the descriptions of Loti or 
Lonicerce, by which name authors seem to have meant, 
pretty unanimously, a larger insect than Trifolii occurring 
later in the year, we find decided contradictory evidence. 

Described as '' habitat in Loto corniculato," true of 
Loniceroi, but not of the marsh insect, Boisduvars descrip- 
tion of the caterpillar being quite at variance with that 
of the marsh, or late TrifolU, the confluency of the spots 
as "assez rare," and ''of common occurrence," described 
as "found in marshy places," where Lonicerce does not 
occur, all which to my mind points to the conclusion, 
that Loti or Lonicera; often included, beside itself, a large 
species of h- spotted Zygrena inhabiting marshy places ; but 
that often this large species, if small or not typical speci- 
mens, got included with Trifolii the early species. 

The publication of Mr. Stainton^s Manual, produced a 
change. Mr. Stainton following the continental authors, 
only allows two species, Trifolii and Lonicerce, for the first 
time so-called in this country ; the points of difference 
Mr. Stainton relies on, are, in Trifolii, the central pair 
of red spots large and generally united; in Lonicerce, 
small and never united, and the thicker antennte, and 
broader black border to the hind-wings in Trifolii. This 
opinion was neai'ly universally accepted ; a Zygcena always 
approximated to one or the other, and was classed ac- 
cordingly ; but I have found out two points from inspec- 
tion of a great many cabinets ; first — the type of the small 

Zygcena TrifoUi. 429 

early male TrifoUi with the broadest black band of any, 
but the central red spots small and seldom united, wa3 
regarded as an aberrant variety — while the female of the 
marsh form with antennae just as slender as a (J Lonicerce, 
and an equally narrow black border, has been nearly in- 
variably classed as Lonicero} (I am only speaking of ordi- 
nary collectors) . Very shortly after the publication of the 
part of Stainton's Manual, comprising the Zygoince, Mr. 
Newman expressed his dissatisfaction . Speaking of the in- 
sects and the authors, he says (Intelligencer, vol. 1, p. 180) 
that he cannot understand them, the them being equally 
applicable to either or both, the insects or the authors. 

In Doubleday^s list (2nd edition) Lonicerce. and TrifoUi 
are the only two 5-spotted species, and their synonymy 
is extremely scanty, TrifoUi being given as TrifoUi, Es- 
per, and Loti, Haw., and Lonicerce as Lonicerce, Esper 
(Fabricius, Hubner, Stephens, or Westwood not being 
mentioned). In his recent list, Staudinger follows the 
same arrangement, but he apparently separates the types 
of the early TrifoUi under one of the following varieties. 

B. Var. Orohi, mac. mediis separatis. 

C. Var. Syracusia, minor, al. ant. maculis parvis dis- 

junctis, post, margine lato nigro. 

On June 16th, 1864, 1 found Z. TrifoUi in abundance in 
some rough dry fields, abounding in Lotus corniculatus, 
bordering on Barnwell Wold, Northamptonshire; the 
insects were very much worn, of a very small form, in 
fact, types of the '^ early" TrifoUi; FiUpendulce, which 
also occurs there, was just coming out. The TrifoUi 
were so worn, I could catch but few worth keeping. 

On the 27th of tbe some month, in the same year, 
I found the large late TrifoUi just coming out in a 
marshy spot in Tilgate Forest. I also got many 
pupae. The insects were so much larger, and so different 
in appearance from the Barnwell Wold specimens, and 
the fact of the same species being so much later in a 
much more southern and less exposed locality, and the 
thickness of the antennas in each, and the generally con- 
fluent central spots in the Tilgate insect, precluding the 
possibility of referring either to Lonicerce, I was at once 
struck ■vsnth the impression that they were not one and 
the same species (I had never taken TrifoUi before this 
year) . FiUpendulce does not occur here. 

43(^ Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

In the summer of 1866, I heard that TrifoUi occurred 
in Stowe Wood near Oxford, and I found a marshy place 
exactly similar to the spot in Tilgate Forest; here, on 
the 17th May, with the aid of M. Dembski, I found a few 
very young larvae of a species of Zycjmna, feeding on the 
lai'ge species of Trifolium I have before mentioned, 
amongst the rushes ; when they were larger I described 
them (see Appendix, No. 1) . 

I then wrote at once to Mr. Whall at Thurning, close 
to Barnwell Wold, begging if it were possible, for some 
larvas of the small early TrifoUi found there. One cater- 
pillar of a Zygcena was all that could be found ; Mr. Whall 
stating that the caterpillars were nearly all spun up {Ohs. — 
The Stowe Wood larvas were quite young) . This cater- 
pillar was quite different in its markings from the Stowe 
Wood larvae, as will be seen by comparing its description 
(Appendix, 'No. 3) . As Filipendulce also occurs here, it 
is just possihle that it might have been a variety of that 
insect, but it agreed with Mr. Hellins^ description of Tri- 
foUi (Ent. Mo. Mag. iii. p. 118) in the peculiar shape of the 
dorsal hlach spots ; Mr. Hellius especially mentions the 
x -like dorsal black spots. I have spoken of the dorsal 
line, i. e., the ground-colour, as consisting of a row of 
transverse lozenge- shaped spots, this is the same peculiarity 
differently expressed. I determined to write to Mr. 
Hellins as soon as convenient, asking if his TrifoUi came 
from a dry or moist locality — I anticipated the answer, 
dry. This caterpillar unfortunately died. 

Before this larva died, I wrote to J. H. Wood, Esq., of 
Tarrington, in Herefordshire, who had informed me that 
TrifoUi and Lonicerce both occurred in that neighbour- 
hood. He wrote me at once, stating that he was unsuc- 
cessful in finding me any TrifoUi larvas, but sent six 
Lonicerce larvae feeding on Lotus corniculatus ; these are 
the larvfB described in the appendix to this paper as 
Zygcena, No. 2. I then wrote to Folkestone for larvas of 
Filipendulce, which duly arrived ; thus at the same time 
I had four distinct varieties of Zygcena larvte, Filipendulce, 
LonicercB, and the late marsh TrifoUi, all of which I bred, 
and the supposed early TrifoUi which died, but whose 
peculiar characteristics, so different from the late TrifoUi, 
is corroborated by Mr. Hellins, as before mentioned. I 
took all the larvae to Professor Westwood, who himself 
enlarged, and closely corrected the appended descriptions. 

Zygcena Trifolii. 431 

On the 13th of June this same year (1866), I went to 
the marshy place in Tilgate Forest, before mentioned, in 
search for larvae, hoping, of course, to find them identical 
in their markings with the Stowe Wood caterpillar. I 
found some Zycja^na larvae there in tolerable abundance, 
feeding on the same plants as in Stowe Wood Marsh ; 
their marhings, to the minutest particular, toere identical 
with the Stoive Wood caterpillars, the same slight range 
of variation, and no more. These larvje afterwards, in the 
first week in July, produced the late Trifolii I had found 
there in 1864, and at the same time the Stowe Marsh 
caterpillars began to come out, and produced the late 
Trifolii, exactly identical with those of Tilgate Forest. 
Here, then, were two colonies, one in Northamptonshire, 
one in Sussex, traced from larva to imago, and exactly 
agreeing in every point, including time of appearance. 
On the 3rd of July, while these insects from Tilgate and 
Stowe Wood were just beginning to come out, I visited 
Barnwell Wold, a locality intermediate in geographical 
position, and, as I expected, the early Trifolii was over ; 
I caught five only, very worn; I was told it had been 

I had been also informed of another locality near 
Oxford, where Trifolii occurred, viz., the dry slopes of 
Shotover Hill; in 1*867, M. Dembski sent me two Zygcena 
larvae found there : these larvae had all the characteristics 
of the Barnwell Wold caterpillar, to wit, the tendency 
to the confluency of the dorsal spots, and the tendency 
to the X -like shape, which I have never seen in the late 
Trifolii; to breed one of these was the only link I now 
wanted, and at a consultation held with Professor West- 
wood, it was determined to put one into whiskey and 
water, and breed the other ; tlie weakest looking was 
accordingly consigned to the bottle, and two days after- 
wards the other on which I rested my hopes, produced 
an abundant crop of Ichneumons. 

In 1870, on June 17th, the late Trifolii was not out in 
Tilgate Forest ; on June 18th, I found the early Trifolii at 
Folkestone over, I caught a few worn specimens only. 
I had written a few days previously to Mr. Hellins, asking 
him the nature of the locality of the caterpillars described 
by him in *Ent. Mo. Mag. iii. p. 118,' and also sending 
him some larvae, of the late Trifolii, from Stowe Wood, 
Mr. Hellins kindly answered my letter at once, and said. 

432 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

" I have compared the larva you sent me with Mr. 
Buckler's figures, and find it more nearly resembles Fili- 
pendidce than Trifolii, both species appear to vary much 
in the larva state. ... I imagine the Trifolii spoken of 
by me (Ent. Mo. Mag. iii., p. 118)) were the ordinary sea- 
side fellows, feeding on Birds foot Trefoil. ... I see Mr. 
Buckler's figures decidedly gave the long hairs you now 
mention to Lonicerce." 

The caterpillar of the early Trifolii seems very hard to 
find, possibly from the fact that where the insect occurs, 
its food plant is always in such abundance ; the food 
plant of the marsh, or late Trifolii is often limited in its 
range, and the larva consequently easily found ; all my 
endeavours to get caterpillars of the early Trifolii were 
fruitless. Dr. Wood, however, sent me from Tarrington 
five larvee of, as he considered, Lonicerce, stating that 
they came from a different locality from the former Loni- 
cercB, about eight miles distant from it ; they were found 
on a dry hank. These larva3 I considered to be the early 
Trifolii, hut they possessed the " conspicuous yellow spot" 
so many authors have observed in Lonicerce (the long 
hairs, the greenish ground colour, and the little tail to the 
posterior lateral spot, observed both by Mr. Buckler and 
myself were all ahsent) ; the lateral row of spots were 
nearly confluent, dorsal spots as large as in Filipenduloe., 
dorsal line narrow in all; the minute black spot below 
the second lateral spot present in one individual, and in 
another individual there was a strong tendency to the x - 
like spots, but the spots were oxAj 'iiearly confluent; they 
nearly approximated to some of the varieties of Z. Fili- 
penduloi, except in the much clearer and paler ground 
colour. In short, they united certain characteristics of 
the caterpillar of the early Trifolii with that of Lonicerce ; 
the characteristics of the larva of the late Trifolii were 
altogether absent. I only bred one, a ^ , which, on June 
20, produced an i\ndoubted Z. Lonicero", as evidenced by 
the structure of the antennee, but there was a slight 
tendency to a confluency of the red spots of the fore- 
wing — a character of the marsh Trifolii. I purpose to 
investigate this colony further, as the result is eminently 
unsatisfactory. Mr. Buckler has published descriptions 
of two varieties oi Lonicerce larvae (Ent. Mo. Mag. iv. 253), 
but both comprise the salient points of difference, that 
Lonicerce ought to possess; particular mention is made in 

Zijgwna Trifolii. 433 

the first, of the greenish ground colour, and the orange 
spot, but no mention of the "little tail;" but in a draw- 
ing Mr. Buckler has kindly sent me of a segment of one 
of the variety found feeding on Lathy r us pratrnsis, this 
little tail is accurately delineated. Mr. Buckler has 
kindly given me all the information in his power, and 
has sent me diagrams of the 6th segment in Trifolii, Loni- 
cerce, and FiUpendulce ; this diagram of Trifolii differs 
from my marsh Trifolii altogether, having the lateral 
spots united below, and the tendency to the x -shaped 
dorsal spots. 

Now then, to sum up. Of the 5-spotted species in 
the images, we have Loniccrce distinguished by its slender 
antennae ; a Zygcena equally as large as Lonicerce, appear- 
ing about the same time, found in marshes ; and a Zy- 
gcena found in dry places, appearing a month before the 
marsh one, and usually known as Trifolii. 

I have found no intermediate time of appearance, in 
the four colonies I have especially observed ; in Hunting- 
donshire, Oxfordshire, Sussex, and Kent, the early Tri- 
folii in the most northern and most southern locality, 
has appeared simultaneously; and also the late jfr/yb/n 
in the two intermediate localities, the early Trifolii always 
about one month before the other, and this invariably 
the case in the course of eight years' observation of the 
colonies. Is not this fact alone opposed to the supposi- 
tion of their being simply " forms" of each other ? 

As regards the catei'pi liars, the salient points of differ- 
ence in Lonicerce have been observed by Boisduval, and 
seem to be the same now as the " point jaune'' is dis- 
tinctly observed by Mr, Buckler and myself. 

Of the two Trifolii — one has the spots very small, and 
never * any tendency to the x -like spots, and never has 
the lateral spots united ; the other has the spots invariably 
larger, lateral spots nearly united, and a more or less 
tendency to confluency in the dorsal spots, and the as- 
sumption of the X -like form. I have not seen any 
intermediate form of caterpillar in Trifolii, there is a gap, 
but FiUpendulce larva has a range of variation extending 

* During the period 1864-1871, I have examined some hundreds. — 

^ T. H. B. 


434 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

nearly over hoth these forms of Trifolii, and FUipendulce 
larva seems to be a connecting link hetiveen the ttvo Trifolii. 
But throughout all the caterpillars of FUipendulce-, Loni- 
cerce, the early and the late Trifolii, the differences relied 
on as determinant, exist in a rvidimentary form in the rest. 
The conspicuous orange spot in Lonicene, is more faintly 
to be traced in the rest; the Mittle taiP in the same 
insect, often appears in Filipenchdce and in the early Tri- 
folii, as a "minute black spot below the second of the 
two lateral spots/' and the x -like spots themselves are 
only the smaller spots magnified and developed into a 
certain shape. All the caterpillars may he described as 
yellowish- green or greenish-yellow , with tivo dorsal rows of 
hlach spots, larger or smaller, pointed or rounded, confluent 
or separate, and a lateral roiv on each side more or less con- 
fluent, and a more or less apparent dusJcy line above the 

I have not said anything about the cocoons, as they are 
all similar; a Lonicerce, however, bred in 1866, spun a 
cocoon which presented a reticidate appearance. The 
one I bred this year did the same, others that spun up, 
however, did not, so I suspect this coincidence was ac- 

Now, if we find this constancy of variation and deve- 
lopment and time of appearance, although there are no 
pi'imary distinctive differences ranging through these four 
forms, are we to regard them as species or forms or what ? 
Do other forms, perhaps intermediate, exist ? Will not a 
further examination of the general type of other colonies 
show ? I do not anticipate much trouble about the mimics 
and the hybrids, they are exceptions, and only trouble- 
some so far as regards the particular specimen in question. 
A colony cannot be a colony of hybrids, or a colony of 
iinimics ; either they are forms or species, and surely this 
is capable of elucidation. One word as to the hybrids 
and mimics ; a hybrid usually (if it be a hybrid) shows 
signs of degeneration, which might occur throughout a 
brood; mimiciy would be peculiar to the individual. 

This year on the 16th June at Folkestone, Filipendidce 
larvae swarmed in the warren, but no moths could I find ; 
on Castle Hill the moths were out, but they were very 
small, and with a tendency to the obliteration of the sixth 
spot ; antennge shorter than usual ; one specimen, a $ , 

Zygcena TrifoUi. 435 

is of the size, contour, and has the broad black border to 
the hind-wings, of the early TrifoUi found at Folkestone 
(which ivas out) . Surely these were Hybrids ? 

I possess a hred late TrifoUi ( S) that has assumed the 
more slender antonnfe of Lonicerce; also a bred Lonicerce 
( c? ) that has much shorter antennas than usual, approach- 
ing to TrifoUi. These two bred specimens are hard to 
distinguish when placed together. 

I also possess a remarkably large female Zygcena with 
Jive spots on the upper surface of the fore-wings, and six 
beneath ; I caught it by itself, so cannot decide if it is a 
FiUpendulce mimicing the late TrifoUi, or vice versa ; it 
has none of the appearances of a hybrid. 

This season has been a bad one for TrifoUi, but I shall 
hope next year to be able to elucidate some further facts 
connected with the history of these troublesome little 

Larvae of the genus Zygjena. 

Generic characteristics. Legs sixteen; head very 
smaU; larva short and fat, and sluggish; when in repose 
assumes an onisciform appearance, but not .so when 
stretched out feeding. 

Larva of Z. FiUpendvIce (full fed). 

Body with whitish hairs scattered over it, but with a 
few black hairs on the back ; hairs short, head and fore- 
legs black ; head with transverse upper lip, and the 
membrane at the base of the antennas white ; ground 
colour greenish-yellow, arranged in a dorsal line, and 
two lines on each side ; dorsal line with a brighter 
yellow spot in the fold formed by the hind-margin of 

Note. I observed the food plant of the late TrifoUi last year, in a 
marshy place on Wimbledon Common, but could find no lai-va. This 
season I have received information of the capture of a few very large 
TrifoUi in July, just in one spot only in the marsh, where I saw the food 

H n 2 

436 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

each segment, the dorsal line becomes much narrower in 
the anterior segments. On each side of the dorsal line 
a row of large black spots, two on each segment, of 
which the anterior is the larger, with the inner posterior 
angle emarginate, and rounded on the side next the 
head ; the posterior spot is narrow, and curved on the 
inner margin. In the segments immediately following 
the head, the anterior margin is narrowly blackish, often 
only partially margined with black, with the dorsal spots 
confluent, the anterior being greatly reduced in size ; 
below which row of spots, a pale latei'al line, with a 
bright yellow spot in the fold formed by the hind margin 
of each segment; below which line another row of black 
spots, two on each segment, of which the posterior spot 
on each segment is nearly spherical, and the anterior 
larger, and curved backwards, so as to terminate below 
the spherical spot, but sometimes uniting with it in the 
posterior segments ; it (the anterior spot) also bears the 
black spiracles ; the lower portion of this curved spot in 
which the spiracles are placed is often separated from 
the rest, as in Zygcena, No. 1 [Trifolii) ; a minute black 
spot is often placed below the posterior of these two 
spots, but this minute spot is as often obsolete. Then 
follows another pale lateral line ; and between this line 
and the feet is a curved blackish mark on each segment, 
bearing a pale transverse lunule in its lower portion ; a 
slight dusky line at the base of the feet ; pro-legs and 
underside pale, with an interrupted dusky line (occasion- 
ally almost obsolete) down the middle of the belly. 

Feeds on Trefoil, &c. Described June, 1866, from 
larvas taken at Folkestone. 

The larva has a great range of variation ; its limit 
towards the confluence of the black spots is complete 
confluency ; the angles become developed, and assume 
the X -like appearance of the early Trifolii, but the 
ground-colour always more dusky, but the usual type is 
as described. 

The limit the other way towards the ohliteration of the 
black spots is seldom beyond that in the above descrip- 
tion, the limit is attained before the range of variation 
of the marsh species begins. In some thousands, I have 
never seen one with the spots so small, and consequently 
the dorsal line so broad as in the late Trifolii ; and I 
have before remarked, that I have never seen the spots 
in the shape of those of Lonicene, as described. 

Zygcena TrifoUi. 437 

Larva of Zygcvna, No. 1 (late TrifoUi) . 

Body with short white hairs scattered over it^ with 
very few black hairs mixed with the white on the back. 
Head and fore-legs black ; head with transverse upper- 
lip and membrane at base of antennee, white ; ground- 
colour pale yellowish, arranged in five lines, one dorsal 
and two lateral on each side ; dorsal line broad, yellower 
in the fold formed by the hind margin of each segment; 
on each side of the dorsal line, a row of black spots, two 
on each segment, of which the anterior spot is the larger, 
somewhat semicircular, with the flat side turned towards 
the anus, but coming to a point on the back ; posterior 
spot narrow, curved on the anterior margin, approaching 
in shape to a lunule ; in the segment immediately follow- 
ing the head, the dorsal spots are confluent, the anterior 
being greatly reduced in size, the anterior margin of 
this segment is jjar^m//?/ margined with blackish, leaving 
the middle portion of the yellowish ground-colour, below 
which row of spots, a broad pale yellowish line with a 
yellow spot in the fold, formed by the hind margin of 
each segment, but this spot is not very conspicuous, 
below which line another row of black spots on each side, 
two on each segment, of which the anterior is larger and 
curved backwards, and bears the black spiracles, but 
very often the lower portion of this spot which bears the 
black spiracles, is separated from the rest, and sometimes 
d^vindles down to a mere dot. No minute black spot 
below the smaller of the two lateral spots, as is often the 
case in FHipendulce ; below which row of spots is the 
lower lateral line, and below this line and the feet is a 
row of dusky spots bearing a pale transverse lunule in 
the lower portion of each, but which lunule is sometimes 
absent, or nearly so ; a dusky, very narrow streak at the 
base of the feet ; pro-legs and underside yellowish, with 
a dusky interrupted line down the middle of the belly. 
Feeds on the large Trefoil found in marshes (and on that 
plant only) . 

Described June, 18G6, from larvas found in marshy 
ground in Stowe Wood; confirmed by others found in 
Tilgate Forest in a similar locality, and since confirmed 
by examination from year to year. 

Take a Filipendulce larva, give it a much clearer and 
cleaner ground-colour, diminish its spots helow the limit 

438 Mr. T. H. Briggs on 

of smaller spots in FiUpendulce, so as to make all the lines 
broader, and you will have a specimen of this caterpillar. 

As the variation in Filipenduhe tends towards con- 
fluence, the variation here is towards obliteration ; but the 
caterpillar is very constant, its range of variation very 
small, as the limit towards magnitude of the spots in this 
species is attained before the limit of FiUpendulce towards 
obliteration commences ; it follows, as a matter of course, 
that I have never seen any tendency towards the x -like 
dorsal markings, or ever seen the lateral spots united.* 

Larva of Zygcena, No. 2 {Lonicerce) . 

Body .with long white hairs scattered over it, with some 
black hairs mixed with the white on the back, hairs 
much longer and more dense than in the other species ; 
head and fore-legs black, head with transverse upper-lip, 
membrane at base of antennee, and articulations of lower 
organs of the mouth, white ; ground-colour arranged in 
five lines, one dorsal and two lateral on either side ; very 
pale yellowish tinged with green, sometimes quite gi'een ; 
dorsal line slightly yellowish in the fold formed by the 
hind margin of each segment, and rather narrow, not 
being nearly as broad as in the last species (the late 
Trifolii) ; on each side of the dorsal line a row of large 
black spots, two on each segment which almost meet, 
and in some cases are confluent ; the anterior is slightly 
the larger, but there is very little difference in size, both 
being somewhat pear-shaped ; the anterior with the 
larger portion below, the posterior with the larger portion 
above, leaving a small pale angulate space in the middle 
of the back of each segment; below which row of spots a 
narrow pale line with a very conspicuous bright yellow spot 
in the fold formed by the hind margin of each segment, 
below which line another row of black spots on each side, 
two on each segment, united in their lower extremities. 

* FiUpendulce. is widely distributed, and its larva feeds on many plants ; 
the larva is very variable. Zygcena (No. 1) is very local, and its larva 
feeds, so far as I know, on one plant only ; its larva is very constant. 
Are these facts coincidental or explanatory ? I forgot to observe, as a 
further proof of distinctness between this species and the early Trifolii, 
that some lai-va I tried to feed on Birds'-foot Trefoil, wasted away, and 
died.—T. H. B. 

Zygcena TrifoUi. 439 

in which is placed the black spiracles, the posterior spot 
emitting a small transverse spot toivards the pro-legs (the 
* little taiP of Mr. Buckler); below which the lower 
narrow lateral line, below which a row of dusky patches 
of a lunate form, sometimes bearing a small transverse 
lunule ; another dusky patch on the base of the feet ; 
pro-legs and underside pale, -but often irregularly suf- 
fused with dusky markings, the upper part of the anterior 
segment is narrowly margined with blackish. 

Described in June, 1866, from some larvaa sent me 
from Tarrington. Found on Tarrington Common^ feed- 
ing on Birds'-foot Trefoil. 

This larva seems to have a certain range of variation, 
as is evidenced by the two varieties described by Mr. 
Buckler. The latter of which varieties agrees exactly 
with the above description (see Ent. Mo. Mag. iv. 253) ; 
it will be observed that this variety that agrees so exactly 
well with vay description, was found feeding on the same 
food-plant, Lotus corniculatus. The question natui'ally 
suggests itself, does the variation in the larva depend on 
the food plant. It is odd that the catei'pillar of the late 
Trifolii always found on the same plant should be so 

As to the very different larvEe, resembling the early 
Trifolii before mentioned, as I only bred one moth {rest 
died in pupa) , it is useless to attempt an opinion ; the 
moth may he a mimic. 

No. 3. Larva of a Zygcena, supposed to be the ordinary 


Body with short white hairs scattered over it, with a 
very feiv black hairs on the back ; head and pro-legs 
black ; head with transverse upper-lip, and membrane at 
base of antennoe, white ; ground-colour pale yellowish, 
arranged in five lines, one dorsal and two lateral on either 
side ; on each side of the dorsal line, a row of large black 
spots, two on each segment, confluent or nearly so, but 
each coming to a point on the back, ivhich makes the 
dorsal line look like a row of transverse lozenge- shaped spots 
on the middle of the back of each segment, preceded and 
followed by semi-lozenge-shaped spots, which unite (or 

440 Mr. T. H. Briggs on Zygcena TrifoUi. 

nearly so) with those of the following and preceding seg- 
ments ; the anterior spot terminates lower down the side 
than the other ; in the three segments immediately fol- 
lowing the head, the dorsal line is so narrow and dusky 
as to be hardly perceptible ; below which row of black 
spots, a pale yellowish line on each side with a bright 
yellow spot in the fold formed by the hind margin of 
each segment, below which line a row of black spots on 
each side, two on each segment confluent, or nearly so 
in their lower extremities, when confluent, making to- 
gether a spot of a horse-shoe shape, in which the spiracles 
are placed, below which, and in the succeeding pale line, 
are two black dots on each segment ; one on the anterior, 
one on the posterior fold, the anterior dot being placed 
rather lower than the other, the space between this line 
and the feet is nearly filled up with blackish and dusky 
markings, some segments being more suffused than 
others ; pro-legs and underside pale, with a row of dusky 
dots down the middle of the belly. 

Described June, 1866, from a larva sent from Barnwell 
Wold, which died ; supposed to he the TrifoUi found there, 
subsequently compared with two larv£e from Shotover 
Hill, which agreed with this description, except in the 
less confluency of the spots. 

This larva seems as variable as FllipendulcB, but with a 
brighter and generally paler ground-colour. 

Ohs. M. Boisduval's ''petit point noir," Mr. Hellin's 
'' X -like black spots,^^ and Mr. Buckler's " figures with 
the lateral spots united," all agree more or less with the 
above description, and are in total opposition to the de- 
scription of the caterpillar of the late TrifoUi. 

( 441 ) 

XVIII. Remarks concerning the identification of Myrme- 
leon formicaleo, formicarium, and formicalynx 
of Linnc. By Robert McLachlan, F.L.S,, 
Sec. Ent. Soc. 

[Read 20th November, 1871.] 

I HAVE just received from Pastor WaUengren a most 
valuable contribution to European Neuropterology, in the 
form of the first part of his " Skandinaviens Neuroptera'' 
(Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Ak. Handlingar, 1871), comprising the 
Planipennia. Naturally the Scandinavian fauna is almost 
identical vrith that of Britain ; but Sweden possesses an 
Ant-lion, which is amongst the things hoped for by us. 
The name this Ant-lion should bear opens up an interest- 
ing and involved question. The family Myrmeleonidce is 
tolerably rich in species in Southern Europe ; but as we 
approach the more central or northern portions of the 
Continent, it may be said to have but two representa- 
tives, and it is concerning these two that the folloAving 
notes are written. One of those has the wings spotted 
with black or fuscous, the spots being less evident in 
faded individuals, or in those recently developed : this 
has been known under the name oi formicarius by almost 
all European entomologists, out of Stoeden, and is very 
abundant in warm sandy spots in most parts of central 
Europe, also occurring pretty generally in the south. 
The other has perfectly immaculate wings (excepting a 
whitish pterostigma) : this, by modern Neuropterists, is 
generally known, out of Sweden, by the name of formi- 
calynx (it is the innotatus of Rambur, according to the 
type, and the neutrum of Fischer v. Waldheim) , and has 
a more decided northern range, extending far into 
Siberia, yet also occurring in Spain and southern Italy. 
I make no mention of other characters, because the pre- 
sence or absence of spots on the wings is enough for my 
present purpose. 

It is evident that, sooner or later, Linnc confounded 
those two distinct species as forms, or local varieties, of 

In the first edition of the 'Fauna Suecica' (1746), he 
says, of an Ant-lion (without trivial name) '^ alee obsolete 

* Cf. Villers, Linn. Ent, iii., pp. 59-60, 

442 Mr. R. McLacUan on 

In the tenth edition of the 'Systema Naturse' (1758), 
we find an insect named Hemerohius Jormicaleo, still with 
the word " oiebulosis'' applied to the wings. 

In the second edition of the ^Fauna^ (1761) ^ there is 
again a Hemerohius formicaleo, but there is here no men- 
tion of the nebulose or spotted wings ; these members 
are simjjly said to be " liyalince, vents f us cis reticuJatce. 

Finally, in the twelfth edition of the ' Systema^ (1767), 
the name is changed to Myrmeleonformicarm))i, and there 
is a very significant modification of the description, the 
words now being "alee nostratis absque maculis fuscis," 
making it evident that the Swedish insect had immaculate 
wings, whereas he had seen individuals from other quar- 
ters with spotted wings, or, at any rate, was made ac- 
quainted with such by the works of contemporary authors. 

The modern Swedish entomologists* affirm that one 
species only of Myrmeleon occurs in their country, that 
with the immaculate wings, hence the formicarium of the 
twelfth edition of the ' Systema,' and the formicaleo of 
the second edition of the ' Fauna.^ 

Linne cites the works of Reaumur, Vallisnieri, Roesel, 
Sulzer, Schaffer ('Elemental), Poda, and Geoffrey, and 
all these authors describe or figure the spotted-winged 
species^ excepting Schiiffer, who distinctly figures that , 
with immaculate wings. | 

How then did he come to describe the insect, as with 
markings on the wings in his earlier works ; ? and this 
question is more especially directed to the first edition of 
the 'Fauna.-' I hazard a conjecture. It is well known 
that the perfect insects of Myrmeleon are rarely seen at 
large in a state of nature, they being nocturnal in their 
habits, concealing themselves adroitly during the day. 
On the other hand the larvae, or rather the pit-falls made 
by them, force themselves upon our attention. Hence I 
consider it very probable that Linne, at the time of pub- 

* Walleiigreu remarks, that he formerly (Ofv. Vet.-Ai. Forhancl., 1863) 
erroneously diagnosed the Swetlish insect as with spotted wings, and that 
Thomson made the same mistake. 

t In his private, interleaved, co^Dy of the twelfth edition of the ' Sys- 
tema ' (in the possession of the Liunean Society), Linne (in MS.) refers 
fhe immaculatum ot J)g Geer, as a synonym oi formicarium; and Wal- 
lengren hkewise includes the name among the synonymy given by him. 
But De Geer's insect is stated to be from Pennsylvania ; it is a recognisable, 
and common, North American species (cf. Hageu, North American Sy- 
nopsis, p. 231). Gmelin makes the name a sjTionym otformicalynXf and 
adds 'America ' as a habitat for that species. 

Myrmeleon formicaleo, etc. 443 

lication of his earlier works, knew of the existence of an 
Ant-lion in Sweden from the larvae only, considering 
those to produce the insect made familiar to him by the 
woi'ks of his contemporaries in other parts of Eui'ope. 
But, later, the Swedish species became known to him, 
and he then amended his descriptions accordingly, em- 
phasising his last by the word '^nostratis." 

There yet remains to be considered the species intended 
by the navae formicalynx. Linne, in the tenth edition of 
the * Systema,^ simply characterises this by the words, 
" alis vmmaculatis, hydJinis, antennis clavatis. Habitat in 
Africa." In the twelfth edition, the word ''clavatis" is 
altered, by an evident slip of the pen, to " setaceis." No 
mention of the species is made in either edition of the 
' Fauna,' Notwithstanding its African habitat, he 
refers to another figui-e in Roesel (tab. xxi. fig. 2), 
which decidedly represents (from Germany) the Swedish 
species described by him asfornticarium. 

The Linnean collection, in the possession of the Lin- 
nean Society of London, adds to the difficulty. The only 
Ant-lion in that collection bearing a label in Linne's 
hand-writing is the plain-winged Swedish insect (there 
are several specimens of it, all with the characteristic 
Linnean pins, but only one bearing a label), and that 
label is "formicalynx" ! I absolutely refuse, consider- 
ing the African habitat given for formicalynx, and the 
evidence of Swedish entomologists, to acknowledge this 
specimen as typical. Before the collection was placed in 
its present quarters, it was so maltreated by additions, 
destructions, and misplacement of labels, as to render it 
a matter of regret that it now exists at all. * Any evi- 
dence it now furnishes is only trustworthy when con- 
firmed by the descriptions. It is true that the few words 
of diagnosis given for formicalynx will apply to this 
insect so far as they go ; but the African habitat o? formi- 
calynx, and the fact that the label-bearing insect is the 
known Swedish species well described by Linne as/o7'- 
micarium, render it certain that this label has been 
wrongly placed, after the destruction of the specimen 
that originally bore it, which was probably one of the 
many African species with immaculate hyaline wings, 
now indeterminable. 

* Cf. Staudinger, 'Catalog der Lepidopteren des Europaeischen Fau- 
neugebiets,' vorwort, pp. xvi-xvii., 1871. 

I I 2 

444 Mr. R. McLaclilan on Myrmeleon. 

If, therefore, our system of nomenclature be limited to 
the twelfth edition of the ' Systema/ as is the